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Name: Underground journals from Ukraine beyond the Curzon line
Volume: 16
Editor in Chief: IE. Shtendera
Co-editor in Chief: P.J. Potichnyj
Editor(s): P.J. Potichnyj
Sponsors: Oleksa Holovacz
Publication Year: 1987
ISBN (Canada): 0-920092-16-0
Pages Count: 608

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This volume of the "Litopys UPA" contains various periodical publications of the Ukrainian underground west of the Curzon Line. More specifically these materials hail from Ukrainian ethnic territory which as a result of the Yalta agreements was allocated to the People's Republic of Poland.

This land in the nomenclature of the Ukrainian underground was known as the "Zakersons'kyi krai " with its own separate political and military organization but fully subordinated to the UPA West with its headquarters located on the territory of the Ukrainian SSR.

The Zakerzons'kyi krai was further subdivided into three Military Districts from north to south: "Danyliw", "Bastion", and "Lemko", also known as the Military Okruha UPA No. 6. Although the publications represented here come from all of these Military Districts, the majority of the titles are from the "Bastton". The "Informatyvni Visti" was published in "Danyliv", while only one publication the journal "Peremoha " is from the Peremyshl region of the "Lemko " District.

The journals differ from each other by the content and the target populations they were to serve.

The "Tyzhnevi visti" (The Weekly News), as its name clearly shows, was published every week and contained information which was gathered primarily from foreign sources, the press and the radio services. In addition to the commentaries on the Polish press, the foreign newspapers (primarily various press organs from England) were constantly being surveyed and reported upon.

A rather unusual section in this publication contained the reprints from the Polish and Ukrainian newspapers published in North America. These items almost always were quite dated and very often were incomplete when reprinted in this underground publication. One reason why they were of interest may have been that they provided ready-made surveys of the English language press on questions related to the USSR and Eastern Europe. Another reason may have been the interest shown by these emigre publications in the underground struggle being waged against the Communist regimes in Poland and the USSR particularly by the UPA. And thirdly, the Ukrainian underground leadership was vitally interested in the life of the Ukrainian emigration and its ability to serve as a true source of information on Ukraine for the Western countries.

The "Informatyvni visti" (The Information News), not unlike the " Tyzhnevi visti", specialized in ideological-political materials and in short items from the foreign press and radio. It appeared every week printed by the TL "Peremoha ".

The "Informator " (The Informer) on the other hand was a journal of larger format and had anywhere from 20 to 60 pages. The focus of the journal was the USSR and the position of the Ukrainian liberation struggle within the constellation of forces in the Soviet Union and in the world at large. It contained longer, more serious analytical articles discussing for example, such problems as the "Budget of the USSR", the population policies in Poland and the Soviet Union, the Polish terror against the Ukrainian population, as well as shorter news items from Ukraine or from abroad.

The "Lisovyk "(The Forrest Dweller) was the journal of humour and satire, clearly designed for a very wide distribution among the UPA soldiers and the population at large. Well edited and illustrated by political cartoons by "Astra ", a young Crimean Tatar (his father was the Red Army colonel while his mother was ethnically Russian), it was full of witty and quite often very biting vignettes on various aspects of international politics, Soviet and Polish life and on the conditions of life in the underground. The journal was not sparring in its criticism of the Ukrainian liberation movement and exposed its foibles in a very open, biting and humorous fashion. The publication is full of anecdotes describing life under the Communist rule. In fact, in two issues available to us there is a special section devoted to "Polish Humour" which reprinted a number of Polish anecdotes in Polish language but in Ukrainian transliteration.

The journal "Peremoha" (The Victory), of which we have only the issue 3-4 for 1946 is very clearly a regional publication. All of the articles deal with the activities of the UPA Peremyshl Battalion or its component units, its battles and other events that occurred in that particular region. The tone of the articles is highly patriotic while the style of writing is rather popular and clearly designed for the average UPA soldier.


The conditions of the underground life seldom afforded the luxury of a regular centrally located printing press. The ever-present danger of discovery, difficulties with supplies, large number of personnel required to run such a press, difficulties with the distribution of large amounts of printed materials etc. forced the underground leadership to decentralized the printing operations and to locate them in various regions. All of the printing presses operated independently although quite often all of them were engaged in the publication of the same materials, In case, therefore, when one of these publishing centres were to be discovered by the enemy and destroyed, others were able to continue functioning unimpeded.

There existed great differences in the make and the quality of the printing presses which were available to the underground. Some were of standard make, either purchased or confiscated from the Germans during the war, others were constructed by the underground technicians from various parts available to them. Their size as well as the method of printing were adapted to the existing conditions in a given locality and the needs of the underground at a given period of time.

A widespread use of the type made out of wood or rubber jokingly referred to as the "Ukrainian Gutenberg" was used in those areas where regular type was not available. This method was particularly well suited for printing slogans, posters, and short leaflets and fliers. The plates for the newspaper banners, book titles, illustrations and caricatures were also made in this manner. Some of the well-known underground artists, such as the sculptors Nil Khasevych (in Volhynia) and Mykhailo Chereshniovs'kyi ("Petro") (in the Nadraion "Beskyd" of the Lemko region), were engaged in this type of work.

The other method was the widespread use of the mimeograph machine. Whenever a given underground region was in need of publications but could not obtain them in quantity from the central headquarters it simply reproduced them on the mimeographing machines. This method was almost invariably used to print all regional publications, local newspapers, radio-news (news from various radio services), and even the more important organizational materials.

In areas where not even the mimeograph was available a regular typewriter was used. This form of publishing was the most labour-intensive and it produced a very small number of copies.

Finally, the materials were quite often copied by hand, usually with the help of the carbon paper.


In addition to the printing presses there was a constant need for paper, ink and other materials. During the German occupation the underground was able to confiscate from the enemy or sometimes to purchase large quantities of paper and ink on the black market and to store them in special bunkers for future use. With the return of the Soviets and immediately after the war's end, in the lands under the Polish administration there developed severe shortages of paper, ink and other necessary materials. Also many of the underground storehouses did not survive the systematic searches and seizures by the new occupiers while still others became depleted. New ways had to be found to replenish the storehouses. One method was to try and obtain the needed materials with the help of the individuals who were employed in various Soviet and Polish establishments. The purchase of needed materials on the black market was another well-tested method. [1] When all else has failed the UPA command ordered special forays on the towns and storehouses of the enemy and removed the necessary materials by force. [2]


During the German occupation the printing presses were usually located in small villages in remote forests or in a mountainous terrain, which was usually not easily accessible to the enemy. Quite often they were housed in peasant dwellings or in specially constructed forest huts. [3]

With the end of the war this was no longer possible. The printing presses and the publications centers had to go literally underground into specially constructed bunkers. [4] A great deal of care had to go into constructing such hiding places if they were to function properly as places of life and work for the underground publishers. Quite often such an underground bunker had a number of rooms such as the sleeping quarters, the living/dining quarters, the storeroom, and a large working area where the printing press was located and the actual printing and binding was performed. [5]

The construction of such bunkers was done either by the team that later occupied it or quite often by an UPA unit normally from a distant region and totally unfamiliar with the terrain where the bunker was located. Whenever anybody who was involved in the construction of such a bunker fell into enemy hands or simply deserted, the bunker was immediately abandoned and the equipment removed to safer places. [6]


The size and the structure of the underground publishing centers (Technical Links) differed from time to time and place to place depending on the local circumstances. Usually there was a Director who managed the work of the center and was responsible for the contents of the journal, the technical outlay, deadlines and supplies, -- in a word -- of the entire establishment. He allocated this work among other responsible personnel. The radio-technician monitored foreign broadcasts and edited the radio-news. Normally he also edited the 10 day radio surveys e.g. the China question, the sessions of the United Nations, the peace conference etc. The editor-in-chief worked on the main section of the journal. He organized the contributors, decided which material from the central underground publications were to be reprinted, and edited the surveys of the Soviet and foreign press. He was also responsible for the language editing. The technical editor was concerned with the technical format of the journal, had oversight of the printing machine and was responsible for the expedition of the journal. The store-keeper controlled the storage of paper, carbon papers, plates, stencils, ink, and partially also food. The supply officer (intendant) on the other hand saw to it that food was delivered to the center, that batteries were charged, and that paper and other needed things were made available. The typist and the printing workers were responsible for various technical jobs. A number of couriers who delivered mail to and from the center completed the list of the personnel. The couriers were a specially selected group of individuals who were not a part of the general underground communication system but were exclusively attached to the publication center. This emphasis on self-sufficiency and self-management was motivated primarily by the security considerations. [7]


On the territory of the Zakerzons'kyi krai there existed several underground publication or editorial centers, involved in collation and editing of materials, or technical links or technical centers, TLs, where printing was done.


The first and the most technologically advanced publication center was organized already under the German occupation. It was located in the village of Viis'ko, in Dobromyl' district, not far from the city of Peremyshl. This center was set up in 1944 on the initiative of S. Levyts'kyi who at that time was the OUN Oblast leader. After his arrest by Gestapo it became the responsibility of "Orlan" (Vasyl' Halasa, who replaced Levyts'kyi as the Oblast leader), and was placed under the direct protection of "Taras" who became the Nadraion ("Kholodnyi Iar") leader after the administrative reorganization. [8]

During the passage of the front the center was inactive but already in the fall of 1944 it was again opened and functioning but this time in the village of Tysova which was also the location of the UPA Headquarters for the Peremyshl region. [9]

The workers in this TL were: professor from Kiev ("Professor", "Orelets", "Borysten", "Umanets'"), [10] the two Poltavians, "Cheremosh", [11] and his sister "Stepova", the printer "Lypa", [12] and the typist "Sviatoslava". [13]

At the end of WWII this TL was transferred to the bunker in the forest between the villages of Kormanychi and Dylagova (Kormanychi forest, Peremyshl region) where it functioned until its destruction by the Polish Army in the spring of 1947. [14]


The largest underground publishing operations in the "Zakerzons'kyi Krai" were located in Iaroslav district, close to the headquarters of the Krai Leader Iaroslav Starukh ("Stiah", "Iarlan"). [15] The origins of this underground publishing center are not easily discovered, [16] but from various documents it would appear, however, that the publication activities in this region commenced already in December 1944 when "Sych" on his own initiative, did obtain a typewriter and began retyping various organizational instructions, leaflets etc. from an earlier period. [17] However, in the second half of March 1945, when his terrain was made part of the Okruha "Baturyn" and administrative changes were completed, he was made a technical director of the TL, provided with several typewriters, mimeographic machines and the materials that was to be printed. Almost immediately the TL was supplied with paper, ink and stencils and began to work. The TL was composed of the TL Director "Roman", [18] the typist "Khurtovyna", the radio-technician "Karmeliuk", and "Sych". The TL was located in the villages of the Khotynets' and Hrushovychi, and according to "Sych", began to publish "The Shchodenni Radiievi Visti", the Lisovyk", and to duplicate various instructions, orders etc. The TL had the code, "Z drukarni Lisovyk". [19]

From the available documents it would appear that in okruha "Baturyn" (Military District "Bastion") there existed two TLs. [20] The TL of "Volosh" and the TL of "Roman"/"Sych" but they did not function separately all the time. Very often "Volosh's" group was involved only in the editorial work, while the "Roman/Sych"'s group was engaged in printing. [21]

In his report of 1947, "Sych" claimed (corroborated by "Khurtovyna"), that P. Vasylenko ("Volosh") was transferred to this TL only in the second half of August 1945 at which time he became the Editor-in-Chief of the "Lisovyk". [22]

At that time in addition to printing the "Lisovyk" the TL is also reprinting such materials as the "Ideia i Chyn", the "Informator", "Za Ukrains'ku Derzhavu", "Perets'", "Strilets'ki Visti" and other materials. [23]

Because of the constant pressure from the Polish authorities and the desertion of "Roman" and the radio technician "Karmeliuk", the TL, now clearly under "Sych", on 1 November, 1945 moved to village Shebyvovky in Liubachiv district [24] where it remained until 20 November 1945. During that time the TL team printed the "Lisovyk", the Declaration of the OUN Leadership, and other materials, and at that same time constructed several forest bunkers. [25] On November 5 the TL was visited by "Stal" who assigned to it the typist "Tetiana". [26]

Again under pressure from the enemy the team was forced to move on 20 November to the hamlet of Skoradka near the village of Tsytulia where the group had to separate. "Sych", his wife "Khurtovyna" (they were married on 18 September 1945) and "Shchupak, remained here until 10 December, 1945 and continued printing the "Lisovyk"m "An Open Letter to the Civilized World", in Ukrainian, Polish and French, a leaflet to the Polish Army, and other materials. The editorial part of the TL, "Volosh", and Tetiana" went to Tsytulia. [27]

A couple of days later "Sych" (accompanied by his wife "Khurtovyna") returned to the hamlet of Ihnashi near the village of Radava [28] and continued working. Shortly thereafter in a battle with the Polish troops are killed the radio-technician "Haidamaka" and the Raion Propagandist Ivan Doskoch ("Zabutyi"). [29] On March 3, 1946 the group evacuated to the forest near the village of Mivkiv where they continued to work in the camp of Dykiv'skyi Kusch, and in the "khata" (the bunker) of the late "Haidamaka", [30] and at the same time began to build their own forest hut to which they moved by the end of March. In this location the TL remained until 6 July, 1946. Only part of the group worked here, namely, "Volodar", "Sych", "Tetiana", the artist "Tychka", and the cook "Ihor". In April "Stal" ("Surmach") decided to locate in this hut also the radio-informational section under the leadership of "Anglik". [31]

On 19 May, 1946, "Stal" ("Surmach") on his way to a meeting with "Stiah" left his typist "Iryna" ("Virna") with the group and two days later was killed in the skirmish with the Polish Army. [32] With him died also P. Vasylenko ("Volosh"). [33] "Iryna" from then remained with the TL and was responsible for typing the territorial reports, orders, and news from the terrain. [34]

Here they continued to print the "Lisovyk", Will the atomic bomb save England?","Hutsul'skyi kurin'", "The Acts of the Polish and Bolshevik Terror" (on a typewriter only), "Boievyi pravyl'nyk pikhoty", as well as leaflets, instructions, orders etc. [35]

The TL had a code "Z drukarni OUN". However, after the deaths of "Surmach" and "Volosh", the publications of the TL were named in their honour. The publications of purely military nature and those in Polish had the imprint "Z drukarni UPA im. Petra Volosha-Vasylenka". All others had the code, "Z drukarni OUN im. D. Surmacha". [36]

The period after 6 July, 1946 was again quite unstable for the TL and it was forced to relocate several times. On 9 September its forest hut was destroyed by the Polish troops and "sych" and "Shchupak" moved to Syniava district under the protection of "Kalynovych", whose troops provided them with a new bunker. [37]

The rest of the group was able to join them only at the beginning of September. Also at that time the entire team was relocated in the bunker of the late "Surmach". Here they were joined by the cartoonist "Astra". At the same time the group was building still another bunker and in the beginning of December "Sych", "Shchupak", and "Sokil" moved to this location. All the others, "Volodar, "Tetiana", "Astra", and "Anglik" moved tot he quarters in the village of Horaiets'. There they continued to prepare the material for publication, dispatching it by couriers to "Sych" and his two helpers. In this location they published th e"Lisovyk", leaflets, instructions, orders, "Chuzhyntsi pro Ukrainu". "U borot'bi za voliu pid boiovymy praporamy UPA", "Zavadka Morokhivs'ka" in Ukrainian and Polish, "Pol'shcha pered vyboramy", and other materials. [38]

In this bunker they remained until 18 January, 1947, when they had to abandon it on orders of "Krym" because of the desertion of "Hora", one of the builders of the bunker. The team was again dispersed. "Krym" took "Shchupak" and "Sokil" to his own bunker while "Sych" left on January 21, 1947 for the village of Vetlyn. [39]

There is no information that this TL continued to function after January 1947. There are also reports that a separate TL was located in the bunker occupied by the Krai Leader "Stiah", in which materials of the Krai leadership and "Stiah's" materials were being published. These reports, however, have to be approached with a healthy dose of scepticism as "Stiah" was known for resisting anything that might endanger the security of the headquarters. This bunker which was located in the forest near the village of Manastyr fell on 16 September 1947 and "Stiah", and his guards all perished. [40]


In the Nadraion "Beskyd" in Lemko region the TL was located near the village of Buk. The director of the TL was "Novyi" and his deputy was "Step". The typist at this center were "Dora" (Nusia Skirka) and "Marta" (Iaroslava Fil), while the artistic consultant was Mykhailo Chereshniovskyi, a well known sculptor, from the village of Vyzhnytsia. He used wood blocks for the creation of plates, caricatures, portraits and various art work.

The Nadraion leader "Mar" (S. Golash) and "Ostap", responsible for organizational matters were the principal overseers of this publishing operation.

In addition to organizational materials, the TL printed leaflets in Polish, Ukrainian, Czech and Slovak. Occasionally it was required to produce pamphlets in other foreign languages such as the brochure in French in the spring of 1946 with which it had great difficulties. [41]


In Kholm region in 1945, [42] as in the other territories, the TL was attached to the Propaganda section. [43]

The TL existed already in 1944 during the "Iaropolk"'s tenure, and under Verbivs'kyi continued to publish the journal "Informatyvni Visti", [44] and various other materials, mostly leaflets and proclamations. The editors of the journal were Mykola Lopushans'kyi ("Slota"), a teacher by profession, but also Verbivs'kyi, "Ievhen" and later on "Pevnyi". "Tsyba" (from Uhryniv) was the technician. "Olia" (from the middle of 1946) was the typist and NN (a student) edited the radio news and handled the radio equipment. There was also a number of other helpers whose names are unknown. The TL at that time was located in Uhryniv.

Under Harasymiak's tenure the management of the TL was placed in the hands of "Pevnyi" (he also became the editor of the journal), who was in charge until his death in late June, 1947. [45]


In the Nadraion "Levada" there existed a publishing center and the TL with Ivan Shamryk [46] (Ivan Chub, "Chub") who was the Chief of Propaganda in the region and also directly responsible for publications. [47] Other members of this TL were Oleksander Dejneka ("Skovoroda") and Mykola Chujko ("Genyk", "Iaroslav"), a typist and Mykhailo Bodnaruk ("Stefko"), a radio-technician. [48] In 1945-1947 here were published "Tyzhnevyi Ohliad Politychnykh Podii" (52 issues) and the "Kholms'ko-Pidlashs'kyi Informator" (25 issues). Unfortunately not a single copy of these publications has been located thus far in the West.


The underground publications were distributed in a variety of ways. The main method of distribution was accomplished by way of special couriers who were capable of delivering these materials to places hundreds of kilometers away in a very short time. Those areas that could not be reached with a large quantity of materials usually received just a few or only a single copy of a given publication and the local Technical Link saw to it that it was multiplied with the help either of a mimeograph or a typewriter. In this manner all central underground publications eventually would reach their destination either in their original, complete form, or as a reprint either in full or in part.

In this manner the underground literature went to various territorial centers of propaganda and from there to military units and even smaller centres of distribution. The responsibility to distribute literature among the population rested with all members of the underground. Various ways were used to inform the people about the goals and tasks of the underground. In some places mass meetings were called at which the literature was read to the population. In other cases the information and the educational literature would be read to only a small group of dedicated people. In the UPA units the Political Officers (Politvykhovnyky) were responsible for political education of the soldiers.

A more conventional method of distribution such as the use of regular mail services was also utilized. In such cases the literature was being mailed from distant places quite often located in republics other than Ukraine. The pasting of posters and slogans on the walls of the cities, railroad stations, schools, shops was also widely practiced. Selected members of the political elite or the members of the intelligentsia from time to time would receive such literature by mail. In Poland such actions by the Ukrainian underground have caused a great deal of interest and publicity in the government and intellectual circles.[49]

In short the literature was being distributed quite widely although perhaps not in large quantities. One was able to find it not only on the territory of Ukraine but in the neighbouring countries as well. According to Shtendera some of the publications were found in Moscow, Leningrad, Warsaw, in the Caucasus, and even in Kazakhstan. [50]

Where possible the underground literature was sent also to foreign embassies. In fact a large number of journals printed in this volume come from the National Archives of the United States. They were transmitted to the US Embassy in Warsaw by special underground couriers, most often women.[51] One of the principal couriers with good contacts to the embassies of the United States, Great Britain, France and Belgium, was Olena Lebedovych. Eventually captured by the Polish security troops together with "Dalnych", her superior, she was sentenced to many years in jail.[52]


"For the Ukrainian underground the territory of Poland was considered a window to the west". [53] And the leadership of the underground did all it could to transmit as much information about the Ukrainian national struggle to western countries as was physically possible.

To achieve these goals of reaching the public opinion in the West and to inform the Polish people about the Ukrainian struggle for independence a number of liaison centers had to be established in central Poland. This task was entrusted primarily to women members of the OUN who were able to move around the country more freely than the men. It was largely through their efforts that a number of such centers were setup in various cities of central and western Poland. The women also succeeded in finding and recruiting a number of sympathizers among the general population who were willing to receive and to store the underground literature earmarked for further distribution.

The greatest attention was directed at the central cities such as Warsaw, Krakow, Gdynia, Gdansk, Katowice and Poznan. [54]

For security reasons there was no attempt to build a broad underground network on Polish territories. The liaison was carried on by specially selected persons who quite often acted individually and were not connected with each other. These individuals would receive the materials and proper instructions where to deliver them from their immediate superiors who in most cases were located on the Ukrainian ethnographic territories.[55]

The selection and the dispatching of the couriers was in the hands of the top political and military leadership of the underground. From time to time the lower echelons were allowed to engage in this activity as well.[56]

At the leadership level the control over the couriers to central Poland was in the hands of "Dalnych", the Chief of the SB (Security Services), and also of "Orlan", the Chief of Propaganda. On occasion, "Hryhor", the Peremyshl Okruha Leader, and the Iaroslav Okruha leaders "Stal", "Korniichuk", and "Krym" were also involved. [57]

"Dalnych" was responsible for the contracts and distribution of materials to various embassies in Warsaw, [58] although he acted very much in concert with "Stiah" and "Orlan". [59]

The literature destined for the West was usually in English or rench, but quite often also in Ukrainian, Polish, Czech and Slovak languages. Theses materials were transmitted to foreign embassies, or were given to individuals who traveled to the West including the foreign seamen who were found in Polish ports. [60] There are also indications that some underground publications, especially of a less sensitive nature were periodically sent to foreign legations via the regular mails. This was the least secure method of distribution and it is actually not known how much of such literature reached its destination. [61]

An exchange of publications with the Polish underground was also considered very important and a great deal of care was exercised in selecting only such publications for exchange that would not unduly disturb a very delicate relationship that existed between the two sides. [62] In various meetings between the representatives of the Polish and Ukrainian underground the exchange of information was always on the agenda. [63]


On behalf of the editors of Litopys UPA, I would like to thank all those who helped in the preparation of this volume for publication. First I want to thank Dr. Modest Ripeckyj, Maria Ripeckyj, "Marichka", Olena Lebedovych, Yevhen Shtendera, "Sych", "Chorna", "Iryna", "Renta", "Stefa", "Hrizna", Stepan Golash, and M. Kulyk, for the first hand information on the organization and operation of the underground printing presses and Petro Sodol and Volodymyr Makar for archival materials. I am also grateful to Volodymyr Makar for the onerous job of proofreading, Stepan Shpak for assistance in compiling the index, and everyone else who contributed in any way to the publication of this volume.

Petro J. Potichnyj

[1] See: I. Chub, "Na ukrains'komu Pidliashshi v rr. 1944-1948 (II)", Do Zbroii, VII, 22 (35), March 1954, p. 32; About his work in the underground see: "Chub", 'Protokol No 1' Archiv Misii UPA, Folio #151. For example, "Renta" provides an interesting description of the various difficulties she encountered while transporting a mimeographing machine from central Poland to Iaroslav region. See: "Renta", Letter of October 16, 1987, p.2.
[2] See: Ie. Prirva, 'Ukrains'ki pidpil'ni vydannia pid moskovs'ko-bol'shevyts'koiu okupatsiieiu',Do Zbroii, III, 29/15, February 1950, p. 30.
[3] See: "Sych", 'Protokol No. 1, 26, IX, 47', Arkhiv Misii UPA, Folio #164, pp. 4-5.
[4] See: Z. Semeniv, "Kryivky i bunkry hrib chy shapka-nevydymka pidpillia", Do Zbroii, IV, 21 (34), December 1953, pp. 2-4.
[5] See: Ie. Prirva, "Ukrains'ki pidpil'ni ...", pp. 30-31.
[6] See: "Sych", "Protokol No. 1".
[7] See: Ie. Prirva, 'Ukrains'ko pidpil'ni...', pp. 31-32.
[8] See: Letter of Stepan Golash of 22 May, 1987. Also, Stepan Golash, 'Pidpil'ni drukarni OUN v Ukraini', "Voiats'ka Vatra" in "Homin Ukrainy", Nos. 2/128-7/133, 23 January - 20 October, 1980; This is confirmed by a letter from "Marichka" of June 3,, 1987 who was "Orlan's" wife and at that time was the Chief of the UPA courier service in the Peremyshl region.
[9] See: "Marichka", Letter of 3 June, 1987.
[10] According to S. Golash he was a professor of Kiev University who lived with his wife in a refugee camp in Peremshl. Recruited into the underground he was editing its publications. During the passage of the front he was severely wounded by a grenade which he kept in his pocket and became an invalid. He remained in the underground as an editor until his death in June 1947. Ie. Shtendera claims in his letter that he was also functioning as an Administration Chief for Okruha leader "Hryhor" (Myroslav Huk).
[11] "Marichka" relates that he was killed near Tysova in late 1944. According to her he was a Soviet Pilot.
[12] S. Golash claims that it was "Lypa" who was in charge of the TL while "Marichka" identifies him as he printer. Actually "Lypa" did administer the TL, was functioning as a printer and also as a radio-technician. The responsibility for ideological contents and the quality of printed materials was in the hands of "Orlan". See: S. Golash, Letter of 8 September, 1987.
[13] According too S. Golash her first name was Hanna, a native of Sokal. "Marichka" states that "Sviatoslava" married "Taras" and had a baby girl. In the fall of 1947, after the forcible evacuation of Ukrainians during the "Akcja Wisla" she lived illegally in the city of Peremyshl. Discovered by the Polish security (UBP), her apartment was made into a "Coul de sac" with a goal of arresting underground couriers. Here were arrested "Khrystia" (25 November, 1947), and "Motria" (16 November, 1947). "Marta" and "Mariika" who arrived from the Ukrainian SSR for work in Poland avoided this fate only because they failed to receive the all is safe signal from "Motria" who went to establish contact. They departed to Western Poland on their own. "Sviatoslava" jumped to her death from the third story window. Her daughter was adopted by a Polish family. See: "Marichka", Letter of 3 June, 1987 and S. Golash, Letter of 8 September, 1987.
[14] "Marichka" confirmed this location and claimed that the official code for the publishing center was "Kholodnyi Iar". S. Golash claims that here were published various periodicals and brochures among them: the journal "Peremoha", one copy of which is reprinted in this volume; Zenon Savchenko ("Orlan", Vasyl Halasa), "Ukrains'ko-pol's'ki vzaiemyny; "Iarlan" ("Stiah", Iaroslav Starukh), "Fashystivs'ke strashylo", "Do brativ Chekhiv i Slovakiv", and various organizational literature as well.
[15] See also: S. Golash, "Pidpil'ni drukarni..."; Also: Volodymyr Makar, 'Propahandyvna diial'nist' UPAi ii dpovnennia do propahandy OUN', "Vyzvol''nyi Shliakh", No. 5, 1982, p.666. Some of the information in both articles are in contradiction with the information provided by Ie. Shtendera O. Lebedovych and "Sych".
[16] Mr. Ie. Shtendera ("Zorianyi", and later "Prirva") who arrived in Lubachiv district in January 1945 from Ukrainian SSR with a task of reorganizing the underground administration, found a rather difficult situation facing him. The county administration was almost non-existent (the leading cadres were liquidated by the Soviets on January 8, 1945), except for "Volodar" who was in charge of the organizational matters, and an unidentified person responsible for the military affairs, both of the organizational matters, and an unidentified person responsible for the military affairs, both of them rather inactive. (See: Letter from Shtendera of 17 May, 1987)))). In line with his orders, he reorganized the county administration into an Nadraion and also undertook to establish a propaganda center. With this in mind he requested from "Zalizniak", (the UPA Battalion Commander, in this region), and obtained a number of individuals to help in this task. Among the persons assigned to him were Petro Vasylenko ("Volosh") as the Chief of Propaganda and an editor and "Astra", a caricaturist who was a Crimean Tatar by nationality. They were later joined by "Volodar" (according to Shtendera a university student who was 22-24 years old and hailed from Halychyna), and "Tetiana", his fiance, who was a typist (her real name was Stefa Turkevych and she came from the village of Serakistsi, near the town of Medyka). (My interview with K. Laluk ("Hrizzna") of April 1987). Shtendera was connected with this unit for approximately two months, that is during February-March 1945. In March or the beginning of April "Stal'" took over the leadership of the Nadraion Iaroslav and became directly responsible for the TL. At that time the TL was located in he village of Hariiets' in Liubachiv district. Approximately at this time Iaroslav Starukh ("Stiah") became the chief of the Ukrainian underground in Poland. His first priority was to set up a good publication center, and he immediately began to work very closely with "Stal'" and P. Vasylenko. However, because Shtendera was reassigned to Kholm region in May 1945, he was not familiar with these plans in detail. See: Ie. Shtendera, Letter of 17 May, 1987.
[17] See: "Such", "Protokol No. 1, 26. IX. 47", p. 2; "Protokol No. 2", p. 2.
[18] There are several questions concerning this person and the functions he was performing. According to "Khurtovyna", he was in charge of the TL until his desertion sometime in August 1945. See also: "Sych", "Protokol No. 2", p. 2.
[19] "Sych", "Protokol No. 1", p. 3.
[20] This question is specifically raised in Shtendera's letter to me of 17 May, 1987.
[21] A third Technical Link is mentioned by O. Lebedovych, who claims that Rev. Dr. Sliusarchyk ("Roman") had his TL located near the villages of Liublyntsi, where he was helped by Ivan Machai, a university graduate. See: S. Golash, "Interview with O. Lebedovych", p. 9.
Still another Technical Link is mentioned by O. Lebedovych as being located in the hamlet of Vandzin' in Liubachiv district. The director was "Iskra" (a lawyer from Liubachiv) and he died in the bunker together with a woman radio technician a native of Eastern Ukraine. See: S. Golash, "Interview with O. Lebedovych", pp. 8-9.
[22] In his letter of 17 May, 1987 Shtendera states that the "Lisovyk" was being published when he was in the territory in early 1945 and claims that "Astra", a caricaturist, was assigned to the TL for work in the journal. He seems to imply that P. Vasylenko ("Volosh") was the editor of that publication already in early 1945.
[23] See: "Sych", "Protokol", p. 3.
[24] According to "Khurtovyna" the TL took with it all the machines and the materials -- See: "Khurtovyna", "Protokol", p. 2.
[25] "Sych", "Protokol", p. 4.
[26] "Khurtovyna", "Protokol", p. 2.
[27] "Sych", "Protokol", p. 4.
[28] "Khurtovyna", "Protokol" p. 3.
[29] "Khurtovyna", "Protokol", p. 4.
One TL allegedly existed in the hamlet of Khrapy near the village of Zaradava in Iaroslav district. The typist at this center were: "Renta" and "Irena". Here was killed Ivan Doskoch ("Zabutyi"), native of the village Lazy, Iaroslav district. (Interview with "Hrizna" of June 1987). It would appear to me, however, that this was part of the "Sych's" operation.
[30] "Khurtovyna", "Protokol", p. 4.
[31] See: "Sych", "Protokol", p. 5; According to "Renta", "Anglik's" real name was Pylypivs'kyi, whose brother was a pharmacist in Liashki Dovhi, Iaroslav county.
[32] Dmytro Dzioba ("Stal", Surmach", "Bohun", "Khlop"), was born in 1921 in Stanyslaviv district. Joined the OUN in 1939-40. In early 1944 Oblast leader for youth affairs in Peremyshl Oblast. In the fall of 1944, leader of Iaroslav county, and after death of "Harmash" in the spring of 1945, also of Liubachiv and Tomashiv counties. After the reorganization he became Okruha leader. K-M "Pro prychyy i obstavyny smerty sl. p. Surmacha i Volosha", Arkhiv Misii UPA, Folio II, No. 8, p. 5.
[33] He was born in village Viitovtsi, Iahotyn raion, Poltava Oblast in the family of four children, two boys and two girls. His father was arrested in 1936 and sentenced to 10 years in the Gulag. After completing the 10-year school he entered a Pedagogical Institute but did not complete it because of the war in 1941. He joined the UPA in 194, served as the political officer and later on was transferred to the propaganda sector of the OUN. He authored many poems, short stories and essays some of which were published in the underground. Lyman, "Zhyttiepys Petra Volosha-Vasylenka", Arkhiv Misii UPA, Folio II, No. 8, pp. 6-7.
[34] "Sych, "Protokol", p. 5.
[35] "Sych, "Protokol", p. 5.
[36] "Sych, "Protokol", p. 5.
[37] "Sych, "Protokol", p. 6.
[38] "Sych, "Protokol", p. 6.
[39] "Sych, "Protokol", p. 6.
[40] See: S. Golash "Partial manuscript", p. 12. "Stiah's" bunker had two rooms. Here lived 4-6 persons -- "Stiah", his typist "Ihor", and 2-3 security personnel. "Stiah" was a prolific writer while "Ihor's" task was to type his manuscripts, to prepare them for publication and to dispatch these to a TL for printing. See: My interview of October 30, 1987, with Teofila Iryna Fedoriv ("Iryna Moroz", "Marta", and "Marusia").
[41] See: S. Golash, "Pidpil'ni drukarni..." and his letter of 22 May, 1987.
[42] Until April 1945 there existed a separate underground Kholm Oblast.
[43] Until April 1945 there existed the Kholm underground Oblast. Sometime in March 1945 it underwent the administrative reorganization which was carried out by "Vadym" who was sent for this purpose from Volhynia. This reorganization created a Nadraion with "Sviatoslav" in charge. The Propaganda Sector still in Kholm Oblast was in the hands of "Hutsul", who had a higher education, hailed from Volhynia, to where he was reassigned after the reorganization. The Nadraion propagandist was "Iaropolk", whose real name was Koza, who had a high school education (he completed maturity examination in 1941) and was originally from Sokal region. He was killed in April 1945. He was replaced by Teodozii Verbivs'kyi ("Chmelyk"), who was born in Uhryniv, Sokal county and had a theological education. Teodor Harasymiak ("Dunais'kyi") took over from "Chmelyk" in the winter of 1945/46. He hailed from the village of Vareshyna, Hrubeshiv county, had a higher education, was a teacher by profession and did not belong to the OUN. He also represented the Ukrainian side in contacts with the Polish underground organization "WIN".
In May 1945 the Kholm Nadraion was reorganized into an Okruha composed of two Nadraions. See: Ie. Shtendera, Letter of 17 May, 1987, p. 4.
[44] See also: Ie. Prirva, 'Ukrains'ki pidpil'ni vydannia pid moskovs'ko-bol'shevyts'koiu okupatsiieiu', Do Zbroii, III, 2 (15), February 1950, p. 21.
[45] "Chmelyk", "Slota", and "Tsyba" were also killed at that time. Shtendera claims that although the TL was destroyed all of the equipment survived. See: Ie. Prirva, "Dii UPA...", p. 8.
[46] Ie. Shtendera, Letter; "Chub", "Protokol No. 1", Arkhiv Misii UPA, Folio #151.
[47] According to I. Chub this TL in the beginning was reproducing the materials sent by the OUN leadership. Later on, however, it started publishing its own "Kholms'ko-Pidliashs'kyi Informator". In order not to antagonize the population in which there were many former KPZU (Communist Party of Western Ukraine) members of the publications of the center had imprint "Vydavnytstvo UPA 'Borot'ba' ". See: I. Chub. 'Na ukrains'komu Pidliashshi v rr. 1947-1948', Do Zbroii, VI, 21 (34), December 1953, p. 30.
[48] See: "Skovoroda", "Moia ucahst' v revolutsiino-vyzvol'nii borot'bi ukrainsk'koho narodu v rr. 1948-49", Arkhiv Misii UPA, Folio II, No. 3; See also: "Iaroslav", "Protokol No. 1", Arkhiv Misii UPA, Folio #152; "Stefko", "Protokol No. 1", Arkhiv Misii UPA, Folio #153-154. "Chorna" was a typist for the territorial leadership and also for a TL.
[49] See: I. Chub, "Na ukrains'komu Pidliashshi, II", Do zbroii, VII, No. 22 (35), March 1954, pp. 31-32.
[50] See: Ie. Prirva, "Ukrains'ki pidpil'ni vydannia...", p. 34.
[51] Discovered by me in the National Archives in Washington D.C. they were declassified in August 1982. Some of the women couriers were: Ivanka Knobloch ("Pidhirianka"), who committed suicide in jail; Maria Tkach; Luba Dacio, Evhenia Skab ("Fes'ka"); "Renta"; Maria Ripeckyj ("Oksana"); "Irena Moroz", "Ksenia"; "Stera"; Eva Bzdel; Zena Khymka ("Zoia"), born in 1926 in L'viv, who was the courier for "Orlan" and had contacts with the British Embassy. She lived in Warsaw and pretended to be a black marketeer. Arrested either in May or June 1947 she was handed over to the Soviet MGB. "Marichka", Letter of 9 May 1987; Letter of 3 June, 1987, p. 3.
[52] The official charges against her which we reprint in this volume make for a fascinating reading. Mrs. O. Lebedovych now lives in the United States.
[53] Letter of M. Ripeckyj from June 22, 1987.
[54] For a fascinating description of how these contact centers were organized see: S. Golash, Interview with O. Lebedovych, p. 4. The center in Katowice is described in a letter of "Stefa" from September 15, 1987 and in her interview with M. Kulyk. See: M. Kulyk, Letter of October 17, 1987, ;. 5; "Stefa" and "Renta" worked together on a number of assignments. See: "Renta", Letter of 16 October, 1987, pp. 1-2. In 1946 Teofila I. Fedoriv was assigned by "Stiah" to organize a courier line through Czechoslovakia and was sent for that purpose to Wawbrzych and Jelenia Gora. But this attempt proved unsuccessful. See my interview with Teofila I. Fedoriv from October 30, 1987. "Marichka" was also active in Jelenia Gora in 1946 and was responsible for maintaining contacts with the West. There is also a mention about two contact centers, one in Warsaw which was set up by "Dalnych" and was operated by "Ikar" until its liquidation by the Polish security with the help of the traitor "Zenon" in the fall of 1946, and another one in Gdynia, operated by "Iastrub". See: p. 101 of Recenzje, uzupelnienia, sprostowania, uwagi krytyczne, polemiki, poprawki jezykowe, wniesienia nowych faktow i wydarzen oraz danych liczbowych on a book Antoni B. Szczesniak, Wieslaw Z. Szota, Droga do nikad: Dzialanosc Organizacji Ukrainskich Nacjonlistow i jej likwidacja w Polsce. Warszawa, WMON, 1973. On order of "Orlan" maria Ripeckyj ("Oksana") was a special courier to Katowice, Legnica, Krakow, Wroclaw, Olesnica, Brzeg, Szczecin, Swinoujscie, Gdansk, Ustki, Sopot, Elblag, Pasleg, Gdynia and Poznan. She also mentions "Lina" and "Roma". See: Maria Ripeckyj's letter from October 1987.
[55] M. Ripeckyj, Letter, p. 3.
[56] M. Ripeckyj, Letter, p. 3.
[57] "Marichka, Letter of 3 June 1987; M. Ripeckyj, Letter, p. 3. Very interesting memoir about her courier service and the distribution of literature is provided by "Renta" who functioned under direct orders of "Korniichuk" ("Vyr"). See: "Renta", Letter of 16 October, 1987, pp. 1-2.
[58] M. Ripeckyj, Letter, p. 3.
[59] "Marichka", Letter of 4 May, 1987, p. 3.
[60] M. Ripeckyj, Letter, p. 3. It is also possible that foreign intelligence services in Poland were collecting some of these materials on their own through their agents among the Polish population.
[61] M. Ripeckyj, Letter; "Marichka", Letter; S. Golash, "Interview with O. Lebedovych".
[62] I. Chub, "Na ukrains'komu Pidliashshi"; Ie. Shtendera in his letter claims that some pages in one issue of the journal which contained some anti-Polish sentiments had to be replaced in order to maintain good relations with the anti-Communist Polis underground.
[63] A survey of these meetings can be found in Yevhen Shtendera, "In Search of Understanding: The Ukrainian and Polish Underground Movements, 1945 to 1947, Co-operation Between the UPA and the WIN", in Peter J. Potichnyj, ed., Poland and Ukraine: Past and Present. Edmonton, CIUS, 1980, pp. 271-294.


Page 63. Informator, Year II, No. 2 (6), April, 1945

"29 April - Day of the Ukrainian Navy".

The importance of the sea in the geopolitical position of Ukraine has been recognized already during the period of the Kievan Rus'. The ruling princes paid very close attention to the Black Sea area, and succeeded in controlling it to the extent that it was referred to as the Rus' (Ukrainian) Sea.

The Cossacks also used the sea in their struggle against the Ottomans.

With the renewal of the Ukrainian statehood in 1917-1920 and following the conquest of Crimea by the Ukrainian army led by Col. Bolbochan, the Black Sea navy acknowledged the existence of the Ukrainian State and on 29 April 1918 raised the Ukrainian national colors on all the ships of the fleet.

In memory of this occasion the 29th day of April is known as the Day of the Ukrainian Navy.

Z.D. Savchenko (Vasyl' Halasa), "The Latest Political Events".

The war with Germany is coning to an end, but the relations between the USSR and Great Britain are becoming very tense. Both sides try to pretend that this conflict is not serious but in fact the opposite is true.

The Soviet are in control of the Baltic Sea, the East Central Europe and the Balkans. They are very actively subverting Greece, Italy, France, Spain and North Africa with an aim of controlling the Mediterranean and eventually of the Suez Canal. Their activities in Iran are designed to open inroads to the Indian Ocean via the Persian gulf. All of this creates a mortal danger for British Empire.

The British are punishing Turkey to declare war on Germany in order to have the pretext of building up that country militarily and in this manner to defend the Dardanelles and to check the Soviet inroads into Iran and Arabia. Another play in to bring the USSR into war with Japan and in this manner to tie its hands.

In the end, of the British Empire is to survive it has no choice but to work for the demise of its main enemy, the USSR. Ukraine as the chief internal, anti-Soviet force should be able to benefit from conflict between the Great Britain and the Soviet Union.

"Review of the War Fronts", discusses the military situation on the Soviet-German front, on the Allied-German front, on the Italian front, and on the Far Eastern front.

"Bolshevism and the Nations of Europe".

This article reviews the situation in various countries of Europe in relation to Soviet power.

In Romania four governments in succession have fallen and the regime of Petru Groza is supported by the USSR. In order to neutralize the country Stalin decided to return Transilvania into the hands of Romania even through it is populated mostly by Hungarians.

In Yugoslavia the struggle between the communists and nationalists continues in full force. The Provisional Government of national Unity and the Council of Regents are not the institutions which are favored by the Soviets and will not survive for long.

In Greece, the British-Soviet conflict continues. The British fully support the new government of Bulgarian which is strongly anti-Communist. The leader of the Greek Communist Party Mr. Santos called the creation of the new government as being completely unconstitutional.

In Belgium a new government was created which the Soviet press dubbed "reactionary".

In Poland the Lublin government is a Soviet puppet and is doing all it can to prepare Poland for the entry into the USSR as its 17th republic. The arrests and executions of the Polish patriots has assumed mass proportions.

The decisions of the Crimean Conference to establish the Provisional Government of national Unity is not being realized and the two separate polish governments in London and in Lublin continue to exist. There are also serious disagreements between the two governments about the eastern boundary of Poland which is to run along the Courson line.

The article concludes that the position of Ukraine in this general constellation of forces is reasonably strong and that the struggle for independence of all captive nations will eventually bring about collapse of the Russian empire.

"The Bolshevik -Polish Terror and the Question of Population Transfers".

The soviet goal is to destroy everything Ukrainian . In the Ukrainian territories in Poland this work is being done by the puppet government of Poland and by the Polish communists. The tool for this purpose is the forcible relocation of Population. One million Ukrainians are being forced out of their ancestral lands in Poland and transferred to the USSR where they do not wish to go.

The transfer is being accomplished by terrorizing the Ukrainian villages by the Polish militia. The Ukrainians' answer is that we will not be moved against our will and will fight in order to stay.

"Political News", brings short items from the wires of Reuter, TASS, Polpress, United Press and the BBC.

A special prominence is given to the death of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the President of the United States.

Page 90. Informator, Year II, No. 3 (7), May, 1945

"The Festive Day of Heroes of the Ukrainian Revolution".

[Z.D. Savchenko (Vasyl' Halasa)], "The Latest Political Events", is the continuation of the article for the Informator, No 2 (6) of April 1945.

It discusses the capitulation of Germany, the suicides of Hitler, Goebbels and Himler and the arrest and confinement of some 300 high German officers.

Other questions discussed pertain to the plans of the Austrian government, the "bolshevization" of Czechoslovakia and the attempts by the Soviets to obtain control over the Mediterranean by occupying the Balkans and by meddling in Syria and Lebanon. The French-British conflict over the question of Arab independence and the proceedings at the San Francisco Conference conclude the article.

Makh, "The Polish Question".

All discussion among Eden, Stettinius and Stalin clearly show that no compromise on Poland is possible. Stalin has no intention of releasing has grip on Poland.

On the Polish-Ukrainian front, although several area do experience some normalization in relations, primarily as a result of initiatives from the Ukrainian side in many regions the Polish terror against the Ukrainian population continues unabated.

The hopes of some Poles to return to the territories east of the Curson live are simply unrealistic.

Poland can expect to retain independence only if the USSR ceases to exist and of the Poles concentrate their efforts on establishing their state within ethnic boundaries.

Ia. P. Kyivlianyn, "A Knife and a Cross in the Hands of the Muscovite-Bolshevik Imperialism".

In the article the author compares the role of religion in the service of Russian imperialism prior to the Bolshevik Revolution and again during the following the World War Two.

The emphasis is on the privileges granted the Russian orthodox Church by Stalin whole at the same time everything possible was done to destroy the Ukrainian churches.

"The War in the Far East", discusses the war against Japan in the Pacific, in Burma, and in Northern China.

"Political News", brings short items from the wires of the Western press agencies and from TASS.

Page 112. Informator, Year II, No. 6 (10), December 23, 1945

"1932-1945", is an editorial which begins the recent Ukrainian armed struggle with the action of Dmytro Danylyshyn and Wasyl Bilas in Horodok Iahailons'kyi in 1932 against the Polish authorities.

Since that time the Ukrainian underground with the support of the Ukrainian people has grown both in quantity and quality and was able to resist successfully the Polish, Russian and German imperialists. The future of this struggle is optimistic.

Z. Savchenko (Vasyl' Halasa), "International Relations: A Characteristic".

Although the struggle against the German and Japanese imperialism brought together such countries as the USA, Great Britain and the USSR, lately there appear ever greater conflicts between the West and the Soviet Union.

There continues also the struggle of enslaved peoples in the East and in the West. This is a clear sign that the question of colonial domination has not been resolved as yet.

The Soviets are pretending that they are on the side of the national liberation movements while the Western allies are unable to counter effectively these claims of the Soviets. This Soviet tactic is deigned to confront the West with colonial wars and in the manner to weaken the resolve of these countries to use atomic bomb against the USSR.

In short, the world is clearly being divided into two hostile blocks. In this situation the existence of the Ukrainian liberation struggle and the struggle of the other enslaved nations within the USSR, and in Eastern Europe is of crucial importance.

"Political Events", is a compilation of brief news items from around the world, the Conference of the foreign Ministers in London; events in Indochina, Indonesia, China, Iran, Poland, Czechoslovakia; elections in Hungary, Yugoslavia and Bulgaria; disturbances in Romania, elections if France, "Truman's 12 Points", the Nurnberg process and the admission of the Ukrainian SSR to the Conference in San Francisco.

"Modern Barbarism", describes the forcible repatriation of Ukrainian population from Poland to the USSR.

This action is accompanied by killings, beatings and confiscation of property on a large scale.

"We Fight Invaders of Ukraine", is a compilation of various anti-Soviet activities of the Ukrainian underground from the entire territory of Western Ukraine.

Page 183. Informator, year III, No. 1 (11), 1946

"Freedom and Independence", is an editorial which extolls the struggle for an independent Ukrainian State and recalls the Proclamation of Ukrainian Independence of 22 January 1918, the Unification of Ukrainian lands of 22 January 1919, and the Battle of Kruty against the Red Army of 29 January 1918.

Vasyl' Lymanych in his article "What is the Message of the State Budget of the USSR for 1945-1946?", provides an extensive and quite a detailed analysis of the proposed budget and comes to the conclusion that the most important priority of the budget is to further develop the military might of the USSR at the expense of the working population of the Union Republics.

Stoiar (Iaroslaw Starukh), "Ukrainian lands Beyond the Curzon Line".

In this article the author describes the situation of the Ukrainians in Poland at the end of 1945 and the beginning of 1946, and especially the resistance of the Ukrainians to the forcible repatriation.

In some regions like Kholmshchyna and Western Lemkivshchyna the Ukrainian population which was not highly nationally conscious and was under the influence of the Communists, did leave without too much resistance. But soon, however, they learned that the conditions in the USSR are less than ideal and notified those who were left behind of the true state of affairs.

In the other regions the population was unwilling to leave. In order to persuade them to do so a terrorist action was unleashed against them in the spring of 1945 in which nationalist and Communist Poles as well as the Soviet border units participated to the full.

Entire villages were liquidated and the population was killed. this happened in Pawlokoma, Malkovychi, Berezka, Pyskorovychi, Liublynets', Horaiets' and others. During this time 36 Ukrainian priests were killed.

In this situation Ukrainians had no option but to fight and the UPA began a large scale defensive action against the Polish terror.

At the same time an attempt was made to seek contacts with the Polish anti-Communist forces and persuade them not to be engaged in anti-Ukrainian terror. This action proved partially successful.

The return of the Red Army from Germany further complicated the situation in the terrain because the Soviets used this opportunity to liquidate the UPA and the UNS.

In the final analysis only the special forces could be used against the UPA as the Red Army soldiers were not willing to fight the Ukrainian underground and therefore, this action was not successful.

In the fall of 1945 a new repatriation action began. This time large Polish army units were thrown against the Ukrainian population and in this action large areas in Peremyshl district and in Lemkivshchyna were cleared of the Ukrainians.

To prevent the settlement of the Poles, the UPA immediately burned these villages. In Peremyshl region alone some 50 villages were burned.

The repatriation action is being strongly resisted and the Soviet and Polish plans to deport the Ukrainians from their villages has not been fully successful.

"News from Ukraine", gives a brief overview of the situation in Soviet Ukraine.

The Soviet in order to crush the Ukrainian liberation movement began large-scale blockades of the terrain and garrisoning of troops in the villages. Population is terrorized by beatings and whole-scale arrests and deportations.

Quite often Soviet troops claim to be the UPA units. On such occasions the Soviets behave in the most brutal and calous manner, hoping in this way to alienate the population form the underground. In some regions they confiscate all grain and foodstufs of the population and leave them in hunger and deprivation.

These actions are not entirely successful and event in the Red Army there exist noticeable anti-Bolshevik attitudes. As well , there occur various clashes between the regular troops and the police forces.

The article ends by recounting ambushed and skirmished of the UPA against the Soviet forces.

"The Military Struggle Beyond the Curson Line", describes numerous battles of the UPA against the Polish army and police forces.

A detailed description is provided about the attach of "Prut's" battalion on the town of Bircha on 22 October 1945, and of "Horomenko's" action against the village of Kuz'myna which took place the same night.

Second attack against Bircha was carried out by "Burlaka" on 30 November 1945 and the third by Col. "Konyk" on 6 January 1947, the eve of the Ukrainian Christmas.

In addition 26 other actions by the UPA are mentioned in brief.

"A letter from Ukrainian Lemko 'Katsap' (a Rusophile)", represents a letter written in Aezopian language which describes difficult conditions experienced in the USSR by the repatrians from Poland.

Ironically a writer who was a Rusophile left for the USSR voluntarily and convinced 15 other families to migrate with him.

"From the Life of the Ukrainian Emigration; An Informational Review", Provides information on various aspects of life of the Ukrainian émigrés in Western Europe.

According to this review there are at this time some 500,000 Ukrainians in Germany and Austria, 80,000 in France, 30,000 in Italy, 70,000 in Belgium, 20,000 in the Polish formations commanded by Gen. Anders, and 3,000 in Switzerland.

Attempts to repatriated these Ukrainian back to the USSR met with resistance. Many people committed suicide rather than return home.

The Ukrainians, on the whole, are well organized. In addition to various social organizations there exist numerous political organizations as well. The Ukrainian Free University has been reestablished in Munich and the cultural institutions and the press have also made their appearance.

The Ukrainian emigration although beset by a number of problems chose nevertheless the right path, which is the struggle for the ideals of freedom for their people and for their native land.

"Review of the Press", brings short exerpts from various Polish and Slovak newspapers on the theme of the struggle against "Bandera's men", the Ukrainian underground.

The lead story in the speech by Marshal Rola-Zymierski who cites statistics about successful actions against the Ukrainian "bandits".

The excerpts are from "Dziennik Polski", "Zycie Warszawy", Wolnosc Sowa "Priashevshchyna", "Hlas oslobodenych", "Odrodzenie", "Glos Pracy", "Polska Zbrojna" as well as from "The Manchester Guardian", "Daily Worker", and various press agencies.

"Fallen on the Field of Glory", lists obituaries of prominent members of the Ukrainian underground who fell in battle.

These are: "Emir-Kora", officer of the UPa and member of the editorial board of "Za Ukrains'ku Derzhavu" and "Povstanets'", holder of the French Iron Cross for his struggle against the Nazis as member of the French armed forces; "Veselka-Oksana", typist at the Supreme leadership of the OUN, a courier for special tasks, member of the radio station "Vil'na Ukraina" during the German occupation; Major "Iahoda-Chernyk", the UPA commander who fought both Germans and Soviets' Lieutenant "Stepovyi", the UPA commander who fell in battle against Polish troops in Lubachiv region; Lieutenant "Baron" the UPa commander who died in Kuz'myna; Sergeant Major "Voron" (Volokha Vasyl') member of the Administrative Police died in battle against polish troops; Major Dr. "Klochnyk-Sirko" an UPA physician, killed by the Poles in Kanykiv; Sergeant Major "Bohun", OUN raion leader died in battles against Polish troops in Lubachiv region; Staff Sergeant "Osyp" a company political officer and an OUN member died in battle against polish troops in Bircha region; Colonel "Lonyk", commander of the Peremyshl UPA Battalion died in action against the town of Bircha; Lieutenant "Ors'kyi" commander of the UPA company died in action against the town of Bircha; Commander "Pavlenko" died in action against the town of Bircha.

Page 192. Tyzhnevi Visti, Year I, No 1, July 22, 1945

"From the Editors".

The present time is one of great changes and revolutions. The captive nations are preparing for the final struggle against the hated imperialist slave-masters.

Finding ourselves on the Polish side of the artificial border which divides the Ukrainian territory we carefully follow developments in Ukraine and in the world at large.

The task of the Tyzhnevi Visti is to keep informed out membership about political events everywhere. This must be dome in the most objective manner so as to counter enemy propaganda and to combat all kings of rumors, lies and falsifications directed against the Ukrainian liberation movement.

We call on all members of the OUN to collect materials which document our heroic struggle against our enemies, especially the activities of the UPA. The pages will also be open to individual creative works of out members. The publication should reflect the common efforts of out people in the struggle for the Ukrainian Independent United State.

"A few Words of Truth".

This letter form an "old Ukrainian soldier and now an insurgent", condemns Soviet Ukrainian officials in Kiev, Herchukha, Korotchenko, Riasnyi, Lalak and their "Manifesto to Workers, Peasants and Intelligentsia of Western Regions of Ukraine" on 19 May, 1945, an "Order of the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of Ukrainian SSR" of 30 may, 1945 and the Editorial "repugnant and Worthless Bandits Will be Liquidated" in "Radians'ke Slovo" of 22 May, 1945. In this response the "old soldier" rejects the accusations leveled at the Ukrainian insurgents by these "traitors" and reflects the promises of amnesty as a tool in the hands of Moscow with an aim of destroying the Ukrainian striving for an independent state.

"War in the Far East".

A short description of the war against Japan with a prognosis that it will end soon. Japanese are fighting very well and Americans continue to regard them as a serious opponent.

"Review of Political Events".

A Conference in Potsdam began on 17 July, 1945 with Churchill, Truman and Stalin in attendance.

In Germany all efforts are directed at regulating economic life of the country.

In the Soviet occupation Zone German administrative departments have been set up in which Deputy Chairman is always a Communist.

In Belgium the crises in connection with the return of the King continues.

Italy has declared war on Japan.

Political Council of China recalled the law on election to Constituent Assembly and directed the government to establish relations with the communist government in Yenan.

Page 198. Tyzgnevi Visti, Year I, No. 3, August 5, 1945

"What We are Fighting For?"

The question is being asked in order to once again remind ourselves about the tasks which continue to inspire many to great acts of heroism and sacrifice.

The Ukrainian revolutionaries are fighting for political sovereignty and independence and nothing will stop this struggle for the right cause.

Moscow is the most ruthless enemy that very cleverly uses lies about independence, democracy and communism with a goal of conquest and plunder in mind.

The life tore the mask from the face of the Muscovite Bolshevism and the last war reveled its ideological bankruptcy. In order to fight German fascism they were forced to rely on Russia patriotism and not on Communist ideals. Now many realize that Bolshevism is simply a well camouflaged Russian imperialism.

Today we are fighting for the destruction of the Muscovite imperialism and the Ukrainian people lead other captive nations in this struggle.

Long live liberation struggle of the Ukrainian and other captive peoples against the Muscovite Bolshevism.

"On the Elections in England".

Great changes have occurred in England. The Labor Party had won elections to Parliament. This means that the people have turned their attention to internal problems that are facing them. This should not be interpreted to mean a tendency in the direction of Bolshevik - like Socialism or Communism. the best indication of this is that only two Communists were elected to Parliament. The bloodless revolution that occurred in England clearly shows the maturity of the people who are able to look confidently to their future.

"War in the Far East".

Japanese government rejected the Allied ultimatum for the unconditional surrender and declared that they will fight to the last man. The allies have complete control on the sea and in the air.

In Potsdam the Supreme commanders of all Allied forces have met which means that an invasion of Japan is inevitable.

Chinese forces achieved some local successes.

In Burma the fighting continues in the region of river Citang.

"International Review of Political Events".

The Conference in Potsdam concluded its work.

The task of the Allies in Germany is to uproot German militarism and national-socialism and to built democracy. All military industry is to be dismantled. Also all Germans from Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary are to be repatriated to Germany. Although the western border of Poland will be finally determined at the peace conference the three superpowers agreed that it should run along the Oder and the Neisse rivers, British and World opinion has favorably reacted to the official communiqué from Posdam.

President Truman stated that no secret agreements were concluded in Potsdam.

Some German political parties are allowed to function.

Belgian Catholic Party joined the opposition.

Balkan problems continue to attract attention of the world especially, the question of Dardanelles, the Greek Bulgarian dispute over Macedonian, and the dispute over Triest.

Page 205. Informatyvni visti, December 2, 1945

"Announcement", reports various battles of UPA units with the Soviet and Polish police in the period from 28 august to 15 October 1945. It is signed by "VO".

"Announcement", dated 15 October 1945 warns all units of the OUN that the Soviet and Polish repatriation commissions are preparing lists of the Ukrainian population along certain categories such as: "banderites", "members of the UPA", "kulaks", etc. This fact should be widely disseminated among the population.

"World Political News", make up the rest of the journal and contain radio reports from New York, London, and Warsaw.

Page 211. Informatyvni Visti, January 6, 1946

"Ukrainian People", is the Christmas Message addressed to the Ukrainian people and expressing hope that Ukraine one day will be free.

"Radio News", reports various happenings throughout the world and fills the rest of the journal.

Page 223. Informatyvni Visti, Year III, No. 3, January 22, 1946

"Order of the Day" for January 22, 1946, singed by "KP" (Kraievui Provid) calls upon the Ukrainians remember the Proclamation of Ukrainian Independence in 1918.

Stoiar (Iaroslav Starukh), "About the 22 January", is a short historical analysis of the fall of the Russian Empire and the events leading to the proclamation of the Ukrainian People's Republic on January 22, 1918.

"The Idea of the Ukrainian Independent State", is an excerpt form an article with the same title printed in No. 4-5 of "Shliakh Peremohy", the UPA organ.

The article emphasized that the best evidence for the need of an independent Ukraine is the existence of the Ukrainian SSR which has been set up for the purpose to enslave free development of the Ukrainian people.

"We Shall Not Allow", is a poem by an anonymous writer.

"Radio News", bring various news items from new York, London and Warsaw and completes this issue of the journal.

Page 235. Informatyvni Visti, Year III, No. 4, January 29, 1946

"Order of the Day", signed by "KP" (Kraievyi Provid) commemorates the Battle of Kruty of January 1918.

Stoiar (Iaroslav Starukh), "The Immortal Kruty", describes the political and military situation of the newly proclaimed Ukrainian People's Republic, the attack on it by the Communist Russia and the uneven battle near Kruty fought by the student battalion in which 300 young persons died in defense of Ukraine. This heroism of the students should be remembered forever.

Marko Boieslav, "The Song Of 'Shum' Company".

Vasyl' Pachovs'kyi, "The Hymn of an Immortal Battle" (The Marching Song of the UPA-West).

"Radio News", from London, New York and Warsaw covers the rest of this issue of the journal.

Page 245. Indormatyvni Visti, Year III, No. 16, October 10, 1946

Iarlan (Iaroslav Starukh), in this "Review of International Events", analyses the Paris Peace Conference and the events in Chine, Persia, Palestine and Greece. His conclusion is that although there are various conflicts in the world the beginning of a general war is not inevitable.

"Radio News", is a compilation of various items from London, new York, Moscow and Warsaw.

"From the Press", is a short item from the polish newspaper. "Chlopska Droga" describing the activities of Ukrainian émigrés in Germany. It also mentions the creation of the UNRRA University in Munich Germany.

Page 256. Informatyvni Visti, Year III. No. 19, November 10, 1946

"Ukrainians! Ukrainian Insurgents!. This is a declaration signed by "KP" (Kraievyi Provid) reminding the people of the 1 November 1918 when in the city of L'viv the Ukrainians took over the state power from the crumbling Austria-Hungary.

"Radio News", from London, Warsaw and New York provide various news from around the world.

"From the Foreign Press", reprints two Memoranda of the Genera Secretary of Foreign affairs of the Ukrainian Supreme Liberation Council from the pages of "America", the Ukrainian Catholic Daily published in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The first memorandum which was sent to Foreign Ministers of the UK and the United States and the Secretary General of the United nations protests the accusation by the Soviet Ukrainian delegate that all those Ukrainians who do not wish to return home are the so call "Ukrainian-German nationalists" who collaborated with Germans during World War Two.

The Memorandum further states that individuals named by the Soviet delegate Bazhan, such as Prof. Dmytro Doroshenko, Dr. Osyp Nazaruk, Stepan Bandera, or Andrii Melnyk should not be labeled in this manner. The last two individuals spent almost the entire war in German concentration camp of Oranienburg - Sachsenhausen.

In the second part the Memorandum explains the anti-German struggle of the Ukrainian underground, the reasons for the creation of the "Halychyna" Division, the underground publications, and the question of Gen. Vlasov.

The Memorandum declares that neither Bazhan nor the Government of Ukrainian SSR have the right to speak in the name of the Ukrainian people. ("America", 11 July, 1946).

The second Memorandum, addressed to the Holy See as well as to the Foreign Ministers of the Unites States and the United Kingdom, protests the persecution of the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church of Western Ukraine, and its forcible renunciation with the Russian Orthodox Church at the non-canonical gathering in L'viv.

Page 265. Informatyvni Visti, Year III, No. 21, November 21, 1946

The Editors dedicate this issue of the journal to 359 heroes who died at the battle of Bazar against the Russian Red Army as well as all those who "sacrificed their life in defense of freedom".

Marko Sheremshyna, "The Grief", a patriotic poem.

Rev. Marian Roman Tsurkovs'kyi, "When the Poppies Bloom...", a patriotic poem reprinted from "America", No. 60, 8 June 1946.

"Radio News", brings various short news from London, Warsaw, new York, and Moscow.

Page 278. Informatuvni Visti, Year III, No. 22, November 25, 1946

Z Savchenko (Vasyl' Halasa), "A Political Review" A growth of Conflict Between the Anglo-Saxons and the USSR".

This is the first part of a lengthy analysis of the difficult relations between the United States and the United Kingdom on the one hand and the USSR on the other hand. The world is divided into "Easter" and ":Western" blocs each with its own satellites. In particular the article focuses on the role of the Ukrainian SSR in the United Nations, the Greek-Yugoslav conflict, and the uses of "veto" by the USSR and the United Kingdom in the question of admission of new members to the United nations.

"Radio News", brings short reports from New York, Warsaw and London.

"From the Foreign Press", brings three short items from the Ukrainian-American Daily "America" of 11 June, 1946.

The first item reports on the massacres of the Ukrainian population in the suburbs of L'viv, and the destruction of the region of Kolomyia. The stories are based on eyewitness reports of a Jewish fugitive.

The second story deals with the alleged preparations of the USA and the USSR for a conflict in the Arctic.

And the third story relates the trial of Soviet spies in Canada.

Page 298. Informatyvni Visti, Year IV, No. 8, February 28, 1947

"Memorandum of the Ukrainian Congress Committee Submitted to the Paris Peace Conference".

This is a reprint of the first two parts of the memorandum of the Ukrainian Congress Committee of America from the Philadelphia Ukrainian Daily "America", of 12 October, 1946, No. 101.

"The Purge in the Soviet Union", by Prof. Mykola Chubatyi, is reprinted from the Ukrainian Daily "Svoboda" published in Jersey City of 6 August, 1946, No. 152.

"More About the Purge in Ukraine", by Dmytro Stiah, from the Philadelphia Ukrainian Daily "America" of 1 October, 1946, No. 98. The article discusses sever criticism and persecutions of the Ukrainian writers in the USSR.

"Foreigners About Ukraine", is a compilation of various comments about the Ukrainian liberation struggle in the USSR and in the satellite nations of Eastern Europe. The reports are taken from "Slobensky Revolucijny Obdoj", "The New York Herald Tribune", and Toronto's "The Globe and Mail".

The rest of the publication contains "Radio News" from New York, London, Moscow and Warsaw.

Page 321. Informatyvni Visti, Year IV, No. 9, March 9, 1947

"In Memory of the Great Revolutionary", contains a portrait of Taras H. Shevchenko, 9. III. 1814-10. III. 1961 and his poem "Zapovit" (The Last Testament).

Stoiar (Iaroslav Starukh), "Elections in USSR: A Short Information", is an analysis of the Soviet constitutional provisions and the actual practices in Soviet elections.

The provisions of the Soviet constitution and the attitude of Soviet leadership to the electoral process in completely antidemocratic. the Communist party appoints its own candidates and the electoral campaign is a process of terror and intimidation of the population.

In Ukraine because of the existence of a strong underground it was possible to carry out a very intense anti-election campaign. Some 1500 military encounters with the Soviet authorities were carried out by the UPA in which is suffered more than 5000 dead. Tens of thousands of Ukrainians were arrested and deported to concentration camps in the Arctic and in Siberia.

The result was that in Ukraine only about 50 per cent of registered voters went to the polls, while in Western Ukraine only 10 per cent voted rather than 99 per cent which were claimed by the Soviet authorities.

Immediately after the elections large arrests and deportations were carried out in Western Ukraine. In some localities as many as 30 or even 50 families were departed to Siberia.

New elections were announced to take place in February 1947, this time to Republic Supreme Soviets.

Boleslaw Kotowicz, "One Europe Or None", is an article reprinted in Ukrainian from the Polish newspaper "Zwiazkoweic", of 13 October, 19465, published in Toronto, Canada.

The article is highly critical of Anglo-American policy which agreed to a division of Europe into spheres of influence and therefore, to its destruction.

The author calls on Western leaders to understand that the western civilization is in danger and it can recover only if Europe in one.

"Foreigners About Ukraine", is a compilation of various comments in western press.

Here is a partial reprint of the article "Ukraine and War", from the "Republic", No. 4, 1946 published in Paris, in which Ukrainian contribution in the struggle against the Nazis is described.

"A Civil War is Beginning in the USSR", is a reprint of an article from "The Canadian Farmer", of 19 September, 1946, No. 38, a Ukrainian language newspaper published in Winnipeg, Manitoba, which in turn is a compilation of articles from "The Catholic Herald" (7 September), Peter Lane's article from "The Christian Science Monitor" (11 September), and end Ruddell's article from the "The New Herald Tribune".

The gist of the article is that internal disaffection in the USSR is growing.

The rest of the publication is devoted to "Radio News" from London, New York, Moscow, and Warsaw.

Page 347. Informatyvi Visti, Year IV, no. 11, March 23, 1947

"The Purge in Ukraine", is a reprint from "The Canadian Farmer", of 18 September, 1986, No. 38 which discusses a new purge in Ukraine instituted by N. S. Khrushchev, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine.

Accordingly, 38 per cent of all obkom secretaries were replaced, and 64 per cent of all chairmen of oblast executive committees were removed, while two-thirds of the chairmen of the MTS were also replaced.

The article further quotes from "Pravda" which admitted on 2 September that the purge of Ukrainian cultural cadres is the result of the persistence of Ukrainian nationalism".

"An Espionage Affair in Canada", is a compilation from the BBC News of 28 January, 1947 and the article in the "Canadian Farmer" of 27 March and 18 September, 1946.

It relates the story of Soviet espionage in Canada revealed by Ihor Guzenko a cipher clerk in Soviet embassy in Ottawa and summarized the Report of the Royal Commission on Espionage.

"A Soviet Cosmic Bomb", is a reprint from "The New Path" (Novyi Shliah) a Ukrainian weekly published in Winnipeg, which in its issue of 9 November 1946, No. 86 relates the story from "Everybodys Journal", that the USSR is employing some 400,000 scientists and technicians in their attempt to produce a "cosmic bomb".

"Shameful Anniversary of the Russian Betrayal", is a reprint from French magazine "L'Illustration" of an article reminding its readers about the Hitler-Stalin Pact of 26 August 1939.

The story is illustrated by a picture of Stalin and Von Ribbentrop shaking hands.

The translation was taken from the Polish-American newspaper "Gwiazda" of 26 September, 1946, No. 10, published in Philadelphia.

"Radio News", offers selections from radio services from London, new York, Moscow and Warsaw, makes up the rest of the issue.

Page 375. Informatuvi Visti, year IV. No. 12, March 31, 1947

"Foreign Policy of the USSR".

This lead article which the Editors received from Ukraine and are publishing belatedly describes the world as being divided into spheres of influence of three powers: USA, Great Britain and the USSR.

The USSR is moving to dominate the world but is opposed in this goal by the other two superpowers. To gain strength the USSR is using various maneuvers to postpone the possibility of conflict including the forum of the Unite nations. But eventually such a conflict is inevitable.

"Foreigners About Ukraine", is a compilation of various short reports from the western press.

"Anarchy in Southern Poland", in "The Scottsman" of 17 May 1946 talks about the activities of the "Whites" which are composed of various groups of Polish and Ukrainian partisans. The Ukrainians are known as "Bul'bivtsi" and "Banderivtsi", and the Poles as the "AK" and the "NSZ". Bandera is being identified as a Captain who is trying to prevent Polish authorities from deporting the Ukrainian population to the USSR.

"A Ruin in the Ukrainian-Polish Borderlands", is a reprint from the Ukrainian-American daily "Svoboda" of 5 June 1946, No. 109 which discusses forcible deportation of the Ukrainian population from Poland to the USSR, the activities of the UPA in defense of the Ukrainians and the burning of villages to prevent Polish immigrants to settle there.

"The Situation in Ukraine", by Petro Balka a reprint form "Svoboda", No. 109. In it we find a compilation of letters written by Ukrainian villagers to their relatives in the United States and published by the "Ukrains'ki Shchodenni Visti" a Communist newspaper in New York City.

The author claims that although the letters have been screened very carefully they nevertheless reveal a very difficult life in Ukraine.

R. Barrat, "Will America Begin A Preventive War?" in French newspaper "Temoignage Chretien", No. 130, 22 November, 1946, discusses a possibility of a world divided into spheres of influence of two superpowers the USA and the USSR.

The USA must contemplate further growth of the USSR influence and greater danger in the future. To prevent this from happening some circles in the United States would not mind destroying the opponent at this time even if it means the USE of atomic weapons.

E. Pavliuk, "The Struggle of the Ukrainian People in Eastern Regions in the years 1941-1944", in "Ukrains'kyi Robitnyk" (Ukrainian Laborer), No. 45, 15 November, 1946 (Published in Toronto, Canada).

This is the second part of the article in which German atrocities in Eastern Ukraine and the Ukrainian resistance to these atrocities are described.

The editors mention the fact that they did not have access to the first part of this article and therefore could not publish it.

The author emphasized the anti-German struggle of the UPA and his reason for writing this article is to put the record straight especially because the Soviet propaganda is distorting and falsifying the history of that period.

"Radio News", which makes up the rest of this publication, presents radio reports from London, New York, Moscow, and Warsaw.

Page 398. Informatyvni Visti, year IV, No. 13, April 5, 1947

"In Defense of the Ukrainian Liberation Idea", is a lengthy editorial reprinted from the Ukrainian- American daily "Svoboda", No. 225, of 15 November 1946, which attacks both the Soviet and the Polish anti-Ukrainian propaganda and especially the attempts to present the Ukrainian liberation movement in a very unfavorable light.

It focuses on two articles in Polish émigré newspaper "Dziennik Polski" and "Dziennik Zolnierza", both published in London, as an sample of inability to distinguish between the truth and the half-lies of the Soviet propaganda against the UPA and the Ukrainian underground.

"The Fate of the Revolutionary Ideas", is a reprint from, the Polish-American newspaper "Dziennik Dla Wszystkich", of 5 June, 1946, which quotes Anthony Eden's statement in "Le Mond" that the Soviet Union has failed to realized the ideals of the Russian revolution to improve the lot of the people.

Moreover there is evidence that a new privileged class is being formed from the sons and daughters of the ruling party elites.

"The Worker and the Dictator", is a reprint form the newspaper "Dziennid Dla Wszustkich", of 31 July, 1946 which discusses huge difference in remuneration scales of workers and factory directors that exist in the USSR. Some directors make as much as 170 workers combined. Stahanoism is another method of exploiting the worker.

No American trade union would ever agree to such an exploitative system of remuneration or of labor.

"Before the Third World War", is a reprint from the Polish-American newspaper "Ameryka Echo", of 22 September, 1946.

The article states that both the United States and the USSR are talking peace but are preparing for war. The reason for this is that the Soviet Union never demobilized its forces after the war and is doing everything possible to develop its military strength even further.

The article describes various countermeasures that the Unites States has undertaken in order to check the USSR, in particular the development of atomic weapons and the long distance rockets to deliver these weapons.

The Editors further quote the "Ameryka Echo" on the situation in Hungary, and Lithuania, and the Moscow "Izvestia" about the death of V.S. Smirnov, the head of the Criminal Division of the USSR Procuracy General who died in "tragic circumstances".

"The Ukrainian Insurgent Army in Struggle", from the Ukrainian-American daily "Svoboda", of 3 December, 1946, No. 230 is a short item paraphrasing the Associated Press report from Warsaw about the battles of Polish troops with the UPA, in which the latter is reported to have suffered 300 killed.

The polish authorities also claim that more attention will be paid to contacts of insurgents with the British and the Americans.

"Lithuanian 'Fascist' at the Diplomatic Reception in Washington", is a short item from Moscow's "Pravda" complaining about the presence at diplomatic reception of the Lithuanian Ambassador to United States Pavilas Zaidekis.

"The Poles Arrest Volodymyr Fedak", is a short item about the arrest of an alleged Ukrainian nationalist and a former commander of a unit under the leadership of "Bul'ba", who infiltrated the Polish Workers party and become the Vice-Chairman of the Repatriation Commission in Katowice.

Mykola Chubatyi, "Borders of new Poland", from "Svoboda", 3 December, 1946, discusses the shift of Polish territories to the West at the expense of Germany and the changes in the borders between Poland and the USSR.

The so called "voluntary exchange of populations" between Poland and USSR is designed to remove Ukrainians from Poland and Plies from the USSR. The Poles who leave Ukraine are replaced be the Russians.

These shifts of territory and population that resulted in a new geographic position for Poland, prevent that country from ever again being able to play the role of a superpower.

Additional short items are the report from the "November Festivities" in Cleveland, Ohio, the meeting of the Ukrainian Congress Committee delegation with Senator Vanden berg, and the delegation of American and Canadian Ukrainians with Mrs. Eleonor Roosevelt on behalf of the Ukrainian Displaced Persons.

"Report from the Protest meeting", from "Novyi Shliakh" of 13 November, 1946.

This is a shortened version of the report from the public meeting in New Britain, Connecticut of 15 September 1946, at which the main speaker, Dr. W. Galan, Head of the United Ukrainian American Relief Committee, spoke about the situation in DP Camps and about the treatment of the Ukrainians in the USSR and Poland.

Among the resolutions passed at the meeting was one requesting immediate stop to the forcible repatriation of Ukrainians from Poland.

"Ukrains'kyi Robitnyk" (Ukrainian Worker, Toronto, Canada), in its issue of 29 November, 1946, reports about a large manifestation of the Ukrainians in New York City with speakers Mr. S. Shumeiko, Rev. Dr. Kushnir, and Mr. V. Koosr.

Mr. Shumeiko, the head of the Ukrainian Congress Committee of America, reported on his mission to the Paris Peace Conference.

The rest of this issue is devoted to various short items form international press agencies and to "Radio News" from London, New York, Moscow and Warsaw.

Page 409. Lisovyk, No. 7, August, 1945

"The Thoughts Which Were Not Expressed in Posdam".

President Truman looks at Generalissimus Stalin, on his chest full of medals and thinks of him as the destroyer of churches, who turned church bells into guns and imagines him in noose with medals tinkling at his funeral.

Generalissimus looks at Truman and Atlee and thinks how small they are in comparison to himself and how he can play and win any game with these two individuals.

Atlee looks at Stalin and thinks: "You stupid Mongol! You were not finished by my precursor but I can do it".

And then Truman and Atlee look at each other with their all-knowing smile.

"The Fable About Ivan Lopukh", a conclusion of a satirical poem from an earlier issue of the journal.

"From the Drawings of Ivasyk Bul'basyk", is a montage of four cartoons.

"A special Announcement: When Will the New War Begin?"

A delay in the war caused by the theft of American war plans from the New York archives by unknown individuals. Thus, the new plans have to be prepared. Those individuals who by their action prolonged the work of the underground are being searched for by the SB (Security Service).

"Adventures in a Dream - A Humorous Tale".

After a pleasant massage President Truman went to sleep. Sometime after midnight he dreamt that a huge bird picked him up and deposited him in the village of Syniava. The bird also told him that from mow on his name will be Ivan Terpylo (Sufferer) but that nothing will be happen to him so he should not worry.

After a while an old peasant came into the room and asked the President to exchange his good suit for some old clothing. He was also left barefooted because the peasant had only one pair of shoes. Afterwards they ate two lean, cold potatoes and left for the forest where the entire village was camping.

Next day all the people with their property and chattels left for the village and until noon every thing was quiet. Then somebody screamed that the Poles are coming. The family with whom the President was staying started to run in the direction of the forest but the road was blocked by the attackers. The man took The President and they hid in the bunker under the stable where the President was told all about life in this country. In the evening they came out and met two armed men who took him to Mivlova. On the road President Truman wanted to have a smoke but the two men told him that Bolsheviks are all around and might notice the cigarette glow. The President, however, did not listen because he considered the Bolsheviks his allies and lit the cigarette. To punish him the two soldiers took away his cigarettes and gave him 25 switches on his behind. Finally, although they were shot at they managed to arrive in the village of Kachmari where they went to sleep.

The second night they proceeded further and reached the village of Liublynets' where after a meal he noticed his wife Miss Lady in the village street. After some difficulty in recognizing her husband Miss Lady implores him to return home as soon as possible. In the meantime a Russian soldier enters the house and begins to make improper advance to Miss Lady and even tosses her on the ground with a clear goal in mind, when the large bird reapers and whisks them both away from that place.

When President Truman awoke from his sleep he asked that the villages of Syniava, Mivkiv, and Liublinets' be immediately located for him. He discovered that they were located in Ukraine and that in his dream he lived a life of the people of that unfortunate country.

"Angel of Peace", is a cartoon of Stalin who is represented as trying to place a red flag and the chains in the globe.

Page 423. Lisovyk, No. 8, September-October, 1945

"We are Faithful Until Death", a poem.

General-Major Kablukov, "A Letter to Comrade Stalin".

This is a humorous rendition of an alleged letter written by the General-Major Kablukov, who is the Chief of Repatriation Commission responsible for the deportation of Ukrainians from Poland. The gist of the letter is that the repatriation is not going well and that if one wants the Ukrainians moved it is necessary to allocate at least 100,000 troops to the area to help with the deportation. But actually the best approach would be to cancel this undertaking and leave the people in peace.

"Zalizniak's Pipe".

Two villagers are discussing the population transfers and are marveling at the glow in the sky from the burning villages, probably those which are being destroyed by the Ukrainian insurgents in order not to allow the Polish settlers to come into the area. They are approached by Russian soldiers who asks for a cigarette lighter. They advise him to go over to the burning village and light his cigarette there. They refer to it as a "Zalizniak' pipe". Upon hearing this Russian departs in great haste loosing his cigarette.

"A Delegate Without a Mandate".

It is a humorous account of a villager who volunteered for repatriation and was taken to a camp with his family and personal effects. There he was separated from his family and accused of being a "banderite" by Soviet NKVD official. Luckily for him the camp was attached by a UPA unit and the man escaped back to his village. He told his neighbor to tell all who would ask for him that he is a delegate and is away on an official business in the Soviet Union, while in act he would be hiding in a bunker. In short, he would be a delegate without a mandate.

"An Important Matter".

It is a story about an underground administrator with five typists who is too busy to speak to anybody because he found out that the borders of his district which are coterminous with the Curson line are being changed because of the territorial adjustments between Poland and the Soviet Union.

All of his secretaries are preparing protests which he intends to send to Moscow, Kiev, Warsaw, London and Washington. A very important matter indeed.

"More Loudly Sound the Protest", a poem.

"Announcements", relates two stories. One about a deportee to the Soviet Union who escaped and is awaiting his wife and children also to return. The second about and "invitation to dinner" extended to a priest by the Soviet NKVD.

"Thus They Spoke to Each Other", describes how the two Germans, one from the Western occupation zone and the other from the Soviet zone compare their life. The one from the West does not complain very much, but the other blames the Soviet for the very strict economic, social and political controls. Both hope for the new war, but do not wish to be led by another Hitler and are convinced that their fate now lies with the captive nations.

"Why Everything is Burning Around Us?"

The story relates a bogus order of an underground official "Krutii" to fight the Polish troops who are evicting the Ukrainians from their villages, and to burn the empty houses while he himself, dressed in civilian clothes, is staying at one of the railroad stations, supposedly to observe the moves by the enemy.

"From an Idiotic Barrel", describes an appeal to the Ukrainian population by Mirek, Voivoda of Riashiv (Rzeszow) in a language that hardly resembles the Ukrainian language. He is being reminded that similar practices took place under the regime of Hitler and that he is nothing if not a little Hitler himself.

"A Page of Anecdotes", contains various humorous stories from the realities of life in Poland under the Soviet control.

Fed' Tverdyi, "Dear Bandurystii (Bandera men)", is a letter written in a Western Ukrainian dialect which attacks forcible resettlement and calls for a resistance.

Page 439. Lisovyk, No. 9, October-November, 1945

"We Shall Not Give In to Yoke or Sleep", a poem.

"At Midnight, In a Cell of an Emperor".

At midnight when the Kremlin tower clock sounded "The International", Generalissimus Stalin picked up a lit candle and descended into the basement of the building. There in a cell decorated with the sculls of his former rivals such a Tukhachevskii, Gamarnik, Bliukher, Shrypnyk, Shums'kyi, Iefremov, Liubchenko, Kossior, Dzerzhinskii, Iezov and many others he kneeled before the picture of Lucifer and stared to pray.

After a while Lucifer appeared in person and engaged Stalin in a conversation. Stalin pleaded for help against the UPA, the AK and the "Romanian, Bulgarian and all other banderites:, and begged him for some of his former helpers. Lucifer decided to think about this matter but did not commit himself to anything.

"What is More Important".

It is a make-believe story of two underground workers, each one convinced that he did more for the Ukrainian cause than the other and considered himself, therefore, superior. Their argument was ended by third man who pointed out to them that only a collective effort would achieve desired goals.

"Searching for Luck", is the story of how V. Molotov, the Soviet Foreign Minister, tried to discover the secrets of an atomic bomb and had to engage in theft and hijacking to achieve his goal.

"The Voice From Siberia", is a letter of Lavrentii Vyrvykhist (the tailless one) to Ivan Vytyvalenko (the hardy), in which he admits his mistake for allowing himself and his family to be repatriated to the USSR. His son was accused of being a banderite and was promptly executed while he was sent to Siberia. He would like to escape and to return home and asks his friend for help.

"On How a Real Swine Spoiled Our Friendship".

The story relates how an UPA officer was on very good terms with a villager and how they enjoyed their frequent political discussion. Them one day the UPA wanted to requisition a swine from this particular individual, and although he had two of them, he refused to give it up.

Sometime later the Polish army came and confiscated both of his swines, a cow and all of his property. The villager learned his lesson well, but the former good relations were not so easily restored.

O. Oles', "With a Thunder". A poem.

"Letters to the Editor", contains three short humorous notes on various topics.

The Voice of the Fallen Heroes". A poem.

"Editor's Replies", contain five short statements on various matters.

Page 462. Lisovyk, year II, No. 1 (10), December-January, 1945-1946

"New Year, We greet You Warmly". A poem.

"Revolutionaries, Insurgents", is a letter from "Grandfather Frost", mentioning some of the important events of the past year, and wishing the insurgents a happier and victorious New Year.

"One More Year...", is an untitled poem becrying the unfortunate fate of Ukraine.

"Chief's Mania".

Generalissimo Stalin interviews a hypnotists whom he asked to penetrate the White House with his powers and to find out what is in the minds of President Truman and Prime Minister Atlee. The hypnotist fails in this task. Stalin worries that the President and the Prime Minister are plotting against him, but finally decides that even if he looses to them he can always plead insanity in the manner of Rudolf Hess.

"The Last Winter". A poem.

"A Negation of Great Words", is a story of two underground radio technicians who were able to construct their own radio transmitter and use it to contradict a speech of Minister Bevin at very same time when he was delivering it at an international banquet in London.

"An Actor in a Well-Rehearsed Role".

The story is about D. Manuilskii who as the Foreign Minister of the Ukrainian SSR does not know whether Ukraine has any definite borders. He calls Moscow and is informed that the western boundary runs along the Curson Line, but in the east the Ukrainian border "approaches infinity", because of a long friendship between Russians and Ukrainians.

"A Battle of Iron and Words", describes an attack on the Polish garrison with the aid of some undisclosed rockets. The UPA unit succeeds in destroying the bridge and some bunkers protecting it . The Polish troops in the last bunker try to talk their way out of the predicament and are successful when at dawn the UPA unit withdraws.

"The Answer To Volodymyr Sosiura", is a poetic reply to his "Epistle to Those Who Are Deceived".

"Negotiations", is a spoof on the allegations by the Polish Security Service (UBP) that the Americans are engaged in talks with the Ukrainian underground. It relates how an American plane has landed in the forest and how Mr. Mollson met with Mr. Rozruba (Cleaver) and transmitted to him warm greetings from President Truman. Me. Rozuba is now preparing for an reciprocal visit to Washington.

"The March of 'Mesnyky'". A song.

"The World Through the Eyeglasses".

It contains two short stories. The first laughs at the Soviet statement that the British are arming the Germans for a possible attack on the Soviet Union.

The second deals with the Soviet preoccupation with the atomic bomb.

"A Stalinist Democracy". A poem.

"From An Idiotic Barrel".

The article refers to a report from the Nurnberg Trial in "Dziennik Polski" and the allegation that Von Ribbentrop gave orders to Ukrainian nationalists to start an uprising against Poland in September 1939.

Fed' Tverdyi, "Dear Bandurystii (Bandera men)".

A letter written in a local dialect describing life in the Iaroslav region.

"A Riddle".

"New Year's Wishes From the Editors of 'Lisovyk' ".

"Fallen on the Field of Glory", contains short obituaries of the following persons: Commander "Stepovui"; District leader of the OUN "Bohun"; Commander of the SB "Borys"; "Voron" (Volokha Vasyl' form the village of Pyskorovyshi, Iaroslav county), member of the regional AB, killed in the village of Durmachivka; Dr. "Sirko".

This issue of the journal also contains a number of political cartoons.

Page 484. Lisovyk, Year II, No. 3 (12), 1946

A poem "In the Curzon-Line Ukraine", by Strilenko.

"Bad Fortune Telling", is a satire on the Stalin-Hitler friendship in the years 1939-41, and the present friendship with the satellites of Eastern Europe.

Stalin sent Hitler Ukrainian wheat which has grown on the sweat, blood and tears of the Ukrainian people. Hitler nearly choked on it and believing that Stalin betrayed him started the war against the USSR. The same may happen in the present friendship between the Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.

"Astronomical News".

As reported by the United Press, an American astronomer "Know-it-all" has discovered a new planet "Bolshaia" which was moving along the Marx orbit.

This planet has already caused a change of climate on other planets such as "Ukraine" and others. In addition, the planet Ukraine suffered a reversal of day and night. The people till the land and plant the crops at night, while in a day time everybody awaits the coming of the nighttime.

The planet "Bolshaia", however, no longer moves along the Marx orbit and if some other large planet doesn't change its orbit it is liable to destroy the earth and all the laws of the cosmos.

"Caught Up With and Overtook", laughs at comrade Molotok (Molotov) who brags that it was the present Soviet leadership who succeeded in creating a Russian Empire that Peter the Great could only dream about.

Also in the field of science and technology the Soviet are recognized leaders. Thus while the Americans invented an atomic bomb, and it took them a long time, the Soviet had their secrets in a few months. The Germans developed rockets but the Soviet came up with the "Flying Commissions". The English have invented radar but the Soviet NKVD is able to read event people's thoughts. The American developed penicillin while the Soviet exporting PPRs and PPS (Polish Workers Party and Polish Socialist Party). Moreover there is plenty more for the export.

"The Explanations", is a play on Soviets abbreviations.

SSSR (USSR) - Soiuz Soviets'kyi Skoro Rozletyt'sia (Soviet Union Will Soon Fall Apart).

USSR (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in Russian) - Ukraina Stane Samostiinoiu Respublikoiu (Ukraine Will Become an Independent Republic).

URSR (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in Ukrainian) - Ukraina Rozirve Soviets'ke Rabstvo (Ukraine Will Destroy the Soviet Slavery).

NKVD - Formerly: Ne znaiesh koly vernesh dodomy (You don't know when you will retyrn home). Now: Nikoly Ne Vernesh Dodomu (You never return home).

NKGB Narod Katuiut', Hrabuiut' Biut' (People are being Tortured, Fleeced and Beaten).

PPR - Pol's'ka Partia Rozbyshakiv (Polish Party of Gangsters).

Collective farmer - former owner and now a beggar.

Stalinist democracy - for the Soviet - Dery (Tear), Mordui (Kill), Krady (Steal), Tysny (Squeeze). For the population Hide, Run away as fast as possible. For the Ukrainian insurgents - Smash the tyrants and the Bolshevik plague wherever you can.

"A Mysterious Secret", refers to the USSR which remains a secret to most foreigners. Tyhe main reason for this that the Kremlin leaders changed the language. Thus:

Freedom = Unfreedom;

Equality = Unequality;

Justice = Unjustice;

Lucky = Unlucky;

Wealthy = Unwealthy;

Liberation = Enslavement;

To give land = To take away land;

Released = Shot;

Amnesty = Mass Execution;

Propaganda = Deception.

A poem by Strilenko, "The Scarecrow and Private Buk".

"Lisovyk's Problems" - a story which bemoans a difficulty faced by a "Lisovyk" (a forest sprit) who would like to meet "Mavka" (also a spirit) and be with her alone in the forest, but who is prevented in this by humans who are trying to escape Soviet persecutions.

"A Brilliant Idea", describes how Stalin in competition with the Americans decided to sent 500,000 tons of Ukrainian wheat to France, 200,000 tons to Poland and one million tons elsewhere.

This meant that for every ton of wheat sent abroad, one Ukrainian had to be sent to Siberia. This will refuse a large number of opponents in Ukraine to Stalin and his system. A brilliant idea.

"Ukraine". a poem in three parts, how it was how it is and how it is viewed by the insurgents.

The first part a reproduction of the T. Shevchenko's poem, while the second and third parts were written by the editor of "Lisovyk" Petro Volosh-Vasylenko.

"They Came to an Understanding", is a satire on the misunderstandings that arise because of the insistence by the Russians that Ukrainians use their language even though the speak and understand it badly.

"It is Done of Love".

Stalin embraced Ukraine in such a tight embrace that she can hardly catch her breath. Some say this is out of live, It is dangerous to be rich and beautiful.

"An Old Comedy in a New Theater, or How to Stage a Play About Eternal Peace".

Everybody is talking about how to do away with are while everybody is operating for a war.

"In a Guerrilla Camp", contains various anecdotes from the life of the Ukrainian insurgents.

"Sear Bandurystii (Bandera men), by Fed' Tverdyi who writes about Soviet attacks on the Ukrainian villages in a Western Ukrainian dialect.

"From Poltava to Iaroslav, From Dnipro to Rover Sian, A Heroic Life of Petro Volosh-Vasylenko (Poltavets', Hertmanets')".

An obituary of the Editor of "Lisovyk", a native of Ploltava region, who was killed in combat with the Polish Communist troops on 21 May 1946.

Page 523. Lisovyk, year III, No. 1 (13), 1947

A poem by Strilenko, "In the Cold Winter About the Spring".

A story by Strilenko, "Foreign Jackasses and Stalin's Factories" which describes the native of foreigners when confronted with Soviet propaganda.

The chimneys of the burned down villages are presented to foreign guests who are on an airplane tour as the factories and the white crosses in the cemetery of the victims of Stalin as an evidence of religious freedom in the USSR.

A poem by Riv "Ambush".

A story by Private Bul'ka, "Miracles of the New Five year Plan".

During the New Five year Plan a machine will be developed that will applaud every time Stalin's name is mentioned. Another machine will vote for every thus ensuring that a vote for Deputies will always be 100 per cent. But when a suggestion was advanced that it would be nice to nave another machine which would pay at least 50 cent of taxes, a representative from the raion committee and a Russian, immediately protested that "we do not need such a fascist machine".

A poem by Sapa, "Adventure".

"A War With Eskimos".

This is a story about the Soviet military expedition to Kamchatka and the American military activities in Alaska. However, because the leader of both countries are preparing for war with the Eskimos.

A poem, "Maksym".

A poem, "Everything For Ukraine".

A story, "The Illness of Our Planet Earth", describes this illness in very humorous terms as "imperialism".

"A Stalinist Month in the Village of Havrylivka".

First Week.

1. Monday: Round-up.
2. Tuesday: Tax in kind.
3. Wednesday: State loan.
4. Thursday: Penalty.
5. Friday: Check up.
6. Saturday: Arrest.
7. Sunday: Deportation to Siberia.

Second Week.

8. Monday: First Grain for the State.
9. Tuesday: Second Grain for the State.
10. Wednesday: Third Grain for the State.
11. Thursday: Surrender of Grain Above Plan.
12. Friday: Surrender of Grain from Surplus.
13. Saturday: Surrender of Grain from Personal Supply.
14. Sunday: Surrender of Leftovers.

Third Week.

15. Monday: Grain for the Red Army Fund.
16. Tuesday: Grain for the Red Cross Fund.
17. Wednesday: Grain for the Aviation Fund.
18. Thursday: Grain for the Motorized Units.
19. Friday: Grain for the War Loan.
20. Saturday: All Grain for the State.
21. Sunday: the Very Last Grain for the State.

Fourth Week.

22. Monday: Control.
23. Tuesday: A Search.
24. Wednesday: Ambush.
25. Thursday: Another Roundup.
26. Friday: Cross examination by the NKVD.
27. Saturday: Physical beating of people.
28. Sunday: General arrest of people and deportation to Siberia.

End of Month.

29. Monday: All Hungries' Day.
30. All Deads' Day.

The end of month is the end of all problems. In Havrylivka a Stalinist Communist paradise has arrived.

"Rejoice Ukraine".

At the last meeting of the UN in New York on a proposal of a soviet delegate it was agreed that all superpowers are to remove their armies from the territories of other UN members. Thus, Moscow should remove its army from Ukraine.

It is interesting that not even a single Western jackass did ask Molotov when will the Moscow remove its troops from Ukraine.

Will Moscow live up to this agreement?

Probably, because the UPA will assist her in this undertaking.

"The Secrets of Politics", is a story about the uses of English. English words are written in one way but are pronounced in another way. The same can be true where the meaning is concerned. Thus peace could mean war.

A poem, "Cat's Adventure".

A story by Kul'ka, "Who Gives Less", laughs at Soviet propaganda which claims that the former "Ukrainian -German Nationalists" have sold themselves to other bidders for more. Should they follow in the footsteps of the Russians and the Communist Party and always ask for less?

"What Do We Need the Russian For?"

The story relates the visit to Moscow by Marshall Montgomery where he was feted no less than Ribbentrop was first before the start of the German-Soviet war. Upon return to England Montgomery said that more British officers should begin to study Russian. In Moscow they probably find this suggestion as being slightly suspicious.

"An Adventure of a Cow".

The polish and Soviet troops attack one Ukrainian village in the Hrubeshiv county. Everybody is trying to hide in home-made bunkers. On women his her kids in the bunker and then in tremendous excitement tied her cow to a rope and in the very last moment disappeared under the ground still holding on to a rope. The Poles who tried to take the cow away and pulled on the rope discovered a woman still attached to it. Afterwards they also removed the kids and dynamited the bunker. But having had a good laugh this time they did not take the cow with them. This is a true story.

A poem, "March of the Company 'Eagles' ".

A story, "Preelection Meeting and Democratic Elections in the Empire of Man-Animals" laughs at the elections in a mythical country where in the preelection period man-animals promise to overfullfil the existing Five Year Plan up to 1200 per cent.

"Lisovyk's Atomic Competition", raises a question why Academician Kapitsa has been sent to Siberia especially, since he succeeded in splitting the atom and creating an atomic bomb.

The International Press Union asked "Lisovyk" about this matter and the editors decided to ask their readers for an opinion. The best submissions will be amply rewarded.

A song by Past, "Hey in Moscow".

"The Jewish-German Nationalists", is a story which laughs at the Soviet propaganda that Ukrainians who fight with German weapons must be Ukrainian-German Nationalists. Logically, those with the Soviet weapons should be Ukrainian-Russian nationalists.

Why them the Jewish-German nationalists? Well, in the Palestine the British have discovered large amounts of German weapons in Jewish hands and therefore, following the logic of Soviet propaganda they must be the Jewish-German nationalists.

"Correspondents of the 'Lisovyk' Report", is a compilation of various humorous stories from the life in the underground.

A satirical poem by Nosyk, "How private Braggart Fights".

"In the Kingdom of the Lilliputians", describes how kids in the village play at partisans and in the end provoke investigation of these games the Soviet troops.

"From an Idiotic Barrel", ;laughs at the claims of Polish newspaper that the UPA is led by German officers and has contacts to the Nazi organization "Werewolf".

"From the Soldier's Humor", gives various anecdotes from life in the underground.


Fed' Tverdyi, "Dear Bandurystii (Bandera men)".

A letter written in a Western Ukrainian dialect.

"On the Field of Glory", reports the death of "Tatiana" (Stefa Turkevych, from the village of Sirakistsi near the town of Medyka) and the caricaturist of "Lisovyk", "Astra" who was of Tatar nationality.

"To the Glorious memory of the Editorial Worker of "Lisovyk" and of Other Underground Publications, the UPA Fighter "Astra", May His Memory Live Forever".

It is a biographical sketch of "Astra" who was of Tatar origin, his father a Colonel of the Red Army, and who died in his twentieth year as an editorial worker of "Lisovyk".

Page 555. Peremoha, year I, No. 3-4, 1946

"Along the Path of the November Uprising", is an editorial that extols the uprising of 1 November 1918 in Lviv which took power in the name of the Ukrainian National Council from the Austro-Hungarian authorities, and led to the establishment of the Western Ukrainian Peoples Republic.

Ia-v, "Twenty Seventh Anniversary of the Conquest of Kiev by Ukrainian Armies on 31 August 1919".

This short story describes the festivities on the occasion of the conquest of Kiev and the enduing battle with some 600 polish troops who attached the UPA camp. The UPA lost three soldiers while the Polish unit suffered 30 killed, among them 8 officer.

Arkas, "Colonel Dmytro Vitovs'kyi".

This is a biography of Colonel Vitos'kyi who as a young Captain was in charge of the military coup in Lviv on 1 November 1918. Later on he served as the Chief of Staff of the Ukrainian Galician Army (UHA) and as the Secretary of War of the Western Ukrainian Peoples Republic. He died in Dilesia on 8 July 1919 in an airplane crash.

A poem by Korch, "My Weapon You are My Sole companion".

Vadym, "On the Site of Burnt Houses", describes an encounter with a family of a mother and her children who continue to live on the site of their former house which was destroyed by the Poles.

Three poems by KTM: "They Are Immortal"; "To Soldiers from Kholodnyi Iar", and "The Curzon line - Ukraine".

"New Heroes Are Growing", is a report by "Liubshenko" a 15 year old commander of the UPA company composed of teenager.

Zorian, Evhen, "The Pogrom", is a description of the battle of UPA units with the 28th Battalion of the 9th Division of the Polish Army in the village of Iavinyk Ruskyi in Peremyshl county on 24 July 1946. polish troops suffered 50 killed and 13 taken prisoners. The UPA units had 10 killed among them commander "Chaika".

Shpyl'ka, "Under the Growing", is a description of the UPA hospital bunker and its daily routine.

At that time there were 18 men in the bunker, 17 sick soldiers and one Physician Dr. Sh. (perhaps Dr. "Shuvar"). All the soldiers were ill with typhoid and were delirious.

Because the forest in which the bunker was located was being searched by a large number of Polish troops, all ventilation outlets were closed and the bunker lacked sufficient oxygen. Finally after sick soldiers began to gasp for air Dr. Sh. decides to open ventilators even though the bunker is in danger of being discovered. Luckily by them the search by the Polish troops was over.

Evhen, Klym, "The Circle of Death", describes the battle of the UPA company commanded by "Burlaka:" with the Polish Army. Encircled in the village of Borsukivtsi the unit fights its way out of encirclement but suffers 7 killed and 6 wounded. The Polish side had 10 killed and many wounded.

A poem by T. Vil'shynka, "359: A 23d Anniversary of the Battle Near Bazar".

"A Latter from jail".

This is the letter of Vasyl' Shchur, a member of the UPA, to his mother form jail in the town of Sianik (Sanok) where he is awaiting execution.

He was wounded in battle and captured by Polish troops in the village of Ukuch. At first he was sentenced to 10 years but the sentence was appealed by the procuracy and he was condemned to death.

He asked that his mother come and visit hem in jail prior to his execution.

Klym, Zorian, "We Know No Impossibilities", is a description of the attach on the town of Dyniv (Dynow) of 15 November 1946.

The reason for the attach was to secure medical supplies from the local pharmacy. The attack was carried out by the Peremyshl Battalion of the UPA under the command. of "Baida" (Major Petro Mykolenko).

The operation was successful. The UPA unit suffered one killed and two wounded. Polish casualties were several killed.

"1932-1946: The 14th Anniversary of Death of Dmytro Danylyshyn and Vasyl' Bilas".

A short story about the capture, trial and death of two young member of the OUN. The execution was carried out in the Lviv prison Brygidki on the 23d December 1932.

"How To Recognize Them", is a satire on the atrocious behavior of Polish troops in the villages where they beat people, and steel everything that can be carried away. This behavior is not limited to Ukrainian villages. Quite often Polish troops pretend to be an UPA units and plunder Polish villages as well.

The rest of this number contains three political anecdotes describing everyday life at that time.

Resume of charges against Olena Lebedovych

Born on 31 March, 1917 in the worker's family of William and Catharine Klisz in Sianik, Halyna Levvedocych, a widow with two children (6 and 9) and a teacher by profession was recruited in the beginning of September 1944 into the OUN (Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists) by Ivan Hrab ("Harmash") who was at that time the raion leader of that organization. At that time she was the director of the underground hospital for the wounded UPA soldiers. Her pseudonym at that time was "Zvenyslava".

In December she was charged with the responsibility of collecting aid for the UPA among the local population. She did this work together with another woman Kataryna Chernyk until January 1945.

At the beginning of February 1945 she was reassigned to direct an underground hospital near Zhovkva, and to organize sanitation courses on the territory of Ukrainian SSR. On her way there with a group of 20 UPA soldiers she was involved in various skirmishes against Soviet forces.

In the middle of April 1945 together with some 30 UPA soldiers she returned back to Polish territories and stayed in the village of Horaiets, county of Tomaszow Lubelski (Tomashiv).

In June, 1945, she met the Chief of the SB for the Zakerzons'kyi Krai, Petro Fedoriv ("Dalnych"). And she told him that her father lives in the USA and that she would like to emigrate there and that she intends to visit US Embassy in Warsaw.

In October 1945 upon instructions of "Shram" an SB functionary she travels to Warsaw in order to collect political information and to discover what are the possibilities for the Ukrainians to travel on the (Polish) railroads. At that time she visited the US Embassy and registered herself for the emigration to the USA. Upon return she reported on her trip to "Dalnych" who in tern discussed her case with Yaroslav Starukh ("Stiah") who was the OUN leader for Zakerzonskyi Krai. They decided that from them on she will function as the courier between "Dalnych" and the American Embassy.

In December 1945 on the order of "Zenko" she travels to Warsaw with a task of establishing contact with one of the responsible workers in the Embassy. However, this did not happen and she returned back to Horaiet's with empty hands.

In January 1946 because of the repatriation of the Ukrainians in that territory she went to live in village of Wrzesowica in the same county. There she was contacted by "Dalnych" who gave her the underground publications pertaining to the resettlement of the Ukrainians and asked her to take these materials to the Embassy. On the way there she stopped for a visit with Fr. Mishchyshn (a uniate priest in Lubachiv) who gave her introductory letter to a lieutenant of Polish Army and his acquaintance, who in turn introduced her to the American Embassy but again failed to established any contact.

In February 1946 she met "Salnych" who gave her a bundle of organizational, propaganda and intelligence materials and asked her to deliver these to the American Embassy. She went there and stayed with Fr. Mishchyshyn who meanwhile left for Warsaw and was living in the monastery of SS Sadramentki. he introduced her to Fr. Marko (an escapee from the USSR) who in turn took her to the private apartment of Lieutenant Commander Roman Mrozinski, Deputy naval Attaché of the USA. Mrozinski accepted these materials and asked her to deliver some more of similar documents in the future. He also instructed her to bring such materials to his apartment directly. She them returned to Horaiet's and reported on her mission to "Dalnych".

In the beginning of April 1946 she was again contacted by "Danlych" and ordered to contact Cmdr. Mrozinski and with a request to come to the terrain of the UPA activities and to establish personal contact between the OUN leadership and the American embassy.

In order to avoid the resettlement action Lebedovysh together with Elisabeth Rutkowsky his herself in a forest near the village of Huta Rozaniecka for about three weeks and after wards departed to Winnica near Warsaw where they lived with the acquaintances of Rutkowsky.

At the beginning of May 1946 she traveled to Warsaw and in the private Quarters of Cmdr. Mrozinski suggested the meeting of the OUN leadership with the American Delegation in the UPA terrain. Mrozinski said that he could not decide on this matter alone and asked her to return a few days later. During the second visit she was informed that such a meeting was possible and that Mrozinski would come with an American journalist. Having discussed the details of the meeting she returned to Horaiet's and reported to "Dalnych".

The meeting with "Stiah" and "Dalnych" and the American delegation did not take place because the Americans failed to arrive. Lebedovych traveled back to visit Cmdr. Mrozinski again who said that other duties prevented him arriving at the meeting, but that after the resettlement action is over such a meeting could take place. She reported on that meeting in a written communication to "Dalnych".

In the middle of June Lebedovych applied for a teaching position in the Warsaw School region pretending that she was a Pole and was assigned to the State "Dom Dziecka" in Swidrz near Warsaw where she taught until January 1947. During that time she was in contact with Cmrd. Mrozinski who before his reassignment to the USA introduced her to Sergeant Walter Sliwko and Lt. Colonel Jessie Franck the Deputy Military Attaché. she was to transmit all materials to Sliwko in his apartment on the Zurawia Street.

In October 1946 she was contacted by the woman courier Eva Bzdel from "Dalnych" and gave her materials which she transmitted to Sliwko. She reported on her activity to "Dalnych" through the same courier.

At the beginning of January 1947 there arrived Ivanna Knoblich ("Pidhirianka") from the contact point in Krakow which was located in the house of Fr. Hrab. "Pidhirianka" gave her addresses of the OUN contact points in Krakow and Lodz and asked her to get her in touch with some of her workers in diplomatic representations. She promised to do so but never did establish such contacts.

In the second half of January 1947 Lebedovych was warned that she was in danger of being arrested by UBP and she together with Rutkowsky escaped to Warsaw where she stayed for two weeks and later moved to Krakow and eventually to Lodz where at the OUN contact point she met "Pidhirianka", Maria Tkach, Luba Dacio and Eugenia Skab ("Fes'ka").

After several days Levedovych and Skab returned to Krakow where her obtained false identity papers for herself, her children and for Rutkowsky. Having left children in care of Rutcowsky she together with "Fes'ka" traveled to county Tomaszow Lubelski where with the help of "Shchyhel" she contacted "Dalnych". "Dalnych" informed her that henceforth she will be the regular contact between the OUN and the American Embassy and will be directly subordinate to him. After that conversation she was located in the village of Lubych (Lubich).

In the middle of March 1947 she again traveled to Warsaw and transmitted the underground materials to Walter Sliwko. Upon her return to Lubych she submitted a written report to "Dalnych" and signed it by a pseudonym "Zahrava".

Shortly thereafter she transmitted other underground materials to Lt. Col. Jessie Franck at the meeting on the highway between Zamosc and Zawadow.

In the middle of April 1947 she again transmitted other underground materials to Lt. Col. Jessie Franck and W. Sliwko and returned to Richytsia (Rzecyca) where she again reported to "Dalnych".

In the period between May and July she on several occasions transmitted materials to col. Franck and Sliwko. At the same time she tried to bring about a meeting between OUN and the Americans. however, because of "Akcja Wisla" which was going on to that time, Col. Franck was not in hurry for such a meeting to take place. She asked col. Franck to supply the "Leica" camera which he agreed to do. Also she met Russel Mytenko who agreed to take with him a number of materials to USA where he promised to utilize them in the American press.

In the middle of July 1947 she was sent by "Salnych" to Olsztyn voievodship in order to establish contact there with the Ukrainian population which was forcibly resettled there during "Akcja Wisla". there she contacted the wife of 'Dalnych" Irena Moroz and Olga Brodiuk.

In the middle of September 1947 Lebedovych returned to Richytsia where in the bunker between Richytsia and Zhernyky (Zernili) she reported to "Dalnych" on her activities.

In the second half of September she again was sent to Olsztyn voivodship collect addresses of the Ukrainian intelligentsia located there.

In 14 September 1947 she returned to the bunker where she remained until 16 September.

In that day the bunker was discovered by the operational unit of the 3d division of Infantries and the UBP. Inside in addition to Lebedovych were "Dalnych", "Karmeluk", "Shchyhel", "Smolii", and "Kret". After several hours of shooting the bunker was overpowered and "Salnych", Lebedovych, and "Kret" (Ivan Kmet'/Jan Kmiec) were captured alive while others perished.

She was sentenced to 15 years in jail and the loss of her civil and citizenship rights for 15 years. Her stay in jail from her arrest on 16 September 1947 to 14 April, 1950 (sentencing day) was to be deducted from her sentence.

She was amnestied by the decision of the council of State of 25 February 1955 and was released from jail on 7 March, 1955.

Skab ("Fes'ka").

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