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||The UPA's group 'Hoverlia'. Book one: Reports and official publications
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|THE UPA's CARPATHIAN GROUP "HOVERLIA"
In volumes 18 and 19 of Litopys UPA, we are publishing archival materials and memoirs relating to the UPA's Carpathian Group "Hoverlia", that is, the fighting force of the IV Military District of UPA-West (which included the Stanyslaviv region, Drohobych region, Bukovyna and Transcarpathia). Volume 18 includes reports of operations and two issues of the newspaper "Shliakh peremoby", and Volume 19 consists of memoirs and excerpts from underground publications. These materials present only some of the broad scope of the "Hoverlia" Group's activities, but, along with already published and not-yet-published information, they make it possible to paint at least a partial picture of the history of that UPA military district.
The origins of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainska Povstancha Armia - UPA) in Halychyna (Galicia) go back to July, 1943, when the first units of the Ukrainian People's Self defense (Ukrayinska Narodna Samooborona - UNS) began training in the Carpathian Mountains and the Subcarpathian region.
At that time the UPA, commanded by Dmytro Kliachkivskyi - "Klym Savar" - was already active in Volyn and Polissia, which formed part of the "Reichskommissariat Ukraine." In those north-western Ukrainian territories, combat units of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists-Independentists (OUN-SD) existed as early as 1942, and they entered into open combat with the Germans in February, 1943. Halychyna, which formed part of the "General Government", was looked upon as a support area, which could supply the UPA with personnel, weapons and food.
However, two events occurred which caused the situation to change. On April 28, 1943, the Germans announced the creation of the "SS Division Galizien". May and June were spent in feverish recruitment of Galician youth to the division. The OUN-SD denounced the formation, and forbade its members to join it. However, with the support of the Ukrainian Central Committee (Ukrayinskyi Tsentralnyi Komitet - UTsK) and the veterans of the Ukrainian Galician Army (Ukrayinska Halytska Armiya - UHA) (which saw in the division a repetition of the history of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen (Ukrayinski Sichovi Striltsi - USS)), tens of thousands of Ukrainian young men joined the division. The first transport of recruits left for training from Lviv on July 18.
The second decisive event was the raid by Major-General Sydor Kovpak's Red partisans. In June, 1943, Kovpak's brigade raided through Volyn and Polissia, and on July 7, crossed through to Halychyna, heading for the Carpathian Mountains, which offered a particularly suitable terrain for partisan activity. So it was in these complex conditions, with the threat that most village men fit for combat would leave to join the SS Division "Galicia", and the Carpathian Mountains would be occupied by Red partisans, that the OUN-SD leadership decided to create combat units in Halychyna. Although no specific document relating to this decision has been preserved, the decision may well have been made in June, but implemented only in July, when Kovpak was already in the Carpathians. These first UPA units were sent for training to the Carpathians, but under the name UNS, in order to deceive the Germans, at least temporarily.
The organization of the UNS units was carried out by military advisors from various levels within the OUN-SD network. For that reason, in the early stages, the units were largely dependent on the attitude towards the idea of active combat of the local OUN-SD leadership. This partly explains why in some counties (povity) of Halychyna, no UNS units at all were formed, while in Stanyslaviv province (oblast), a particularly large number of OUN members entered the UNS. The basic training camps of the UNS units were established in the mountainous areas of Stanyslaviv province because of the strong support of the local OUN leadership, and because the region offered a suitable terrain for partisan activity.
During the summer of 1943, three UNS training camps were established in the Carpathian Mountains. These were the camps of the "Ie. Konovalets First Battalion 'Chorni Chorty: " commanded by Lieutenant "Lypey", in Kolomyia county; the "First Batallion 'Haydamaky', " commanded by Lieutenant "Khmer", in Dolyna county; and the "Kryvonis Battalion", commanded by "Omelian", in Turka county. The battalions conducted basic and non-commissioned officers' training, had battles with the Germans, and later contributed cadre personnel to form other UPA detachments in Halychyna. The most important actions of the UNS units against the Germans took place in the Carpathian Mountains in 1943: involving the "Haydamaky" battalion on September 26-29, the "Chorni Chorty" battalion on November 27, and the "Kryvonis" battalion on November 30.
The Supreme Commander of the UNS and regional (krai) military chief of staff of the OUN-SD in Halychyna in 1943 was Lieutenant Olexander Lutskyi - "Andriyenko", and the provincial commanders, or military advisors, in the Carpathian region during the period of UNS activity were Ivan Beleylovych - "Dzvinchak", in Stanyslaviv province, and Bohdan Vilshynskyi - "Orel" in Drohobych province.
In addition to the training camps, special task combat units were also organized. One such unit, commanded by Sergeant Vasyl Andrusiak - "Rizan", had begun as a squadron in Sniatyn county in July 1943. It then moved to the Chornyi Lis area, gradually taking control of the area and building up an operational base. By the end of November, 1943, the unit had grown to a company, and "Rizun" was named commander of the area.
In November, 1943, the UPA and UNS were placed under the authority of a central military leadership, headed by Lieutenant Colonel Roman Shakhevych "Taras Chuprynka", who took over the post of Supreme Commander of the UPA and reorganized the military structure. Volyn and Polissia UPA units were grouped into the UPA-North; the combat units of Central Ukraine were brought together to form UPA-South; and the Halychyna UNS was renamed UPA-West. The region of UPA-West was divided into military districts (VO), which corresponded to the OUN-SD's organizational divisions. The Carpathian Mountain region included the IV Military District (Stanyslaviv province and Bukovyna) and V Military District (Drohobych province).
At the beginning of 1944, when Vasyl Sydor-"Vyshytyl", "Shelest", became regional commander of UPA-West, changes took place in the command of the military regions: Lieutenant Ivan Beleylovych-"Dzvinchuk" was named commander of the V Military District, and Lieutenant Ivan Butkovskyi-"Hutsul", commander of the IV Military District. During 1944, the UPA saw rapid growth. At that time, the front moved through Western Ukraine and the UPA had many skirmishes with retreating German units; combat actions were also beginning with internal NKVD troops. On the territory of the IV and V Military Districts in the Carpathian Mountains, two sessions of the officers' school "Oleni" were held (April-October), the largest encounter with the Germans took place (Lopata Mountain - July 9) and the Supreme Ukrainian LiberaUon Council (UHVR) was established (11-15 July). On August 5, the first oath-taking, the text of which had been approved by the UHVR congress, was held ceremoniously near the village of Svydnyk in the Drohobych province. Taking the oath were the companies "Bulava' "Levy" and "Zmiyi".
By the fall of 1944, which saw the start of long-term warfare between the UPA and NKVD troops and special units, the Carpathian UPA companies had grown into battalions and were engaging in battles and raids. At the end of 1944 in Stanyslaviv province there were ten UPA battalions; in Bukovyna, there was one; and in the Carpathian area of the Drohobych region, also one. During the winter of 1944-45, Stanyslaviv province, or the IV Military District, was the part of UPA-West that showed the greatest resistance to the Soviets. The whole Hutsul region and some other rural districts were almost totally controlled by the UPA. In these territories, Soviet authority was able to manifest itself only with the aid of large numbers of NKVD toops. Major encounters with the Soviets, in which severel UPA battalions were involved, took place on December 30, 1944, and February 3, 1945, for the famous Hutsul village of Kosmach.
At the beginning of 1945, UPA-West was again reorganized, with four military districts taking the place of the previous six. Added to the IV Military District was the whole Carpathian territory south-west of the Dnister River which was within the Ukrainian SSR, so that the IV Military District included, in addition to Stanyslaviv province (minus Rohatyn county) and Bukovyna, also most of Drohobych province (the territory of the former V Military District, including parts of Khyriv and Dobromyl counties) and Transcarpathia. Within the OUN structure, this territory was given the name "Carpathian krai", - and the terms "Hoverlia" Group and "Group 4" began to be used to designate the UPA combat units that were active on the territory of the enlarged IV Military District Captain Mykola Tverdokhlib-"Hrim ", commander since the summer of 1944 of the previous IV Military District, was named commander of the "Hoverlia" Group.
When the military districts were reorganized, each one was divided into "Taktychni Vidtynky", or Tactical Sectors (TS), which were given code names, and later also code numbers. In the IV Military District- "Hoverlia" Group, the following tactical sectors were formed: 20 - Bukovyna or Chernivtsi province; 21 - "Hutsulshchyna": counties of Horodenka, Sniatyn, Kolomyia and Kosiv; 22 - "Chornyi Lis": counties of Nadvirna, Stanyslaviv and Tovmach; 23 - "Magura ": counties of Dolyna, Kalush, Zhydachiv; 24 - "Makivka": counties of Stryi, Drohobych, Sambir, Turka; 25 - Transcarpathia.
In 1945, UPA battalions carried out a series of raids. The "Pidkarpatskyi" battalion from TS 22 from May to November, raided through the Drohobych region took part in the raid into Slovakia and the attack on Bircha, engaged in combat in the Lemko region and resumed through Transcarpathia. During the spring, the Lviv battalion "Kholodnoyartsi" raided through the Drohobych area to Transcarpathia, and during the summer, UPA companies from the Drohobych TS raided into Transcarpathia.
At the end of 1945, UPA companies began being identified in reports with two-digit numbers, and platoons, with three-digit numbers. On the territory of the "Hoverlia" Group, UPA companies (sotni), which now began to be termed "detachments", were given numbers from 58 to 93 inclusive. These were companies operating in Tactical Sectors 21-24, for in Bukovyna there were no active UPA detachments at this time, and in Transcarpathia, there had probably never been any local UPA companies. Thus, in the autumn of 1945, there were at least thirty-six UPA companies active in the "Hoverlia" Group. Given that in 1945 UPA companies were usually composed of about 120 men, we can estimate that at the end of 1945, the "Hoverlia" Group (including headquarters of battalions and tactical sectors) included about 4,500 soldiers and officers.
The "great blockade", of January to April, 1946, during which large formations of NKVD troops seized control of the western provinces of the Ukrainian SSR, resulted in major UPA losses; the strength of the Carpathian "Hoverlia" Group decreased to about 60% of what it had been. In these conditions, some companies had to be disbanded, while others were merged. A report from Kalush TS 23 for the summer of 1946 mentions only five of the former eight companies; only three out of five former companies still remained in Drohobych TS. In Kolomyia TS 21, things were even worse; the report for September 1946 - April 1947 speaks of only four active companies, whereas in the autumn of 1945, at least eleven companies had been active in the area. Perhaps most critical for the combat readiness of the "Hoverlia" Group were the losses of key commanders, particularly the commanders of tactical sectors. On January 29,1946, Lieutenant (posthumously Major) "Kozak", commander of TS 21, was killed, and February 24, 1946, saw the death of the legendary commander of "Chornyi Lis", Major (posthumously Colonel) Vasyl Andrusiak-"Rizun", "Hrehit", - commander of Stanyslaviv TS 22. Andrusiak's replacement, the commander of the "Pidkarpatskyi" battalion, Lieutenant (posthumously Major) Pavlo Vatsyk-"Prut", did not serve for long as commander of TS 22, for on March 1 he was also killed in the Chornyi Forest. Lt. Oleh Vitovskyi-"Zmiyuk- Andriyenko", commander of TS 24, was gassed in his hiding place and taken alive by the NKVD. This meant that only in Kalush TS 23 did an experienced commander remain alive - Captain Yaroslav Kosarchyn -"Bayrak", who continued as TS commander, probably until 1949.
Thus, the order of July, 1946, by the UPA Supreme Commander about changing from active combat to other forms of resistance came after study of the events of the previous six months and reflected the necessity to adapt to existing conditions. A gradual demobilization of UPA units and transfer of soldiers and officers to the armed underground was begun. Thus, in the lists of fallen soldiers for 1948, we find the former long-time commander of the "Smertonostsi" battalion, Captain Danylo Rudak-"Chornyi", who at the time of his death was carrying out the duties of nad-rayon organizational officer. And in the 1949 list of the fallen, we see the former long-time commander of the "Siri" company from the "Dzvony" battalion, Lieutenant Mykhailo Korzhak-"Saper", who during 1947-1949 was carrying out the duties of rayon underground leader for Yezupil (Zhovten).
In 1948, individual UPA detachments were still active only within the Carpathian "Hoverlia" Group, but by this time they were only skeletons of the former companies. The companies were now generally composed of two platoons, with two squadrons in each, and most of the soldiers were experienced noncommissioned officers. During the summer and autumn, these companies, too, were demobilized, and in 1949, there remained only two hnown active detachments, which were of the size of platoons, but had the status of companies. One was Company 91-"Baseyn", commanded by Lieutenant Vasyl Gudzyk-"Orikh", and active in the Drohobych TS, and the other (probably company 59), was active in the Kolomyia TS. In June, 1949, the Kolomyia company, led by the TS commander Captain Petro Meloyk-"Khmara 1", carried out the last known UPA raid beyond the borders of Ukraine, into Romania.
In accordance with the September 3, 1949, order of the UPA Supreme Commander, the last combat units and headquarters were inactivated. We know that part of the demobilized company "Baseyn" went as a courier group, led by the commander of the Drohobych TS, Stepan Stebelskyi- "Khrin", on a raid to the West in September, 1949. The rest of the soldiers and officers transferred to the armed underground. And although the commander of the "Hoverlia" Group signed the "Appeal of Fighting Ukraine to all Ukrainians Abroad", this was probably his last act in that post, for he subsequently became leader of the Security Service for the Carpathian (krai) territory.
Thus, from the end of 1949, combat actions were carried out only within the framework of the armed underground, for no regular UPA units remained in existence. UPA soldiers who entered the armed underground regarded this as a temporary state of affairs and dreamed of the return of the UPA. One of those soldiers remarked in his memoirs (1950): "The demobilization caused me great unhappiness. It appeared that the world was collapsing[...] I am constantly tormented by a longing for the army, for the comradely existence in our squadron, platoon and company. If only the moment would come when we gather again into our famous companies... "
The materials published in Volume 18 of Litopys UPA are divided into three sections: the first section contains the newspaper "Shliakh peremohy"; the second gives reports from tactical sectors 21-23 and the third, reports of the commander of Tactical Sector 24.
In the first part, we are reproducing two issues - No. 3, dated June 1, 1945, and No. 6-7, dated August 1, 1945 - of the newspaper "Shliakh peremohy" which was published by the UPA "Hoverlia" Group from about May 1, 1945. The editor of the newspaper was "Marko Boieslav". Issue No. 3 of "Shliakh peremohy" consists of twenty pages of close typescript reproduced by mimeograph. It includes eight articles, most of which are written in a sharp, polemical style, three patriotic poems, cartoons, appeals to readers of the underground press and a partial summary of the operations of some UPA detachments from November, 1944, to April, 1945. The double issue (No. 6-7) of the newspaper consists of twenty-eight typescript pages. It includes three brief reports of UPA operations and enemy actions, appeals to readers of the underground press and nine articles. The leading and longest article is a reprint of the manifesto "From the OUN to the Ukrainian People", dated June, 1945. In addition to the two issues of "Shliakh peremohy" is one article from No 5, 1945, which appeared as a separate leaflet. It is known that other issues were published to include No 17 in 1947, but they are not available in the West.
The reports from TS include one from 1945, three from 1946 and one from 1947. These reports give information about the following three TS: Stanyslaviv, Kalush and Kolomyia. Only those from the Kalush TS are done in the proper form, providing sections on operations, intelligence, logistics, personnel, training and political education. The other reports generally give brief accounts of combat actions and other activities. In the reports from 1946 and 1947, all companies are identified by code numbers.
The last section of this volume provides a series of company reports written by Captain Stepan Stebelskyi-"Khrin", commander of TS 24. The reports describe the activities of five companies from the Drohobych TS during 1947 and 1948, and, to some extent, during other periods. We have here descriptions of the last combat operations of "Khmelnytsky" Company 90, "Baseyn" Company 91, "Bulava" Company 92, "Lemky" Company 95a and "Surma" Company 96. Also published in this section are recommendations for decoration of seventy six soldiers from these companies and three women. Almost every recommendation includes a detailed description of heroic action in combat.
All the materials published in this volume were obtained from the ZP UHVR Archives. We are reprinting them with no changes, except for corrections of printing and spelling errors.
We wish to thank all the institutions and individuals who contributed to the preparation of these volumes. In particular, we thank Antin Ivakhniuk for Ukrainian language editing, Zonia Keywan for doing translations into English, Stepan Shpak for compiling the index, Chrystyna Sodol for preparing photographs and word processing, Hryhoriy Kolodiy for assistance in preparing organizational charts, Volodymyr Makar for assistance in proofreading, Iryna Bilevych for word processing, Yevhen Shtendera for advice, proofreading and preparing some of the resumes, and all the members of the Editorial Committee for their patience.
Page 105. "Shliakh Peremohy", Vol. 1, No. 3, June 1, 1945
As indicated by the subtitle ("Published by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. "Hoverlia"), the newspaper "Shliakh peremohy" (Path of Victory) was published by the command of the UPA's IV Military District "Hoverlia" Group. The articles in the newspaper are on social and political themes and are written in a popular style; the style of articles criticizing the USSR is sharp and polemical. This issue is 29x15 cm. in size and consists of Twenty-one pages of close typescript. The contents include eight articles, three patriotic poems, a brief listing of a few UPA actions, a cartoon and an appeal to the readers of the underground press. Of the poems, two are by Marko Boieslav; "Shum's Company's Song" includes about company commander "Shum" and battalion commander "Blahyi". Following is a summary of the newspaper's major contents.
M. B.: With Faith Onto the Path of Victory
The newspaper's introductory article is a response to Germany's surrender. It is addressed to insurgents and Red Army soldiers. The fall of Germany and the creation of the United Nations, we are told, have not brought liberation to the captive nations of the world. The nations within the USSR, in particular, are faced with the threat of destruction. for that reason, Ukrainian insurgents must continue to fight for freedom, is spite of the great losses they are suffering. And Red Army soldiers, having defeated one perpetrator of genocide, Hitler, should now turn their weapons against the other, Stalin. The article is written in an emotional style and sharp, polemical tone.
Vol.: Shamelessness, Mendacity, Banditism
The author of this article criticizes Soviet agrarian policy in Ukraine, pointing to the economic exploitation of Ukraine and the medacity of Soviet propaganda. For example, he mentions Khrushchev's boast that in 1944, the USSR "gave" the Ukrainian SSR 30,000 cows, 50, 000 pigs, 5,000 horses and some tractors and other machinery. He explains that this was no gift, because during its retreat from Ukraine, the Red Army took away countless herds of cattle and took or destroyed almost all agricultural machinery. In any case, the help of Khrushchev brags of was very miserable, for the Ukrainian SSR has close to 28,000 collection farms. In addition, 40% of the help was directed to state farms, which work less than 4% of the land. The author states that collective farms are being rebuilt at the cost of peasants, from whom the last cows or other farm animals have been taken away.
L. Yaroslavych: Ukraine, the Ukrainian SSR:, and The San Francisco Conference
This article comments on the founding conference of the United Nations Organization, which opened on April 25, 1945, in San Francisco Among the founding members of the UN was the Ukrainian SSR; its delegation arrived at the conference on May 6. the author tells us a little about the preparations and course of discussions, but focuses more on polemics, arguing that the Ukrainian SSR is not an independent state and that its delegation, led by Manuyilskyi, blindly executes Moscow's orders. The author explains that nationally, politically, economically and culturally, the Ukrainian people have colonial status. He also pokes fun at Molotov, who criticized Great Britain and the USA because of the colonial status of India and the Philippines, while pretending that Ukraine is a sovereign state, Soviet propaganda about the "sovereignty" of Ukraine, says the author, is aimed at deceiving both world opinion and its own citizens.
M. B.: For Brotherly Love
The author examines Ukrainians' feelings of national unity and states that their sense of regional differences is too strong. This sense is the result of Ukraine's division under different occupations. The author advises his countrymen to consciously foster feelings of unity. We must rid ourselves of prejudices, he says, and help Ukrainians from other regions who find themselves among us.
The Ukrainian People in Struggle with the Occupying Power
Here we have brief descriptions of the battle operations of UPA units. The following operations are described:
A raid carried out by B.'s unit (probably "Bystryi's" battalion) in four districts (raiony) - Smotrych, Dunayiv, Yarmolyntsi and Sataniv - in Kamianets-Podilskyi province (oblast), on November 3-8, 1944, a raid carried out by the UPA unit "Siri Vovky" through Bukovyna on November 27-29, 1944; and a raid carried out by the UPA unit "Trykutnyk Smerty", commanded by O., through Transcarpathia on November 10-13, 1944. There are also brief descriptions of surprise attacks by UPA units on MVD garrisons in the following places: village of Pshenychyky in the Tysmenytsia district, village of Maydanyk, Lysets, district, village of Vyktoriv, Halych district, village of Posich, Lysetsk, district, and village of Lesivka, Bohorodchany district. Also described is the escape of P.'s battalion (probably "Prut's") form MVD encirclement on April 10, 1945.
Veresay: In Favor of Intense Patriotism
The author praises intense patriotism, which is the readiness of a person to give his life in defense of his nation. There were many true patriots in the history of Ukraine, he says. Patriotism is particularly important in times of misfortune, when the people are obliged to defend their country or their right. It is essential at this time as Ukrainians fight for their country in the ranks of the UPA. the author regards as insufficient patriotism which exists only in words, or limits itself to material help for the liberation movement. And he attacks people who speak about patriotism, while at the same time glorifying Stalin.
Transcarpathia in the Soviet Reality
This article gives a concise history of the union of Transcarpathia with the Ukrainian SSR. When the territory was first occupied by the Red Army, the representative of the government of the Czechoslovak Republic, Dr. Nemets, began to establish an administration and introduce a new order. At the same time, the Red Army established headquarters and set about organizing a communist party with the help of local returnees the Soviets had brought back to the area. After the occupation of Uzhorod, the communist party prepared a "petition" to Stalin form the local activists, requesting that their territory be joined to the Ukrainian SSR. With that came intensified propaganda about "renunciation". In mid-November, 1944, the founding convention of the communist party took place in Mukachiv. During that convention, a resolution was passed concerning "renunciation". Just a week later, a convention took place of 600 delegates from local people's committees; they passed a resolution about joining Ukrainian SSR. This convention, which was organized at great haste by the communists party and the Red Army - or rather, MVD - garrisons, elected a Supreme Council which took control of the territory. Dr. Nemets found himself powerless, and awaited further instruction form Prague. The first victims of the Soviets were Hungarians and Germans. Them the Soviets began to go after Ukrainian activists. Thus, leadership of the national Council was handed over to Muscophiles, while Ukrainian activists were arrested and deported. In Khust, Dr. Brashchayko, Voron and Dr. Bachynskyi were arrested.
Soviet Terror in Ukraine
This part of the journal consists of brief descriptions of various dreadful acts of terror committed by NKVD soldiers. Here are just a few examples: During a raid in the village of Tsinev, the NKVD burned down the farmstead of a certain Dernitskyi; the man himself was pierced with bayonets and thrown, alive, into the fore. In the village of Oliyiv, the NKVD killed two schoolboys. In the village of Vivsie, they beat a pregnant woman so badly that she had a still birth. In the village of Poberezhia, they threw a grenade into the Dinister River, where a ten-year-old boy was bathing; his arms and legs were torn off and he later died.
Vsevolod Ramzenko: International Review
The author of this article looks at events taking place in the world and comments upon them. Among the subjects he discusses are the surrender of Germany, the United Nations conference in San Francisco, and the arrest by the NKVD of Okuliski and other representatives of the Polish government. The author focuses on events in which the interests of the USSR and the Western Allies have come into conflict. For example, he states that Stalin was displeased with the fact that German soldiers and political activists were surrendering to the Allies, not to the Red Army, that General Anders' 300,000-man Polish army had been transported by the British to Germany, and that the Allies were dragging their feet on holding "field trials" of alleged war criminals. The author stresses in particular disagreements around the Polish question.
Page 108. "Shliakh Peremohy", Vol. 1, No 5, 1945
The Idea of an Independent Ukrainian State
In the polemic part of this article, the author declared that the Ukrainian SSR in not an independent state, because it has only four commissariats (ministries), and event they do not make any decisions themselves. Nobody has ever elected either the communist party leadership not the government. The government is anti-people, because it starved six million peasants to death in 1932-33, deported hundreds of thousands of innocent people to Siberian concentration camps, and shot or tortured to death in prisons of nations, worse even than tsarist Russia.
For that reason, Ukrainians have no choice but to fight for an independent, united Ukrainian state. Only such a sate can guarantee the security, well-being and culture of the Ukrainian people. The author demonstrates that it is the natural right of every nation to have a sate of its own. He presents a historical analysis, in which he states that Ukraine's finest sons always strove for an independent state. In the independent Ukrainian state, the Ukrainian people will be masters, but equal rights will be guaranteed to all national minorities. There will be a just social order (without landowners, capitalists or party bureaucrats) and no spending on an apparatus of coercion (Police, prisons, concentration camps).
Further, the author describes the Ukrainian solution to international relations. All nations, large and small, should have independent states on their own ethnic territories, This approach would rid the world of conflicts among nations, eliminate the need for armaments and become the basis for future international cooperation.
This article is a somewhat condensed version of an article published in No. 5, 1945. The issue itself is not available.
Page 109. "Shliakh Peremohy", Vol. 1, No. 6-7, August, 1945
This double issue of the newspaper "Shiakh Peremohy" measures 29x15 cm. and consists of twenty-six pages of close typescript. It contains a manifesto, "From the OUN to the Ukrainian People", a short story by "Berest", "I'll Not be a Traitor", a humorous sketch, an appeal to readers and nine short descriptions of battle actions of UPa units of the underground. It was printed in the "Death to Stalin" printing house in Stanyslaviv. Following is a resume of the issue's major contents.
From the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists to the Ukrainian People
This OUN manifesto was issued in June, 1945, on he occasion of the end of the war in Europe. it consists of three parts. The first part explains what Nazi German political plans and policies for Ukraine had been; the second part analyzes authors of the manifesto fond the two empires, in spite of some differences, to both be barbaric and aimed not only at enslaving, but annihilating the Ukrainian people. For that reason, there is no alternative but to fight for freedom, whatever the losses. In the third part of the manifesto, the authors speak of the goals and methods of the liberation struggle, and state that presently Ukraine is in a better position than before, because many countries of Central Europe now find themselves under Russian rule and they will fight for freedom; thus, Ukrainians will have more allies. The manifesto ends with appeals to Ukrainians in Ukraine and abroad, to peasants, workers, intellectuals, youth, and revolutionaries and insurgents to fight bravely for freedom, or to support active struggle.
V. Yaroslavych: Yet Another "Reunification"
The author writes about the union of Transcarpathia with the Ukrainian SSR, analyzing the event from a Ukrainian patriotic perspective. Although the Allies made an agreement not to alter 1939 boundaries, Stalin is enlarging his empire through a policy of presenting Faits acconplis. When the Soviet army occupied Trancarpathia, Red Army commanders and the NKVD organized a communist party, an administration and "People's committees", which took control and waged propaganda favoring union with the Ukrainian SSR. On June 29, the government of the Czechoslovak Republic signed an agreement with the USSR under pressure, renouncing all claims to Transcarpathia. What Stalin wanted above all was for all having a base for liberation activity. But the author believes that the annexation of Transcarpathia will gave a positive effect on Ukraine, because it will help bring about the political integration of all Ukrainians, unite them more closely and strengthen their battle for freedom.
L. Omskyi: Churchmen or Agents?
This article is about the destruction y the Soviet of the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church. The author writes that , in spite of constitutional guarantees of freedom of religion, during the 1930's, the Soviets destroyed church organizations, including the Ukrainian Autocephaluos Orthodox Church. During the war, the government allowed the surviving Russian orthodox Church to be renewed, and used it for purposes of propaganda and for russifying non-Russian nations. Ukrainians, including Ukrainian Catholics, were "converted" to the Russian Orthodox Church. When the Ukrainian Catholic hierarchy refused to become Orthodox, the communist press launched a slander campaign against the church and its hierarchs. The NKVD began to arrest Catholic bishops and influential priests, among whom they managed to find three apostates, one from each eparch - Rev. Dr. Kostelnyk, Rev. Dr. Melnyk and Rev. Pelvetskyi. These traitors "voluntarily" established an "Initiative Group of the Greek-Catholic Church for Reunification with the Orthodox Church". Khodchenko's first order to the bishops was to prepare a list of all the priests who were refusing to switch to Orthodox, in other words, to turn them in to the NKVD. The author also states that the cathedrals and Episcopal residences in Lviv and Stanyslaviv were plundered by the NKVD before being handed over to the new bishops.
Vsevolod Ramzenko, The Demobilization Joke
In this article, the author attacks the Soviet law of June 29, 1945, concerning demobilization, and the propaganda campaign that accompanied the law. Although thirteen categories of soldiers were demobilized, the author says, the law did not specify which ones, and it appears that the main fighting force - men aged from twenty to forty - were to remain in uniform. The old, invalids and the sick were sent home. Demobilized men were given clothing and footwear, free transport with food, a place to live, and jobs within a month or help in setting up in a village. This assistance is nothing to brag about, particularly as it often exists on paper only.
K. Markiv: Ukrainians Abroad are Helping the Great Cause of Liberating the Ukrainian people
The author of this article argues with P. Tychyna, O. Vyshnia and other Soviet authors writing in "Literaturna Ukrayina" and "Suchasne i maybytnie", who had attached Ukrainians in Canada, calling them fascists and agents of Hitler. The author says that Canada is home to almost 500,000 Ukrainians, who publish many books and newspapers and are united within the Ukrainian Canadian Committee (UCC), which carries out cultural and charitable work. 40,000 Ukrainians fought in the Canadian army. What angers the Soviets is the fact that the UCC propagates the dissolution of the USSR and that the Ukrainian MP Hlynka stated in the Canadian parliament that the UCC should be granted a place at international forums in order to defend the rights of the Ukrainian people.
M. Shakhay: "Fascism" and "Reaction" in Bulgaria
This is a commentary on articles that were published in "Radianska Ukrayina" concerning the "discovery" of anti-Soviet organization in Plivdiv, Bulgaria. The author states ironically that in May the newspaper wrote that "fascists" had been uncovered and "immobilized", and in June wrote that the fascists had "not yet put down their arms" and were continuing their sabotage. The author states that the people in question are not "fascists", but freedom fighters, and expresses his joy that Bulgarians, too, are resisting the Soviets.
B. Volynuvych: The Closing and the Results of the Conference in San Francisco
In this article, the author briefly describes the founding conference of the United nations Organization and bitterly criticizes its statute, which grants a dominant role and the right of veto to the imperial great powers. Although there was a long debate, the fifty small member-states agreed to grant a leading role to the imperial powers. The author sates that by means of concessions, the great powers reached a peace, but that the peace appears artificial, because it is not based on any sincere friendship.
Berest: "I Will Not be a Traitor"
This is a short story about an old Hutsul shepherd, Yura, who was murdered by the NKVD for refusing to reveal where he had hidden a wounded insurgent. The insurgent, "Sokil" was wounded in the leg was being treated in Yura's home. On morning, when the NKVD was raiding the village, Yura led the wounded man into the forest, hid him underground, concealed the spot and returned home. However, the old man was spotted entering the forest by an NKVD reconnoitering party. The NKVD seized the old man and tortured him, in order to learn the insurgent's whereabouts. However, Yura died saying nothing. The story is well written, with a good knowledge of the Hutsul dialect and lifestyle.
This brief article was written in response to one of Stalin's announced amnesties for insurgent. The author reminds his readers that in a tyrannical regime like the USSR, amnesty has no meaning. The author calls party members and the NKVD the world's greatest criminals and recounts the many crimes they have committed against defenseless people.
Sign of Strength or of Weakness?
In this brief article, the author reveals that the NKVD and the NKGB were disguising themselves as insurgents in order to get information about the UPA, then making arrests. The article describes several such underhanded actions, which led to arrests or killings of insurgents.
The Ukrainian People Continue Their Fight Against the Occupying Power
This section of the issue consists of brief descriptions of the battles that took place between the UPA and NKVD troops on the territory of the UPA's "Heverlia" Military District in May, 1945, and in a few cases, in April and June. For example, on May 13, B.'s UPA unit killed twenty-nine Soviets in an ambush near Stribychi, Staryi Sambir district. Among those killed were the secretary of the rayon party committee, two public prosecutors, four NKGB men, six NKVD soldiers and other officials. They Will Never Die
This brief article consists of six descriptions of the deaths of insurgents during battle with Soviets. In most cases, they were ambushed in their secret quarters. Some shot themselves in order to avoid being taken alive by the NKVD; some others died under torture.
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