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Name: The UPA in light of German documents. Book three: June 1941 - May 1943
Volume: 21
Editor in Chief: IE. Shtendera
Co-editor in Chief: P.J. Potichnyj
Editor(s): P.J. Potichnyj
Sponsors: Teodor and Nusia Besh
Publication Year: 1991
ISBN (Canada): 0-920092-32-2
Pages Count: 271

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Description

THIRD VOLUME "THE UPA IN LIGHT OF GERMAN DOCUMENTS"

Most of the documents in this volume come from the National Archives of the U.S.A. in Washington. They were collected and retyped by Dr. Omelian Antonovych, who also purchased microfilms of the documents and donated them to the Litopys UPA Archives.

The documents are all coded T175 and are found on microfilm reels 233-236, which means that they are part of the Sicherheitspolizei and Sicherheitsdienst archive. After the code number of each document appears the number of the frame on which it is found. Thus, for example, T175/233, 721399-721401 means that the document is located on frames 721399-721401 of reel 233. On the left side of the first page is also indicated the location of the original document, for example, Folder 173-a-10/29. These documents cover the period from July 2, 1941, to May 14, 1943.

The first group of documents is the Ereignismeldung UdSSR, covering the period from July 2,1941, to April 24, 1942, which begin at 10 and end at 195. These are mainly reports of special task groups (Einsatzgruppen und Kommandos), whose task was the destruction of the anti-German resistance and Jews on occupied territories. The reports written between May 29, 1942, and May 14, 1943 (Nos. 5 - 54) have a different title: Meldungen aus den besetzten Ostgebieten. To these documents we have added the Einsatzkommando C/5 instruction of November 25,1941, about the extermination of OUN(B) activists, which was taken from the book Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, 14 November 1945 - 1 October 1946. Nuremberg, 1949, Vol. 21XIX, doe. no. 7, pp. 269-270.

The second group of documents, all of which come from the Auswartiges Amt archive and cover the second half of June and beginning of July, 1941, were contributed by Dr. Dmytro Zlepko. These include a report of the Sicherheitsdienst which describes the efforts of Ukrainian politicians to create an All-Ukrainian Council, provides characterizations of individuals and groups and speaks about the aims and intentions of the Germans. Among the other documents are a memorandum from Volodymyr Stakhiv, director of the OUN(B) Political Division, to Joachim von Ribbentrop, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Reich, German assessments of various Ukrainian groupings, and a letter from Colonel Tymish Omelchenko, head of the Ukrainian National Association in Germany, to the Wermacht headquarters.

Also pubished in this volume are the minutes of the interrogation of the members of the Ukrainian National Committee and Stepan Bandera, which took place on July 3,1941, in Krakow, and the Information Bulletin No. 1, published by the Krakow Ukrainian Nationai Committee. Both of these documents were obtained from Prof. Myroslav Labunka, who found them in the Hoover Institution Archives (Roll 52, Folio 1198, Fragments 253, Stanford University, Caiifornia).

We are printing all these documents for the first time. This volume of Litopys UPA is the third that publishes German documents, although much of the material it presents dates before 1942, that is, before the creation of the UPA; some later documents are included only to complete the materials that were published in volumes 6 and 7 of Litopys UPA (volumes 6 and 7 of Litopys UPA publish German documents from 1942-45).

A few of the documents in this volume are published in full, but most are excerpts of materials which deal exclusively with the OUN and the Ukrainian underground. For purposes of information, we also include some documents giving a general view of the situation on Ukrainian territory under German occupation.

German policy towards Ukraine from the start of the war with the USSR is a subject that requires close study. The documents collected in this volume show the attitude of the Germans towards the Act of June 30 and the idea of Ukrainian statehood, Ukrainian political organizations, especially the two factions of the OUN, and Ukrainian organized life in general. Clearly apparent is the German tendency to resolve all internal Ukrainian questions, including the Jewish question, by means of police methods, with violence and terror.

The documents published here clearly show that for German police officials, enemy number one was the OUN(B), the members of which were subject to police surveillance, arrest and extermination, especially after the Act of June 30, 1941.In the early stages of the German occupation, the actions of any organization, including the OUN(M), were very often attributed by the German police to the OUN(B). Their attitude towards the OUN(M), at least at the beginning, was more positive, with the OUN(M) being considered a less "acute problem." Later, their attitude changed, as is shown by the destruction of the OUN(M) in Kiev.

German officials gave much of their attention to the conflict between the two OUN factions. Between August 16, 1941, and March 25, 1942) the conflict between the two organizations is mentioned periodically, although greatest attention is given to this matter in September and October, 1941, after the killings of Senyk and Stsibors'kyi. Some of the reports state that the OUN(B) intended to kill Col. Sushko, Ia. Haivas and Prof. V. Kubijovyc. They also state that the OUN(B) blamed the Germans for killings of Senyk and Stsibors'kyi, and accused the OUN(M) of collaborating with the "SiPo" (Sicherheitspolizei). Also mentioned in the reports is that both organizations were trying to use the Germans in their struggle and that in this regard "the upper hand is had by the OUN(M), which is regarded by the Germans as a not completely hostile current, and which therefore can use this tactic with greater success."

Very interesting documents are the texts of the anti-German leaflets and publications of the two OUN factions, which are provided in police reports. These publications show a clearly anti-German orientation. No less interesting are the reports about the beginning of the armed struggle in Volyn, and the OUN(B)'s calls for armed struggle in Mykolaiv. Also published here are reports about the activity of the units led by Taras Bul'ba-Borovets and "Savchuk's" proclamation, which were not published in volumes 6 and 7 of Litopys UPA.

The destruction of the OUN(B) network in Germany and Austria, which was carried out in December, 1942, is recorded in several documents in this collection. The documents provide the names and pseudonyms of the leading members of the underground OUN(B) network, their dates of birth, places ot residence and functions in the organization.

However, perhaps the most interesting materials published here are the documents from the end of June and beginning of July, 1941. They again confirm the hostile attitude of German police and political officials to the idea of the independence of Ukraine. The Chief of the Sicherheitspolizei and SD Mi.(ller?), in his quick letter of June 21, 1941, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in which he reports on the efforts to create an All-Ukrainian Council, clearly states: "I consider it impossible to tolerate the actions of Ukrainian political groups and their proponents in the present form, especially as obvious tendencies are becoming apparent which have nothing in common with German interests. There is an absolute need to take joint action to control future developments."

The reaction to Volodymyr Stakhiv's memorandum from the OUN(B) to Reichsminister Joachim von Ribbentrop, dated June 24, 1941 as well as to various memoranda from the OUN(M) was similar. Ministry official Grosskopf, in his rather superficial summary of Stakhiv's memorandum, says "that in the national-political program of the two OUN groups there cannot be great differences" and advises "not to reply" to the memorandum, but to pass it on for study to the appropriate section. Stepan Bandera, during the hearing conducted in Krakow on July 3, 1941, by Undersecretary Kundt, also confirmed that there was no reply to the memorandum.

Although the hearing in Krakow was characterized by Kundt as an attempt to clarify the facts relating to the Act of June 30 and the publication, in relation to it, of Information Bulletin No. 1, its aim was to warn Ukrainian politicians against taking any further steps along the road to battle for a sovereign Ukraine. Stepan Bandera's stance towards the Act of June 30 was unequivocal. He not only confirmed the fact, but took full responsibility for the action onto himself. In his words, "in this battle...we stand for an independent and free Ukraine. We are fighting for Ukrainian ideas and Ukrainian goals." At the end of the hearing, Bandera again emphasized "that none of the orders which I gave were made in agreement with any German agencies, but were based only on the mandate that I obtained from Ukrainians." Shortly after the hearing, Stepan Bandera was arrested, placed under house arrest in Berlin and later sent to a concentration camp, along with Iaroslav Stets'ko and other Ukrainian political prisoners, where he stayed almost to the end of 1944. The OUN(B) was declared an enemy organization, as indicated by the instruction of November 25, 1941, "because Bandera's movement prepared an uprising with the goal of creating an independent Ukraine. All the activists of Bandera's movement should be immediately arrested and after a complete hearing, exterminated in the greatest secrecy as pillagers."

Owing to lack of space, we are not publishing here enormous amounts of materials that are contained in these documents about mass executions of political prisoners in Western Ukraine by retreating NKVD units and the repressive measures of German Police units against the Jewish population, although this constitutes a very important part of our history, which should not be overlooked by Ukrainian researchers. There now remains no doubt that some individual Ukrainians helped the Germans to exterminate Jews. But the documents published here also show that among Ukrainians, Jews also had devoted friends and defenders. For example, the mayor of the city of Kremenchuk, Senytsia, not only personally helped Jews, but along with archpriest Romans'kyi, issued false certificates to Jewish people. Again, in Zhytomyr, as stated in one report, the OUN(B) made false documents not only for its activists, but also for Jews. The report also states that in OUN(B) propaganda leaflets "slogans and sentences with an anti-Semitic content have been crossed out." The report ends with discussion of the need to include Ukrainians directly into the anti-Jewish action.

But perhaps the most interesting statement is the assertion made from Kiev, that for "the population, anti-Semitism with a racist or ideological basis is foreign," that "among the Ukrainian population, there is a lack of leadership and enthusiasm for fighting against Jews, because of Soviet punishment of those who stepped out against Jews, and because in "the Jewish question they see only the religious difference, not a racial problem." Also mentioned in the documents published here is a letter supposedly from the OUN(B), "signed by the OWN," which states that "America, England and Russia will permit the creation of an independent Ukrainian state from the Sian River to the Black Sea," and cites the slogan: "Long life to an independent Ukraine free of Jews, Poles and Germans. Poles beyond the Sian, Germans to Berlin and Jews on meat hooks." The way in which this letter is formulated raises doubts about its origin in the mind of the unprejudiced researcher, although in many Western and Soviet publications, it has been cited as indisputable proof of Ukrainian anti-Semitism.

As can be seen from these brief descriptions, this volume of Litopys UPA makes a number of important and interesting materials accessible not only to researchers and historians, but also to interested readers.

We would like to thank Dr. Omelian Antonovych, who through his collection and purchase of microfilms made, perhaps, the greatest contribution to the publication of this volume. We also thank Dr. Dmytro Zlepko and Dr. Myroslav Labunka, who completed the collection with documents from their own archives. Volodymyr Makar, Vasyl' Bezkhlibnyk and Mykola Kulyk helped identify many people who were mentioned in the documents published here Antin Iwachniuk corrected text, Dr. Danylo Husar-Struk helped with illustrations, and Stepan Shpak and Gerald Bierling helped prepare the index. We thank them all.

Petro J. Potichnyj


Abstracts

Abstract 1.

"Quick letter" from Mi(ller), SiPo and SD chief in Berlin, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, NSDAP Foreign Political Bureau and the SiPo Third Division, dated June 21, 1941, about the efforts of Ukrainian organizations in the General Government to establish an All-Ukrainian Council. The document emphasizes that on this matter there are two camps, one led by Prof. V. Kubijovyc and the other, by S. Bandera.

Bandera's efforts to create an All-Ukrainian Council are founded on democratic principles, do not take into account German claims and regard the council as the first step towards the creation of a Ukrainian government. This letter gives the names of the leaders of various groupings (OUN(B), OUN(M), UNDO, Combatants, Hetman supporters and UNR supporters) as possible members of the council. The SD chief takes a negative view of these actions of Ukrainian emigrants and orders that the appropriate steps be taken to prevent the establishment of the council.

Abstract 2.

Letter of June 24, 1941, and Memorandum from Volodymyr Stakhiv, director of the OUN(B) political bureau, to Joachim von Ribbentrop, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Reich. This memorandum proposes that the Ukrainian question be solved by the creation of an independent Ukrainian state. Citing historical facts, the memorandum points out that the Ukrainian people have consistently sought to achieve independence, only to be obstructed by close or more distant neighbours, whose economic, political and strategic plans did not allow for such a possibility. The memorandum emphasizes that long-term military occupation of Eastern Europe is not desirable, that this part of the world must be restructured on an ethnographic basis, and that a new order is impossible without an economically, militarily and politically independent Ukrainian state.

Abstract 3.

Summary of Stakhiv's memorandum, dated July 1, 1941, which was prepared on instructions given on June 29, 1941, by Joachim von Ribbentrop and passed on to V.L.R. Grosskopf. The summary explains the difference between the OUN(M) and the OUN(B) and speaks of the attempt on Pieracki as Bandera's act. It states that there are no great differences in the national and political programs of the two OUN factions, and that Stakhiv's memorandum discusses errors made by the Germans in Ukraine in 1918 and warns them against making similar mistakes in future. Also mentioned is the fact that the memoranda written by Ukrainian emigrants, most of whom come from Western Ukraine, give little information about the situation in Eastern Ukraine. The author of the summary recommends that no reply be given to the memorandum and that it be deposited in the archive.

Abstract 4.

This report provides brief characterizations of various Ukrainian political groupings, like the UNO, the two OUN factions, Hromada (Hetman supporters), and the Social-Democratic Party, which was supported by UNR circles. Greatest attention is paid to the two OUN factions and some leading individuals.

Abstract 5.

Letter from UNO leader, Col. Tymish Omel'chenko, to the Wermacht headquarters, dated July 2, 1941, which proposes the organization of Ukrainian military units composed of Ukrainian workers in the Reich, of whom there were more than 150,000. The letter also proposes that Red Army prisoners of war who are of Ukrainian nationality be placed in separate camps, where they could be cared for by the UNO.

Abstract 6.

Minutes from the interrogation of Stepan Bandera and members of the Ukrainian National Committee, which was held in Krakow on July 3, 1941. Presiding over the hearing was State Undersecretary Kundt. The Germans present were Col. Bisanz, Dr. Fehl and judicial assistant von Bulow. The Ukrainians present were Dr. Horbovyi, Prof. Andriyevs'kyi, Dr. Shukhevych, Dr. Mudryi and Stepan Bandera. The pretext for the hearing was the publication of the Information Bulletin No. 1, on July 1, 1941, which discussed the Act of June 30 in Lviv. Stepan Bandera provided the historical background, then clearly stated that the proclamation was made at his order and without obtaining permission in advance from German authorities.

Abstract 7.

Information Bulletin No. 1, July 1, 1941, published in Krakow by the Ukrainian National Committee and signed by its presidium, which was made up of Dr. Volodymyr Horbovyi, Dr. Vasyl' Mudryi, Prof. Dmytro Andriievs'kyi, and Dr. Stepan Shukhevych. The Bulletin gives information about the Act of June 30 in Lviv and sends greetings to the newly-created government.

Abstract 8.

Report no. 10 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service in Berlin, dated July 2, 1941, discusses using Poles against Bolsheviks and Jews and indicates how to deal with them. The report also informs that on 25.6.41 the NKVD put down a Ukrainian uprising in Lviv and killed about 3,000 people. There is also information that the Banderites have organized a militia and city government and that further actions against them are being prepared by the German authorities.

Abstract 9.

Report no. 11 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated July 3, 1941, informs about Bandera's attempt through the proclamation of the Ukrainian state to place the Germans before an accomplished fact, and about the publication of anti-German leaflets. Bandera has succeeded in uniting various emigre groups, except the groups of Melnyk and Omelchenko. Leading Ukrainian emigrants in the General Government, including Bandera have been placed under house arrest. All Ukrainians in the General Government who do not actually live there must leave.

Abstract 10.

Report no. 12 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated July 4, 1942, lists the personnel of the government headed by Stets'ko. Because of the war situation and morale considerations, no strong steps were taken against the usurpers, and the attitude of the German army towards them was positive.

Abstract 11.

Report no. 13 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated July 5, 1941, informs that Ukrainian leaders have been placed under house arrest and that Bandera has been taken to Berlin, where he will be investigated. The first Ukrainian newspaper has appeared, containing greetings from the commander of the city of Lviv, Gen. Renz, Metropolitan Sheptyts'kyi and the mayor of the city, Polians'kyi. The Metropolitan is preparing an epistle with thanks from the Ukrainian people to the Germans for liberation.

Abstract 12.

Report no. 14 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated July 5, 1941. In Luts'ke, 2,000 Ukrainians were executed. In Brody, 50-60 safes containing GPU materials were seized. In Ternopil', 5,000 Ukrainians were deported, 2,000 murdered. Arrests are being made of Jewish intelligentsia, who are accused of murder, and of NKVD helpers. About 1,000 were wounded. On July 5, about 70 Jews were rounded up by Ukrainians and killed. Another 20 were killed on the street by the army and Ukrainians in reaction to the murders of three soldiers, who were found in prison with cut-off tongues and gouged-out eyes. The army is pleased with the good strike against the Jews.

Abstract 13.

Report no. 15 by the Chief of the Security Police and the Security Service, dated July 7, 1941, again mentions that leading Ukrainians have been placed under house arrest. Also that Col. Melnyk and six superior officers asked the Fuhrer on July 6 to allow Ukrainians to fight with the Germans against the Soviets, and that Bisanz supports him.

Abstract 14.

Report no. 20 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated July 12, 1941, states that a group of Banderites (30) left for Kiev in order to establish a Ukrainian government there, as they had in Lviv. In Lublin, the mayor publicly thanked the Fuhrer and the German army for liberation; he also made allusions to the future independence of Ukraine, which made the Ukrainians present happy.

Abstract 15.

Report no. 23 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated July 15, 1941, states that the Hungarian army confiscates all food and refuses to recognize private property and that the population is threatened with famine. People say that the Hungarians are worse than the Bolsheviks and that they show sympathy to Poles and Jews. Officials and NKVD agents imprisoned by the Ukrainian militia were freed by the Stanyslaviv commander. In Dolyna, the commander collaborates with the NKVD confidant. The Hungarians imprison Ukrainian functionaries and cooperative organizers for collaboration with the Germans on the other side of the Dnister River, but tolerate radical Banderite agitation. Ukrainian functionaries call on people to register for the Ukrainian army. Clerics condemn Bishop Khomyshyn as a Polonophile and supporter of celibacy. In Lviv, Ukrainian parties expressed their loyalty and readiness to work together, with the exception of the Banderites, who demanded from Captain Koch statements on the subject of a future Ukraine and the liberation of Bandera. Lviv Ukrainians sent a telegram to Hitler about the cooperation of a free Ukrainian nation in the building of a new Europe.

Abstract 16.

Report no. 25 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated July 17, 1941, says that the general mood of Ukrainians is good, but that radical Banderite propaganda is noticeably increasing. The settled population condemns it, but the desire for independence is apparent, especially in cities. The Poles believe in German victory, but are worried that this region may become part of a Ukrainian state. The Polish intelligentsia pretends to be favourable and hides its hostility. The influence of the resistance is still not clear; the Banderite propaganda is acting according to plan, independence has been proclaimed in other cities (Ternopil, Luts'ke) after liberation by the German army, and self-government has been organized. Leaflets and illegal newspapers have appeared. Print facilities in Lviv have been taken away from Ukrainians.

Abstract 17.

Report no. 25 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated July 18, 1941, informs that an UNKA leaflet signed by Fedorovych calls on his members to cooperate with the Melnyk faction. In the Zviahel'-Zhytomyr region, everyone, down to the simplest collective farm workers, refers to himself as Ukrainian. The language of the older people is somewhat Russified, of the young is very good. Party and Komsomol members were Russians and Jews, while Ukrainians, Poles and Germans were religious and in opposition.

Abstract 18.

Report no. 30 of the Chief of the Security Police and the Security Service, dated July 22, 1941, says that Ukrainians in the General Government are very dissatisfied at being unable to leave. They are preparing for action in Ukraine. Ohienko is preparing 200 people for mission work and wants to put an administrator in place in Kiev, who will demand an independent Ukrainian church. The attitude towards Germany is positive. The mood in Western Ukraine is generally good, although Banderite propaganda for independence continues. The only concern is about the march of Hungarian troops into Ukrainian territory. There are rumours that their soldiers are encouraging robbery, in order to have a reason for terror. Polish officers in the Hungarian army oppose the Ukrainian militia. There is also whispered propaganda advocating resistance.

Abstract 19.

Report no. 32 by the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated July 24, 1941, states that the annexation of Halychyna to the General Government caused disappointment and despair among leading Ukrainians. The mayor of Lviv wanted to commit suicide. The Council of Eminent Citizens sent a memorandum to the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Rosenberg's government. The general population considers the naming of Frank as governor of Halychyna a move towards the rebuilding of the Polish state. The Banderites are trying to decide whether to resume underground activity, or to act legally and demonstrate their discontent to the Germans, while also showing their readiness to cooperate further, as they expect a different solution. There is whispered propaganda mobilizing people against the above solution.

Abstract 20.

Report no. 34 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated July 26, 1941. The mood of the population is generally good. Some disappointment and rumours because of the lack of clarity about the future of Western Ukraine. Clarification from the Germans is awaited. The Bandera and Melnyk factions are working towards union.

Abstract 21.

Report no. 38 of the chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated July 30, 1941. Only some Ukrainians know that Dr. Frank has been named the General Governor. Among Ukrainians there is despair. The Ukrainian mayor of Lviv wanted to commit suicide. The Council of Eminent Citizens sent a memorandum to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and to Rosenberg.

The Banderites have not decided whether to begin underground activity. They have informed the Germans that they are not satisfied with their decision, but are ready to continue cooperation as they are awaiting a different decision. Suspicions exist that through whispered propaganda the population is being mobilized against the decision. Annexation to the General Government is being viewed as a return of Polish rule.

Abstract 22.

Report no. 39 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated July 31, 1941. Because of the annexation of Halychyna to the General Government, the attitude of the Ukrainian administration towards German rule is very cool. In Lviv, all "cultural institutions" except the Ukrainian theatre are closed. Ukrainians are trying to exclude the Poles from cultural life and Ukrainianize all institutions. Attempts to ensure the total monopoly of the Ukrainian Economic Union have been stopped. In the planned agricultural bureau (Kammer), one division will be headed by a Ukrainian.

Abstract 23.

Report no. 40 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated August 1, 1941, states that after the Romanian occupation of Bukovyna, it becomes clear that the Romanians would strive to weaken the Ukrainian fact, which they never mention in official declarations. There were threats, political suspicions that, for example, "all Ukrainians are Bolsheviks," and robberies, even killings carried out by the police. The tension is dangerous: the Ukrainians are waiting for Germans intervention, and without it will feel they are being sacrificed, and the Romanians fear having the Germans involved in their internal affairs. There is news about peasants shooting police and fleeing into the mountains, or taking women and children across the border, then preparing for escape. Young people are crossing in groups to Halychyna, in order to enter the Ukrainian legion. Crisis looms. The OUN is carrying on irredentist activity and is not interested in making peace with Romania. The Romanians know this and are afraid they will lose northern Bukovyna if they do not eradicate the Ukrainian problem. Bukovyna must be divided nationally, or the Ukrainians must be removed.

Abstract 24.

Report no. 44 of the chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated August 6, 1941, says that on August 1, the General Governor took office in Lviv. His proclamation and speech to Ukrainians were very clever, for no mention was made of them as a national group and loyal citizens were promised economic improvement. The intelligentsia is unhappy, especially the Banderites. In whispered propaganda, they speak of German treachery against Ukrainians. The Metropolitan did not accede to the Banderite demand that he send Frank a sharp protest against the annexation of Halychyna to the General Government. Whispered propaganda calls Frank's promise worthless. There are threats to shoot Poles, in particular, landowners, if they return. The Banderites hesitate: should they choose underground action or cooperation? Cooperation must be suspected as masking underground action. The Stets'ko government has not yet been forgotten; individual independentist actions are carried out by mayors, militia commanders. In the Zhytomyr region, the population is becoming less reserved; a daily newspaper, "Ukrayins'ke slovo," is being published; two church communities are active; there are Ukrainian sermons, the play "Natalka Poltavka." Among the population, national-political tendencies can be noted, although economic goals dominate. Soviet Ukraine--a quasi-state--will become a nation, with links to Berlin instead of Moscow.

Religious and cultural interests are apparent. The harvest is important.

Abstract 25.

Report no. 45 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated August 7, 1941. The education of youth in the USSR: the idea of uniting Ukraine and Russia under Stalin was not accepted, but among mature youth the idea of separation of Ukraine from Moscow was current.

Abstract 26.

Report no. 47 of the Chief of the Security Police and the Security Service, dated August 9, 1941. Prof. Lenkavs'kyi, Banderite director of propaganda, has been arrested for trying to take over the former military print shop in Lviv. The annexation of Halychyna to the General Government caused deep depression among Ukrainians. With time, it was overcome, and there were attempts to save at least the provincial committee (Ausschuss) for Halychyna. The idea of statehood exists in the east. The village population is also very dissatisfied; under the influence of the Banderite propaganda, it fears the return of Polish rule. There was a leaflet calling on people to work underground. Banderite leaders are hiding from the Germans.

In "eastern" Ukraine, in spite of Soviet attempts to heighten tensions among nations, the Ukrainians have maintained their national consciousness. It manifests itself not by condemnation of mixed marriages and maintaining purity of blood, but by the fact that anyone who speaks Ukrainian, does not have obvious Asian or Jewish features and calls himself a Ukrainian is considered Ukrainian -- unless his passport states a different nationality. Children of mixed marriages are usually considered to be of the father's nationality. There is no apparent striving for political independence, although the masses know that it existed in the past. The Ukrainian masses are politically totally uninformed and dulled as a result of Bolshevik terror. They know very little about the nationalist movement or its leaders. The masses do not yet believe in German victory, but are waiting fatalistically. Clever propaganda can be successful here, for the general population feels sympathy towards German soldiers. The name of Bandera is not known to the peasants. There is talk of a nameless, secret organizaion of counter-revolutionaries.

Abstract 27.

Report no. 50 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated August 12, 1941. In Volyn', the Banderites are very active: they put mayors into office, control the whole Ukrainian militia. The same is true in Brest-Litovs'k. After the taking of Kiev, it is generally expected that there will be an independent state. In Halychyna, aid committees are being founded. The Banderites are uncertain what position to take. The territorial leader, Klymiv, has been discharged at his own desire. He was probably against underground activity. Lebed has also been discharged, perhaps in order to divert German attention from him and Klymiv.

Abstract 28.

Report no. 52 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated August 14, 1941. Talks between Father Verhun, administrator of the Greek-Catholic Church in the Reich, and Metropolitan Sheptyts'kyi about the union of the two churches. Verhun wants to be subject to Sheptyts'kyi, but this would be an undesirable strengthening of the Uniate Church in the Reich. Church representatives are reserved, in particular, Sheptyts'kyi, who has on numerous occasions been misinformed about the region's political future (blessing of Stets'ko's government, in the belief that he was acting on German instructions). Too many concessions by the Rosenberg government - Professor Koch -- to Ukrainian wishes. But in general, Sheptyts'kyi is for cooperation with Germans.

The difference between the German propaganda picture of Eastern Ukraine and the reality is so great that the divergences should be studied in order to be corrected. The areas that should be studied are: 1. the results of Bolshevik education, propaganda and policy on the Ukrainian person; 2. the strength and direction of Ukrainian national feeling; 3. the organizational attainments of Bolshevism, especially in agriculture; 4. the meaning of religion for Ukrainians.

One view is that all of Ukraine is bolshevized; another is that Ukrainians are hostile to Bolshevism; that their aim is a national state -- that almost no Ukrainians exist because of the mixture of different nationalities. The language of this "Soviet nation" is Russian, and Ukrainian is reduced to a peasant dialect. The occupied Right Bank was under Polish influence; there were many Polish and Russian landowners there. This prevented the development of national consciousness and made the peasants favourable to Bolshevism. In agricultural terms, this is an overpopulated area. However, Moscow was not able to fully bolshevize it, and maintained its rule with great terror. Mixture of races did not destroy the basis of the nation, because, owing to overpopulation, foreigners did not immigrate; on the other hand, there was emigration to the east. The Ukrainian nation was strengthened as a result of the eradication of the Polish and Russian aristrocracy and resettlement of Germans; some of the Poles and Moidavians became assimilated. The dominant language is Ukrainian.

National-political desires: more education, Ukrainian sermons. Two tendencies: the Banderites are agitating for an independent state. There are also leaflets calling for division of collective farms. The intelligentsia: the Ukrainian state depends on Berlin; first, improvement of life and victory over Bolshevism; conviction that a free Ukraine will be established under German leadership. The area around Odessa, Kryvyi Rih is 80% Ukrainian, while the cities are mainly Russian and Jewish. In the occupied regions, the Romanians have great problems with Ukrainians; there is possibility of permanent unrest in the future.

Bolshevism, which destroyed the basis of human life, had some outstanding achievements in agriculture, thanks to good agronomists.

Attitude to religion: Ukrainians are religious; they want a revival of Orthodox parishes and Ukrainian sermons. Village young people are religious; those in cities partly so. There is great danger that Rome will become involved directly through the Catholic Church, or indirectly through the Uniate Church, it the traditional Eastern Church is not strengthened; church personnel are needed, preachers and priests. They have little interest in national questions. This is not true of Uniate priests.

Abstract 29.

Report no. 54 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated August 16, 1941. Ukrainians in Lviv are establishing aid committees, are divided along party lines. They want the centre to be moved from Krakow to Lviv. Among the Banderites there is some disorganization, weakening of discipline, some people are leaving -- reorganization? In Luts'ke, there is sharp conflict with Melnyk supporters, who are prevented from having any influence.

Abstract 30.

Report no. 56 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated August 18, 1941. Robberies and killings in the Ukrainian militia. There are anti-German expressions, disobedience, destruction of German identity papers by mayors and militia commanders. A "Ukrainian Security Service," "Ukrainian Gestapo" and other such things are appearing. In some places the militia is being disbanded. In Lviv, the OUN is selling battle fund coupons, publishing leaflets and posters saying that an independent Ukraine is being formed, because "Ukraine is for Ukrainians". Army orders are often ignored. In Luts'ke, Col. Diachenko tried to centralize the militia, but the Banderites prevented this.

Abstract 31.

Report no. 57 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated August 19, 1941. Halychyna continues to grow calmer. The peasants continue to thank God for liberation from the Bolsheviks, in spite of annexation to the General Government. Unrest is being fostered by Banderites and those coming from the General Government. In some circles, there is hope for special status for Halychyna. In Volyn', there is fear of catastrophe at the front and of Polish illegal organizations. The Banderites are mainly in control. Pronounced Polish-Ukrainian tension.

Abstract 32.

Report no. 58 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated August 20, 1941. In the region of Vinnytsia, Uman', Mohyliv, Banderite agitation is increasing. There are calls for division of land. Local commanders are helpless. Demands: division of land and harvests, teaching of religion and the German language, new school books, a national union of teachers. German propaganda is unsuccessful.

Abstract 33.

Report no. 60 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated August 22, 1941. In Halychyna, Ukrainians continue to set up aid committees. In agreement with Sheptyts'kyi, the intelligentsia has excluded the Banderites and Melnyk supporters from community life. The reaction of the former is unclear. Threats to fight the committees are unrealistic, owing to the authority of the Metropolitan. New attempts by the Banderites to make contacts with the Germans, in order to cover up underground activity and have access to Kiev. New underground action: leaflets saying that the disbanded militia should not give up its weapons. Graffiti: "Out with foreign rule! Long live Bandera!" Internally, opposition to him is growing.

Abstract 34.

Report no. 66 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated August 28, 1941. The Ukrainian militia is being disbanded, which makes most of the population happy. The activity of the Banderites is increasing.

Abstract 35.

Report no. 78 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated September 9, 1941. Pinsk: unrest because of independentist propaganda from Volyn'. Volyn': increased propaganda for independence, belief in it. The Poles are becoming worried. In Volyn' and Polissia, there is unrest because of uncertainty regarding administrative status. The Poles want annexation to the General Government, the Byelorussians, self-management, the Ukrainians (Banderites) - independence. Halychyna: increased Banderite propaganda who sometimes use church festivities, thus creating an impression of church cooperation. In Luts'ke a public oath of allegiance to Bandera in connection with commemoration of victims of Bolshevism. Similar occurance in Halychyna - 22nd anniversary of liberating Kiev. Banderites demand a Ukrainian legion and permission for Bandera to return to Ukraine. They are collecting signatures for his release.

Abstract 36.

Report no. 79 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated September 10, 1941. The killings of Stsibors'kyi, Senyk and a Melnyk supporter in Halychyna have angered the intelligentsia. They fear a worsening of German-Ukrainian relations; there are rumours that the Banderites are holding talks with the Polish resistance. In Brest-Litovs'k, after annexation to the Reichskommissariat, there is increased propaganda for independence. Strong influence of Banderites on the intelligentsia. Some activity by Hetman supporters. Attempts to create a national church. Banderites are trying to put in their people as translators. Gathering of signatures in support of Bandera, leaflets about the Stets'ko government and independence. Bandera told Prof. Koch (Rosenberg government) that he refuses to disband the Stets'ko government. Collections for the battle fund of the OUN. Rumours about more killings of Melnyk supporters for waging propaganda in favour of Melnyk. The older population is becoming more alienated, demands police action against the Banderites. Their leaders are in hiding.

Abstract 37.

Report no. 81 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated September 12, 1941. Political and national currents do not exist and have no ground. The only desire is to work and improve the economic situation, to rebuild the country under German leadership. Dangerous acts by Banderite OUN groups, a lot of trouble with them. Their members are goal-oriented, make no demands, are devoted to the cause -- real idealists. Numerous attempts to work with them in a friendly fashion have brought no results: they agree to everything then break all agreements. All western Ukrainians should be removed from the region, as their activities are totally harmful.

Abstract 38.

Report no. 86 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated September 17, 1941. Ukrainians are worried by Banderite killings and attempted killings. Wild rumours: they are after Col. Sushko, Lviv Melnyk activist Haivas. This is equivalent to a death sentence. They are persecuting Prof. Kubijovyc, because they consider him responsible for the annexation of Halychyna to the General Government. Rumours of 100 killed. Melnyk supporters and the intelligentsia say the leadership should be arrested and those responsible, executed. The population follows with interest the conflict between the OUN factions. Massive attendance at the Stsibors'kyi and Senyk requiems. Leaflets saying that Banderites committed the killings, and their leaflets, saying it was a provocation. This propaganda is very dangerous for them. All the people are against the killers. The Metropolitan is supposed to condemn them in the press, state that everyone who acts against Germany should be arrested and handed over to the German police. It is generally considered that orders for the attacks are given by the Banderite "security service". Its members are Lebed, Ravlyk and Weiss-Pryshliak. In general, the actions are directed by Iaryi (Jary). Also leaflets about the Stets'ko government, in favour of the "state act" of 30.6.1941. The Melnyk supporters are traitors, because they oppose the act. Purge inside the party? Growth of the "no compromise" group, which favours underground action, but they have no leader, they are leaving the organization. Leading Ukrainians in the General Government hesitate to accept Rosenberg's invitation, in order to avoid exposing themselves to the General Government.

Abstract 39.

Report no. 87 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated September 18, 1941. In Halychyna, Ukrainians are worried by the actions of the Banderites; there are rumours of 600 death sentences, and from Eastern Ukraine, about more killings of Melnyk supporters. They are awaiting police action. The peasants are worried by the situation on the eastern front. Increase of tensions among Melnyk's and Bandera's groups, extremely lively propaganda by leaflet. The first group is called traitors of the state act and is suspected of collaboration with the Bolsheviks. The population desires cooperation with Germans and for that reason, the Banderites are careful about what they say about Germany in their leaflets, but there is whispered propaganda. The Melnyk supporters have recently grown stronger, but the population opposes both groups. At the head of "Sich" in Halychyna is the Banderite Polishchuk. There are attempts to legalize it.

Abstract 40.

Report no. 96 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated September 27, 1941. As a result of the revelation of the reasons for arrests, Halychyna Ukrainians continue to grow calmer: they are happy that the actions of the Banderites have been stopped. The Banderites' whispered propaganda that the actions are directed against Ukrainians in general is not generally believed. They counter the negative opinion of the population with rumours that the Germans killed Stsibors'kyi and Senyk and that the Melnyk faction helped the SiPo (security police) action. They have internal problems; an intransigent group blames Bandera and Iaryi (Jary) in a leaflet of having caused the German action by their killings. At the same time, there is a call to underground activity. The Germans supposedly helped cause the division, in order to have less trouble with Ukrainians. Melnyk supporters have also published a leaflet, saying that the Banderites are responsible for the German action. The taking of Kiev revived the hope that the Fuhrer would decide the fate of Ukraine. There are numerous attempts, especially by the intelligentsia, to get to Kiev to rebuild it. However, generally, belief in independence has disappeared. There is no enthusiasm, only hope that the administration will in large part be left to Ukrainians.

Abstract 41.

Report no. 98 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated September 29, 1941. The Banderites have disseminated many leaflets in Kiev, saying, among other things, that the killing in Zhytomyr was justified. It is said that Ravlyk and Starukh are there. But because of the fire, it is difficult to find out.

Abstract 42.

Report no. 99 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated September 30, 1941. The older generation generally agrees with the action against the Banderites. The mood is unclear, because most people do not know the purpose of the action; they fear unconsidered actions by the Banderites. Confusion and depression. Among the Poles, the action awoke hope for a worsening of German-Ukrainian relations. The "Lvivs'ki visti." 24.9.1941: Halychyna was included in the General Government for administrative and economic reasons. The Germans will not run borders through the living national organism. ('We, Germans, understand best of all that blood belongs to blood and no border can divide it'). The fate of Ukraine will be decided when above her capital fly the German and Ukrainian flags. It has become clear that the Banderites established the government and administration at their own will, without consulting German authorities. They often know how to give the impression that they are acting legally.

Abstract 43.

Report no. 101 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated October 2, 1941. The Banderites are being watched, especially in Mykolaiv. The mayor -- a supporter of Melnyk -- says that their real source of inspiration is Iaryi (Jary), whose wife and mother are Jewish, while his father is Czech. He plays a major role in communist influence on them. Of 195 members of the self-defense, eight are Bandera's people. How well their information service works can be seen from the fact that news has been circulating among the members of the self-defense that the security police will be hunting for Banderites, as they did in Zhytomyr and Kirovohrad.

Abstract 44.

Report no. 106 of the Chief of the Security Police and the Security Service, dated October 7, 1941. The population of Kiev did not defend its city and happily greeted the German army. Even on the first day, mined buildings were reported. On 20.9.41, a mine exploded in the citadel, where the artillery headquarters were located. General Seydlit was killed. On 24.9.41, there was an explosion in the German field command headquarters, and owing to the lack of water, there was a big fire. More explosions and fires destroyed a large part of the city centre and large buildings in the city. In order to stop the fires, the army blew up neighbouring buildings. According to information from the population, there is a Red underground battalion of destruction in Kiev and NKVD and communist party members have remained in order to carry out sabotage. As they retreated, the Bolsheviks destroyed the waterworks and the electric station. The population very assiduously reports about explosive materials and hidden NKVD, party and Red Army members; 90% of the information is correct. Executions and other methods. Through arrests, the Banderites have been weakened; they only hand out leaflets and put up posters.

Abstract 45.

Report no. 107 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated October 8, 1941. The Banderites have been able to use the lack of directives regarding collective farms for political propaganda, saying that their opponents betrayed the peasants to Germany and that is why the Germans are not abolishing the collective farms. The question of private ownership has interested the peasant, who expects with the collapse of Bolshevism a fundamental renewal of the economy and culture. He knows that collective farms have deprived him of his own land. They remain. There are no satisfactory answers to his questions, that is why he accepts various opinions and whispered suggestions, as well as Bolshevik leaflets and whispered propaganda.

Abstract 46.

Report no. 112 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated October 13, 1941. The attitude of the population towards Bolshevism and the Jews is the same throughout Ukraine, Almost all are against Bolshevism, for there is no family without its victims. The number of Ukrainians who joined the CP out of conviction is suprisingly small. The communist idea captures only young people, who know nothing but communism, but even among them there are very few fanatics and fighters. Ukrainians are also against Jews, because it was mainly Jews who were CP activists and had privileges. The racist and ideological anti-Semitism is foreign to the population. There are no leaders and no right mood for the persecution of Jews, as everyone remembers the severe punishments for anti-Jewish actions.

With regard to church and school, people constantly express the desire for the Ukrainian language in church and a national church with the head in Kiev. Everywhere they are learning the German language instead of Russian, which must be abolished.

Political tendencies are barely noticeable. If there are any, they come from the propaganda of OUN activists, of whom there are too few for such large expanses. Most people think that Ukraine belongs to Germany, even that she is part of Germany. A free Ukraine was demanded only in Horodyshche by former Union for the Liberation of Ukraine (SVU) members, under the influence of the OUN. An article in the newspaper: Long life to a free, independent Ukraine and the leader Bandera! These desires were immediately stifled. If Bandera's influence is kept out and clever propaganda is waged, the people will happily accept any solution, in particular German authority, because they are politically completely inactive and unfit for state independence because of a total lack of leading class. Mayors and regional councillors, who were chosen by the population and confirmed by the army, lack independence and cannot decide anything alone.

Abstract 47.

Report no. 117 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated October 18, 1941. In Mykolaiv, 16 Banderites have been arrested, among them, three leaders. Makhilyns'kyi and Martynets', were detained, while the others were let off with a warning. They were trained in Lviv and Sianik, given propaganda material and money. On the way to the East, secret political work: appointment of mayors, organization of the militia, eradication of Jews and communists and the like. Both took leading posts in the militia. Participation in the killing in Zhytomyr not proven, but they declared that in accord with the 10 (OUN) commandments, they got rid of opponents.

Abstract 48.

Report no. 125 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated October 26, 1941. The position and mood of the population in Kiev. In contrast to the Bolshevik emphasis on the Ukrainian character of Kiev (signs on the streets and at institutions), the population is extremely Russified. Everywhere the Russian language is heard; only provincials speak Ukrainian. This is because important offices and institutions were centered in Kiev, and in them the Russian language dominated; to use any other was dangerous. During crises and wartime, people were arrested for using the Ukrainian language! Another reason why the Ukrainian language is only a peasant language is that in the universities, the theatre, cinema and so on, the Russian language was essential. Apart from Shevchenko, Ukrainians have not had an eminent writer, that is why Russian is the language of educated people. Now the population expects first of all an improvement of the economy: food and objects of daily use and a dignified human life.

Abstract 49.

Report no. 126 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated October 29, 1941. In a letter to the Gestapo in Lviv, signed by the OUN, the Banderites again spoke out for the independence of Ukraine. Hitler deceived Ukraine, and America, England and Russia will agree to her independence. "Long live an independent Ukraine without Jews, Poles and Germans. The Poles beyond the Sian, Germans to Berlin, Jews on meat hooks!" Doubt is expressed about Germany victory, for without Ukraine Germany cannot win. They also demand the liberation of imprisoned Ukrainians.

Abstract 50.

Report no. 132 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated November 12, 1941. In Dnipropetrovs'ke, with permission from the field commander, a regional administration has been established, headed by Prof. Oliinychenko, who was influenced by the OUN member Regeii. The commander stated in writing that Ukraine would become a large state. The administration has begun to do political work: a national club has been founded and something like a political party. According to its statute, it has scope for widescale activity in a national and state spirit. Oliinychenko is an anti-communist, but also a nationalist, for whom Germans are a necessary evil.

Abstract 51.

Report no. 133 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated November 14, 1941. The situation and mood in Volyn'. Among Ukrainian political movements, the most active is the Banderite. The militia in Rivne county is under their influence: self-will prevails and where German orders clash with the interests of the OUN, even conscious sabotage. The Melnyk OUN group aims less clearly at independence. They lack initiative and for that reason are less dangerous. Levyts'kyi's OUN has supporters only among Petliurite officers and priests. The population is indifferent. Skoropads'kyi has the support of older people and the local intelligentsia; with time, this orientation will disappear. The real danger is only from the Banderite OUN. Melnyk could become dangerous, if in fighting Bandera one were to take him too lightly. Other parties should even be supported, in order to politically divide Ukrainians.

The mood of the population: once full of hope after liberation from bloody terror, now noticeable depression. Bolshevik propaganda has no results, but Ukrainian political parties undermine confidence in the German administration, in particular the Banderites, but also Melnyk. For Ukrainians, German rule has not yet become above politics, that which cares for their welfare. This is also because of the Jews, who are still economically strong, and because of events and actions which have been mentioned (national matters). The church question is still not resolved; so far, it is not too important, but will become important after resolution.

Abstract 52.

Order of the C/5 task group of the Security Police and Security Service, dated November 25, 1941. The order, addressed to SiPo and SD stations in Kiev, Dnipropetrovs'ke, Mykolaiv, Rivne, Zhytomyr and Vinnytsia on the subject of the OUN (Bandera's movement) states: It has been established without a doubt that the Banderites organized an uprising in the Reichskommissariat, with the aim of establishing an independent Ukraine. All activists of the Banderite movement must be immediately arrested and after close interrogation, killed in the greatest secrecy as pillagers. Minutes of the interrogations to be sent to the C/5 task group. This letter to be read by the commander and immediately destroyed.

Abstract 53.

Report no. 142 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated December 5, 1941. The mood of Ukrainians in Kiev is much worse. Initial enthusiasm has given way to indifference, especially because of the extremely bad state of the economy. There is a lack of understanding of the technical difficulties. Germany's plan to give Ukraine a different political structure than what the people want is already known; also the attitude of the Germans to Ukrainians causes depression. They thought that the Germans were liberating them as friends, not as enemies. The Germans treat them as inferiors and they are not sure whether this is temporary or permanent. The rumour that marriages with Germans are not allowed is not understandable and insults them. They are also dissatisfied with the limitation of their political action. In everything, the police and army insult them and stand in their way. Young men are unhappy because of difficulties in founding political organizations, such as "Sich". In Kiev, there is almost no educated class. Before, party officials and the NKVD filled that function. The Jew ruled and the Ukrainian felt like his subject. That is why even now they see in the Jewish question only a religious and not a racial problem.

In Simferopil', the Banderite Ivan Osadchuk was arrested. The result of the interrogation: the Banderite movement has begun to be active in the Crimea, wages propaganda and is trying to establish a strong organization. For this purpose, Lebed sent six six-man groups from Lviv. Those named belong to the six-man group acting in the area of Simferopil'. Further arrests are being prepared.

Abstract 54.

Report no. 143 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated December 8, 1941. Activity of the Banderite movement in the area of Zhytomyr. Four OUN members from the Lviv region were arrested. Their interrogation yielded more information about what encumbers the movement. Their assignment: to establish a Ukrainian militia, to replace mayors and militia commanders with their own people, to get rid of functionaries who are not desirable to the movement and wage propaganda for Bandera among the population.

The arrested OUN members got rid of the mayor of Josefstadt, a volksdeutsch, because he did not follow OUN directives. This group disregards any orders that are not in line with OUN plans. Symon Marchuk declared that OUN members must search for rifles and ammunition in forests and hide them from the army. At the appropriate time, prepared partisan groups will strike at the German occupying power. The German army is the greatest enemy of Ukraine. OUN leaders do not believe in German victory. After the victory over Russia, Germany will be so weakened that she will be unable to fight. Then the Ukrainian army will strike at the Germans and establish an independent state and a weakened Russia will not be able to prevent it.

The Banderite movement in Zaporizhzhia. There it was possible, before the arrival of Western Ukrainians, to appoint local Germans -- "volksdeutsch", Ukrainians and Russians to the most important administrative posts. Fifteen Western Ukrainians were confirmed, among them nine OUN members. They tried to take over leading positions or proposed their own candidates in the place of Germans and Russians. Thus the editor-in-chief of the planned newspaper was to be the teacher Olexander Vashchuk from the west. The printing facilities were taken over at his own will by the Kievite Dyvnych-Leitwichs. They also had their candidates for mayor and deputy. Because of transportation difficulties, it has not been possible to send them home.

Abstract 55.

Report no. 155 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated January 14, 1942. The OUN in Kherson and vicinity. Bandera supporters have gatherred around the first commander of the self-defense, Konrad. This group was probably linked to a group in the city administration, those grouped around the deputy mayor Hritze. Both groups were arrested. The investigation found that there were only a few Banderites who skilfully made use of their positions in the Ukrainian self-defense to wage propaganda for the OUN among the population. Konrad very cleverly used his helpers. Meetings (2,000 people) took place, supposedly for the organization of self-defense units, with propaganda, leaflets and calls for active cooperation. They did not have any greater successes, because the population knows nothing about these matters and does not want organizations. In the Banderites they see "people from eastern Halychyna", almost foreigners; there are also linguistic differences.

The Ukrainian self-defense in Kherson and the OUN. Because of Banderite actions among the self-defense, it was necessary to check the members of longer standing. It turned out that Konrad's group at first only alluded about the OUN. Almost none of the leading members believed in the reality and legality of the plans of Bandera and the OUN and they were ready to actively oppose them.

OUN actions on occupied Ukrainian lands. Interesting facts were discovered about OUN methods in Greater Ukraine. The uncovered Banderites, who were all from Eastern Halychyna, were sent to the occupied territories with strict orders. Many members of the former Ukrainian legion in Lviv were assigned to the army as translators. Most leading Banderites come from Lviv. Under the guise of translators, they were supposed to take their propaganda during the march on the East to all the occupied Ukrainian territories. With only OUN documents, they crossed bridges and borders and used army transportation. In lasy, later in Mykolaiv, a Ukrainian army was supposedly created out of Banderite nationalists, and many Banderites arrived as volunteers for the army and spread their propaganda. Mayors and self-defense commanders were appointed or removed from office, in order to allow the OUN to control important positions and posts. From what was said by one of the suspects, the secretary of the Kamianets'-Podils'kyi Archbishop Antonii, the future bishop of Kherson and Odessa, it appears that there are links between the Ukrainian National Church and the OUN. The new church is supported by "Ukrainian patriots" and shows agreement with the OUN program.

Abstract 56.

Report no. 156 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated January 16, 1942. OUN actions. Particular attention is paid to illegal acts of the Banderites. New information has been obtained about the revolutionary plans of the OUN and the correctness of earlier conclusions has been confirmed. Two important OUN members are staying in Kiev. One, whose pseudonym is Zaporozhets' or Kosar, is to be a minister in the Banderite state. The OUN also has ties with the militia that is led by the Melnyk faction: they often free party members arrested by the militia. Some intermediaries have been caught. The Banderites use various pseudonyms, because they are very careful; sometimes they use young people who do not know what they are being used for. Only if one knows their secret pseudonyms, one can enter their circles.

The leader of the militia school in Klevan' is either Ostap, or the instructor Slavko. Ostap knows liaison people in Kiev, pseudonyms, the locations of hidden weapons and the locations in Rivne or Klevan' of hidden printed materials. The school instructor Vasyl' Shcherbak, who has captured in Kiev, named 13 Banderites who have weapons.

The time for the outbreak of revolution is not set. The signal is to be given by Bandera. The OUN is counting on his liberation. Their weapons come from uncovered arsenals, or are picked up from killed Red Army soldiers. They are given as much attention as banks. Money is aimed at financing the OUN, especially those members who work abroad. That is why the Banderites always attempt to get into a territory with combat troops or immediately behind them. Those arrested confirm that when the uprising breaks out, bridges will be blown up.

Abstract 57.

Report no. 164 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated February 4, 1942. In the region of Kiev, the counter-intelligence struggle against communists is turning ever more into a struggle against Ukrainian nationalist units. The links uncovered earlier between the NKVD and the OUN are very close and complex.

It has been confirmed that communist propaganda in the form of leaflets has increased. During a raid, close to 350 persons were captured, of whom 60 were shot as active CP members and partisans. The rest were freed with a warning. This action had a strong effect on the population. It has been established that the attitude of the population towards communists, but also towards Ukrainian nationalist units, has become much more negative. The eastern Ukrainian population clearly opposes Western Ukrainian arrivals, who are regarded as the main carriers of nationalistic ideas.

The members of the Ukrainian nationalist movement behave like communists: false documents, pseudonyms, passwords.

Among the Ukrainian national groups, the Melnyk faction undoubtedly has the nost influence. Banderite propaganda, which is very active and pointed, is not changing. The fact that Banderite propaganda comes out openly against Germany and her army makes its aims uninteresting for the population of Eastern Ukraine. Nevertheless, the Banderites think that the present moment is not favourable for open action. In any case, this movement should be eradicated.

Relations between Bandera and Melnyk have become more strained again. Both movements are trying to use the Germans against their opponents. In this regard, the Melnyk faction has better prospects, because the Germans do not consider them a completely hostile current.

However, in one respect, they are similar, that is in their nationalist-chauvinist attitude towards Germans. Eastern Ukrainians are very tolerant with respect to nationality. With a few exceptions, Western Ukrainians are carriers of extremist ideas.

The reports of reliable people and observations indicate that Melnyk supporters have the same goals as the Banderites, but in addition have links with England, regard the war as unfinished and do not want to set the English against themselves. In this regard, it is interesting to note the fact that anti-Jewish propaganda and the direct inclusion of Ukrainians in anti-Jewish actions where this is possible should be stopped. In Banderite publications, for example, slogans and sentences of an anti-Semitic content are crossed out.

The headquarters of the Melnyk movement in Eastern Ukraine is Kiev. It is headed by the well-known Dr. Kandyba, around whom are gathered some known and some unknown Western Ukrainians. Working with them is the National Council, organized by Dr. Kandyba and led by Prof. Velychkivs'kyi and his deputy, Chudinov. Velychkivs'kyi is not a professor, but took on the title to make himself more attractive. Chudinov is a political adventurer, who is also mixed up in various shady financial machinations. The National Council, which is not recognized by any German institution, is really an unofficial Ukrainian government. It is trying to save many valuables from being taken by Germans. One of the typical proponents of this current is Dr. Andrusiak, who lives in Kiev.

The interests of the Bolsheviks and Melnyk supporters are very similar. The aim is to sow hatred among Ukrainians as much as possible, which they have succeeded in doing. Where there is no objective basis for this, they fabricate one, saying that Germans made promises to Ukrainians which they are now not keeping.

Young people are being recruited for Ukrainian objectives with the help of "Sich". This sport organization deals less with sport than with political education in a chauvinistic, anti-German spirit.

In the press, Melnyk's movement has become the leading one. If the Kiev Ukrainian press has been purged of harmful elements through seizures and executions of leading editors, in the editors' chairs of provincial newspapers the nationalistic element dominates; they not only give over their pages to Melnyk's ideas, but also supply the OUN with illegal paper.

The writers' union in Kiev, directed by the poetess Jadwiga (Olena-ed) Teliha, is a totally nationalist affair.

A strong centre of Ukrainian nationalist forces is the Kiev Academy of Sciences, the first secretary of which is Chudinov. Institutes which are important for the German economy have been taken out of the Academy and subjected to German administration.

Yet another instrument of Ukrainian nationalist politics is the Ukrainian Autocephalous Church. It is headed by Bishop Ilarion from Kholm, who is more of a politician than a prince of the church and hopes to become the Kiev Metropolitan. His deputy in Kiev is Korovyts'kyi. The views of various reliable individuals that links exist between the bishop and the NKVD are not proven, but given the character of the bishop, this is not unlikely.

Hetman Skoropas'kyi still hopes to become leader of Ukraine in the near future. According to the information provided by the Kiev lawyer Maikovs'kyi, who at the invitation of the Ministry of External Affairs made a journey through Germany and discovered the thoughts of the leaders of various Ukrainian national tendencies, some of Skoropads'kyi's supporters consider not only Germany, but also England as a promoter of a Ukrainian national state after the loss of the war with Germany.

Abstract 58.

Report no. 177 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated March 6, 1942. The mayor of Kremenchuk, Senytsia, has been arrested for sabotaging orders. He also allowed the arch-priest Romans'kyi to baptize certain Jews and give them Christian and Russian names. It has been established that in this way a large number of Jews evaded German control. Senytsia has been executed.

Task group no. 5 executed political activists, 114 saboteurs and 1580 Jews. This task group also carried out an action against a Banderite group.

Action was needed against the large number of Banderites in this area.

Now that the area has calmed down, there are new attempts to organize Ukrainian youth into "Sich" organizations. Obviously if this organization takes in large numbers of Ukrainian youth, its development will have to be observed.

Abstract 59.

Report no. 183 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated March 20, 1942. On February 25, 1942, three Ukrainian drivers were arrested, who endangered the supply of food.

Also arrested in Kiev was a Ukrainian emigrant, the lawyer Mykola Bahrianovs'kyi, in connection with political intrigues.

In Smolyha, near Luts'ke, a parish priest and his son were murdered, probably by Banderites.

A large Banderite organization was uncovered in Zhytomyr near the end of February, 1942. In an action on March 10-13, 12 Banderites were seized.

In March, 1942, in Kremenchuk, a group of Banderites were arrested. So far, the details are not known. In Stalino, according to informaion from task group no. 6, a Banderite activist was arrested.

Abstract 60.

Report no. 185 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated March 25, 1942. In Kiev a new, illegal leaflet of the Melnyk group was seized, which was to be disseminated in 300 copies. On the leaflet was written: "Long live the independent Ukrainian state! Long live the OUN! Long live Captain Andrii Meinyk!" The leaflet's text related to the anniversary of Shevchenko's death.

The SiPo and SD in Rivne announced the arrest of a Banderite who was disseminating propaganda material in the vicinity of Kamianets'-Podil's'kyi. In Luts'ke, a centre of the Polish resistance movement was uncovered.

The Vinnytsia station (Zhytomyr district) informs of the growth of the Banderite movement and building up of cells in the city and vicinity. Officers in Kremenchuk captured two OUN couriers, who were going from Poltava to Lviv and Krakow.

Abstract 61.

Report no. 187 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated March 30, 1942. Two important OUN activists were captured in Zhytomyr. County leader Roman Marchak was shot while trying to escape. Two thousand brochures and leaflets were confiscated. A revolver with exploding bullets was found under Marchak's bed. Following the testimony of a captured Banderite, a large quantity of propaganda materials, organizational plans and letters of members from the Zhytomyr, Kiev, Kharkiv and Poltava counties was confiscated from a destroyed home. Also found was equipment for falsifying passports. Two typewriters were confiscated, on which propaganda materials had been prepared.

It is now clear that the Banderite movement provided false documents not only to its own activists, but also to Jews.

Their well-functioning information service informed regional leaders about the most minute happenings in counties and districts. Information and reports, which were disseminated over hundreds of kilometers by various liaison methods, were mainly coded and relayed hand-to-hand.

One report proposes that the Poles establish their own organization.

The leading members of the Banderite movement come mainly from the intelligentsia. As is apparent from the letters of the Kiev members, they are professors, teachers, students, poets and so on. With the help of propaganda waged mainly by activists from Western Ukraine, the movement has gained broad support among the population.

In Kiev, Melnyk's OUN disseminated a new newspaper, a brochure of 12 pages, which reprints the memorandum of the president of the dismissed National Council in Kiev, Mykola Velychkivs'kyi, to the Reichskommissar. 180 copies were published. In the memorandum, Velychkivs'kyi sharply criticizes the actions of the German administration. In Rivne, no. 32/51 of the newspaper "Volyn", from 22.3.42, was confiscated because of its anti-German editorial article by the Melnyk supporter Samchuk. The print run of 21,000 copies was destroyed.

In Ostrih, the mayor, his deputy and five other persons were arrested, because they allowed the "10 rules of the Banderite movement" to be printed in the state printing facility.

Abstract 62.

Report no. 191 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated April 10, 1942. The situation and mood in Western Ukraine. Volyn' - Podillia differs from the rest of Ukraine because of the compact character of the population, ethnic divisions and conflicts among Ukrainians, Poles and Jews. Russians do not play an important role here.

Ukrainian nationalism is the strongest political movement and the Banderite faction, which has become an illegal organization hostile to Germans, the most active group. Here we also see the beginnings of the Ukrainian church questions.

The mood of the population is not homogeneous. Extreme nationalists are expecting self-government and agricultural reform, but the majority of the population does not concern itself with these matters.

The Ukrainians are grouping around the intelligentsia, especially those who emigrated after the war and in 1939 and have now returned from the General Government. These are Ukrainians of a nationalist tendency. The rest of the intelligentsia, and in particular student youth, who in the conflict between the Reich and the Soviet Union hoped for a future independence of Ukraine, is partly in an expectant mood and partly hostile to the Germans. The mood among the older circles of the intelligentsia is different; these people, in accord with the democratic-parliamentary model, want compromise and desire to cooperate with Germans. The younger and more active OUN circles oppose this, have more of a revolutionary and opposition orientation and accuse the older intelligentsia circles of betraying Ukraine.

When German troops marched in, ideas about an independent Ukraine in provinces that had not been under Polish rule were not very widespread; they were brought here by people from Halychyna. The younger chauvinistic groups categorically demand self-government. Counteractions, closing of schools, the ban on "Prosvita" and so on are being interpreted to mean that in cultural matters there will also be no changes, and that there is no difference in the treatment of Ukrainians and Poles, as was the case in the General Government.

Ukrainian chauvinists do not believe in German victory. They do not hope for Bolshevik victory, but, rather, are counting on the weakening of both sides and by that fact, the liberation of Ukraine.

With regard to the issue of Ukrainian volunteers entering the German army, two questions are being asked: will participation in the battle against Bolshevism bring any benefit, such as autonomy, division of land and the like? And will the Ukrainian formations be united under a Ukrainian command?

Among the peasants, economic consideration are most important, such as, for example, the abolishment of collective farms.

The Polish population is in principle hostile to Germans, not only the intelligentsia, but also the masses. Under the influence of Moscow's pan-Slavic propaganda, it appears that the Poles are ready to heal old rifts with Ukrainians. Ukrainian information states that the Poles are making contact, that Germans are enemies of Poles, as of Ukrainians, and that the two nations should stick together.

The situation and mood in Eastern Ukraine. The general uncertainty is being used by communist activists. Their propaganda says that the people are worse off now than they were under the Soviet regime. At the same time, many Western Ukrainian emigrants say that the Germans are trying to stifle the Ukrainian national wishes and physically destroy all national feelings, In this respect, Bolshevik and extreme nationalist agitation is similar.

Most of the population of the cities and villages is concerned about the problems of daily life. The Bolsheviks are happy about this problem, because they think about their return to power, and Ukrainian chauvinists, because of the improvement of their chances.

Opposition movements: The communists enter Ukrainian organizations, in order to get access to German institutions. Loyal Ukrainians affirm that the anti-German tendency of the Banderites comes from NKVD agents inside the organization. The Bolsheviks' uncovering of the Banderite organization in Lviv served to bring many of its members, in some cases by force, into the service of the NKVD.

The Russian reactionary movement, like the Bolsheviks, is one of Great Russian and pan-Slavic orientation. The Russian reactionaries put their faith in England. Like the Bolsheviks, they oppose the Ukrainian independence movement. Both desire a single, indivisible Russia.

The Ukrainian chauvinist groups: the Banderites, whose nucleus is the younger intelligentsia of Western Ukraine, Lviv students, moved into Volyn' and Podillia to find supporters among youth. In the militia school in Klevan', young Ukrainians were trained as members of the "revolutionary army". Ten such Banderites were caught. They were young, immature boys, who carried with them church medals and Ukrainian chauvinistic prayer books.

In Zhytomyr, interesting material about the Banderite organization was seized and is now being studied (The oath of the Banderite movement is provided in translation).

There is suspicion that Ulas Samchuk, the editor-in-chief of the newspaper "Volyn", in Rivne, is the leader of the Melnyk movement in Volyn' and Podillia. In spite of censorship, he always made hidden allusions to the German enslavers. The members of his group are recruited among the intelligentsia, mainly from "better circles".

In Kiev an illegal OUN organization was uncovered, which had as its aim to build a strong party up to the county level on the basis of the five-man system. Contact between the leadership and the members was to take place in strict secrecy (The oath is provided). The OUN's organizational work is being spread to other parts of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine. The headquarters of this underground group are in the city government, in one of the districts. One of the editors of the leaflets was Bahazii.

The OUN is trying to spread its influence to guards (Schutzmanschaft), the former militia, which has since been made subject to the Schupo (Schutzpolizei). There is a slogan: "If there are five Germans against 30 militia men, who has the power?"

The OUN is also trying to extend the "Sich" and "Prosvita" organizations. The latter showed itself even under the tsar to be fighting for Ukrainian culture. Counter actions are being prepared.

The centre of the active, general-Ukrainian movement was the city government of Kiev. The mayor, Bahazii, established the "Charitable Aid Organization", since closed down by the police, which also called itself the Red Cross and which was the information centre for all of Ukraine. It had gathered information about almost to 60,000 prisoners of war and their treatment by Germans. If we consider this in the light of the remarks of one objectively-thinking person from the Melnyk circle, it becomes clear that the OUN's systematic gathering of material about German mismanagement in Ukraine can in time be used abroad. In this context, the materials gathered by the Red Cross are especially important. Bahazii was engaging in illegal commerce, helped Metropolitan Dionyzii in Warsaw and Ilarion in Kholm with the installation of the metropolitan of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, and issued personal certificates. He established a "Religion Division" in the city government, which had as its aim to continue the political work of the abolished National Council and Church Council. The director of the division, Ivan Korovyts'kyi, and Bahrianovs'kyi (he belongs to Melnyk's close circle), both emigrants, visited the sitting bishop of Kiev, Panteleimon, at the end of December, 1941, and explained to him that "the whole Ukrainian population expects the new bishop to exercise a firm Ukrainian hand; if he does not do this, he will find himself in an unpleasant conflict". Bahazii was anti-German and there is no doubt that he understood the results of his policy. Furthermore, during the Soviet regime, he was principal of a Jewish school in Kiev and a private teacher of the children of the First Secretary of the CP Khrevchuv [Khruschev?].

The Hetman supporters (supporters of Skoropads'kyi) began to govern Ukraine with German help in 1918. They recruited their supporters among peasants, who in their primitivism regarded the monarchy as God-given. Since the end of the war, Skoropads'kyi has been living in Berlin, where he is trying to establish close cooperation with the Reich. His son lives in London. Skoropads'kyi is informed by reliable people about the situation in Ukraine. Through the chance seizure of a letter, it has been learned that he is gathering information about possible German mistakes. He aims to use this material in central institutions of the Reich in order to obtain political influence in Ukraine.

Information about the Ukrainian resistance movement: In Kiev, on 26.3.42, the OUN issued 165 copies of a leaflet. It published the memorandum sent to the Fuhrer on 14.2.42 by Sheptyts'kyi, Velychkivs'kyi, Melnyk and Omelianovych.

In Poltava, the mayor and three persons have been arrested. He held Banderite meetings in his lodgings and propagated the establishment of an anti-German Ukrainian army.

In Zvirtsi, a Banderite has been caught who is accused of three killings. In 1937, the Poles sentenced him to 12 years in prison in connection with political activity, but he was freed when the German army marched in.

In Mykolaiv, seven OUN members waged whispered propaganda.

In Vinnytsia, OUN propaganda material was seized which on the front page had a Soviet star.

Abstract 63.

Report no. 193 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated April 17, 1942. In Kremianets', the district leader was caught disseminating forbidden propaganda written by Archbishop Polikarp. He managed to escape from prison. He is a dangerous nationalist, who was sentenced to three years' imprisonment under Polish rule because of a political crime.

In the region of Rivne, a terrorist group of Banderites is active. In Chepel', near Torchyn, a peasant was shot and two members of his family wounded by unknown persons. That same day, two armed men wanted to hang a member of the Schutzmanschaft. A letter was given to the guard commander in Luts'ke, saying that he was under threat of murder. It appears that these were the acts of chauvinists, Banderites, who murder those Ukrainians who have betrayed nationalist goals.

In Zhytomyr, two Banderites were caught, who in the new year intended to blow up bridges and carry out other acts of sabotage.

In a village 34 kilometers north of Kryvyi Rih, a printing facility was discovered and illegal OUN(B) leaflets.

Abstract 64.

Report no. 195 of the Chief of the Secretary Police and Security Service, dated April 24, 1942. Mykolaiv. In the village of Beserovodka, a hand-written Banderite leaflet was found which called for "struggle against the occupying power".

Abstract 65.

Report no. 5 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated May 29, 1942. The Poles want to strengthen their position under German protection, and after the German defeat, establish a Great Polish empire. They operate in the following manner: 1. they enter German-established agencies and use them for their own influences; 2. every Pole brings others in with him and enlarges his circle; 3. they turn German agencies against Ukrainians and Byelorussians with the aim of causing repressions against them and arousing hostility towards Germans.

They also find work in local governments and thus avoid going to work in the Reich. At present, they constitute the main group of workers in German institutions. They play quite a dangerous role as translators. It has been proven reliably that they translate falsely and thus create mistrust and hostility between the two sides.

Abstract 66.

Report no. 6 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated June 5, 1942. A Banderite leaflet with an interesting text has been seized from a Ukrainian in Krakow. In contrast to past leaflets, which generally limited themselves to hidden attacks against the Reich, this one, which cites Shevchenko, openly attacks Germans. It says that "in one's own house is one's own truth and strength and freedom," and, among other things, also that "my steppes are sold to Jews and Germans, while my sons are in foreign lands, doing foreign work".

Abstract 67.

Report no. 7 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated June 12, 1942. According to information from Rivne, the Banderite movement has begun a very strong campaign against people being sent to the Reich. Members are forbidden to go to the Reich to work and they are ordered to increase activity opposing the levy of workers. This propaganda is without effect on the population. Unlikely tales are being spread that, for example, the most beautiful Ukrainian girls are being chosen for German soldiers at the front.

Information from Kiev that the levy of workers is being sabotaged.

Abstract 68.

Report no. 11 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated July 10, 1942. In a somewhat different form, this repeats report no. 5, from May 29, 1942.

Abstract 69.

Report no. 13 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated July 24, 1942. The situation and mood in Western Ukraine and in the rear of the army. The intelligentsia at home and those who have come from Germany convince the people that the Germans are consciously oppressing the national and economic interests of Ukraine. It is becoming ever clearer that there is no independentist Ukrainian consciousness among the masses. Where it existed, it was destroyed by the tsarist and Bolshevik regimes. After the occupation by German troops, emigrants entering legally and illegally brought in their ideas and are doing everything possible to attain power on the backs of or with the help of this totally destroyed nation. A small part of the population wants only the development of Ukraine under German leadership until Ukraine can become independent. Because of party conflicts, Ukrainians are not capable of supporting their own state. Most of the population does not think about political matters and wants to live in peace.

Scholarship in Ukraine: On the Ukrainian side, professor of the Academy of Sciences and historian Haievs'kyi has organized a circle of people who want to use scholarship and the autocephalous church for their political goals. Haievs'kyi recently allowed himself to be ordained bishop of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church.

On the Great Russian side, professor of the Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute Troitskii makes use of the Orthodox Church for his pan-Slavic ideas.

Also dangerous are efforts in Kiev to establish an independent scholarly centre directed by the Ukrainian National Academy. The Odessa spiritual centre is outside of the influence of these radical ideas, under Romanian administration. The scholarly life in Kharkiv is again becoming active. Ukrainian professors want to join the National Academy in Kiev. Great Russian professors want to be independent.

Abstract 70.

Report no. 20 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated September 11, 1942. The Ukrainian resistance movement. The Banderite movement: in Zhytomyr, Trotsiuk was arrested; he served as regional leader in Ovruch under the name Nazar Hlid. He acted on the orders of Lutsyk, regional leader in Kostopil, whose task was to organize the Ovruch region. He succeeded in bringing in seven people, mainly teachers.

In Kiev, Arkhipkovych and Vladyka were arrested; they were members of police battalion no. 115. They belonged to the Banderite group of whom seven were arrested.

In Chernihiv, the mayor, Rebenok, the district leader, Dziubko, and the commander of the Ukrainian militia, Turash, were arrested in connection with economic sabotage. Dziubko was accused of collaboration with the Bolsheviks. Trotsiuk was accused of theft. Rebenok was freed.

In Neu-Kreetz [Nova Krytsia?], publications with an anti-German content were confiscated from a Ukrainian, Miskevych, also called Buriachok. Miskevych is hiding and is a member of the Banderite movement.

The Melnyk movement: during the investigation of the Banderite activist, Trotsiuk, who also intermittently worked in Melnyk's organization, it was learned that the lodgings of the student, Shtul', in Rivne, are a stop-over point of the Melnyk movement. Melnyk activists stay there.

In Krakow, Melnyk's memorandum to Rosenberg was intercepted [Five points of this memorandum are provided in translation].

Ukrainian propaganda: In the Rivne region, leaflets have been prepared on a typewriter. [Text provided]. In Volodymyrets', leaflets have been disseminated with calls to youth. [Text provided]. In Sarny, at the home of the leader of a women's organization, illegal Banderite leaflets have been found with orders concerning organizational matters and instructions regarding partisan war. [Text provided].

Abstract 71.

Report no. 21 of the Chief of the Security Police and the Security Service, dated September 18, 1942. The Banderite movement: It is noted that the activity of the Banderites aimed at bringing in other Ukrainians has increased. This group continues to be the most radical independence movement. In the past months, its propaganda encompassed Western and Central Ukraine; now it has extended its activity to the remaining Ukrainian territories. It is characterized by an anti-German attitude and emphasizes the need to throw the Germans out of the country. The preparation of an uprising in Kamianets'-Podil's'kyi and vicinity has been confirmed. Not only Banderites belong to the illegal movement, but also communist activists, who work within the frame work of "Prosvita". "Ostap", territorial leader in Volyn', who supposedly calls for an orientation towards the Russians, is cited.

In the middle of August, in Kamians'ke, Banderite propaganda material was seized. Three people were arrested. Among them was the director of the theatre in Kamins'ke.

On August 24 and 25, 1942, near Shankiv, in the Rivne region, a leaflet was found which was entitled "A Word from Ukrainian Nationalists on the First Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Independent Ukrainian State in Lviv 30.6.1941 ". [Text of the leaflet provided in translation].

In Mykolaiv, after long surveillance, four Banderites who were active against Germans and had various publications were arrested.

In Kiev, five members of the Schutzmanschaft, who were suspected of being Banderites, were arrested. On one of them were found illegal literature and a revolver.

In Voroch, two Banderites were arrested.

In Kherson, an increase has been noted in the activity of Banderites, who are found in very influential positions.

In Kiev, on 12.8.42, eight people were arrested, who are suspected of membership in the Ukrainian resistance movement. Among them was Ia. Hrebeniuk, who made false stamps and documents for the Banderite activits "Pip", who was killed during an escape attempt.

Melnyk's movement: the Meinyk supporters have also changed their activity in the Reichskommissariat, but are more careful than the Banderites. The Melnyk supporters tried to pull Ukrainian church circles into their work. They also were organized in the Kiev National Council. This group still has some political influence, although the National Council has since been disbanded.

Skoropads'kyi's movement: In addition to the Banderites and Melnyk supporters, there are also a certain number of Skoropads'kyi supporters in Kiev. They are mainly representatives of the older intelligentsia. Their attitude to Germans is friendly.

Abstract 72.

Report no. 23 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated October 2, 1942. The Banderite movement continues to influence the local population through illegal propaganda. In Kiev, more people have been arrested on suspicion of being members of that organization. They are mainly people who have come from Rivne with the intention of studying in Kiev.

Two Banderites were let out of prison in Znamenka (Mykolaiv) by a Ukrainian guard and his friend during the night of 25.8.42. All four fled, taking with them rifles and ammunition.

The Melnyk movement: After long searches, a group of well-masked, careful Melnyk supporters was uncovered in Kiev. They had spent months preparing literature and a secret organization, and also had printing equipment. A publication entitled "Birth of the New Ukrainian" was seized. Arrested were V. Kuz'myk, pseudonym Petrenko, and eight Melnyk activists. Kuz'myk's superior, Stepovyi, was not caught.

Abstract 73.

Report no. 24 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated October 9, 1942. The Ukrainian resistance movement: At the beginning of September , 1942, four illegal Banderite leaflets were seized in Kharkiv. These leaflets indicate for the first time that the Banderites have a separate propaganda division for Eastern Ukraine. Searches are underway for the publisher and disseminators.

In the region of Dnipropetrovs'ke, fifteen people were arrested during the night of 6.9.42 for secret work in the forbidden "Prosvita" organization. Secret meetings were held in the room of the secretary of this organization. "Prosvita" works for the establishment of an independent Ukraine. Metropolitan Teofil' will ordain one of the trusted members of "Prosvita" and appoint him the pastor of one of the Kharkiv churches.

The head of "Prosvita" is Dolenko, and in Kharkiv, Dubrovs'kyi. Building up local organizations in Kharkiv was forbidden until now. Dolenko has stated that the aims of "Prosvita" are to fight against Bolshevism and help the German army destroy the Soviet system, and then fight against the Germans in order to push out their influence. He also said to talk about the need to collect weapons and ammunition.

In Kiev, three Melnyk supporters were arrested. Kuz'myk admitted that Melnyk's organization held three meetings this year: in Rivne or Luts'ke in May, in Proskuriv in June and in Kiev on 15.9.

In Vinnytsia, a person was arrested for disseminating portraits of Petliura and underground literature.

The mood of the nationalities in Volyn' and Podillia: Ukrainians in the two territories are very different from each other. In Volyn', they engage in banditism, and in Podillia, conspiracy. The Ukrainians of Volyn' are ready to work and even give their lives for an idea.

Melnyk's organization appears to be acting in a new form. It seems that the headquarters in Lviv have been disbanded. In the meantime, a new organization has appeared, which calls itself the "Ukrainian Revolutionary Committee", which in addition to Melnyk supporters also includes former Banderites. [Provided in translation is the political program, which stresses the need for cooperation with Russians].

Abstract 74.

Report no. 25 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated October 16, 1942. The Ukrainian resistance movement: [Text provided of an OUN(B) leaflet, which takes a negative position towards Red partisans].

In the vicinity of Horokhiv, a leaflet was found that is signed by Bandera and calls on Ukrainians to free themselves by their own efforts from the insane Germans.

A teacher from Tyveriv was arrested. He was taking illegal Banderite literature to Kiev and had false personal documents.

In Haisyn, seven people were arrested for Banderite propaganda activity. The leader of the group had a Russian army pistol.

In the vicinity of Zaporizhzhia, Banderite activity has increased. In Sofiivka, a worker was arrested for disseminating literature; in Kryvyi Rih, a vendor was arrested on suspicion of recruiting intelligentsia for the Banderites.

In the course of the investigation of the Melnyk movement in Kiev and in Eastern Ukraine, two persons were arrested.

In the vicinity of Mykolaiv, five Melnyk supporters were arrested; among them were the leader and two Schutzman members.

In Kirovohrad, a Schutzman non-commissioned officer was arrested, a Melnyk supporter, who forbade handing over advertising material to others.

One copy of the OUN(M) statute has been seized by the security service in Krakow. [The organizational structure and the oath are provided].

Abstract 75.

Report no. 26 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated October 23, 1942. Bandera's movement: during the last while, the Banderites have been moving ever more towards active struggle. Already in May it was established that the Banderites have begun serious organization of armed groups in the western part of Ukraine. In July, 1942, it was confirmed that a band exists in the Kamianets'-Podil's'kyi region, which has Banderite and communist members. It has also been confirmed that a large band exists in the Sarny region, which is commanded by the Banderite activist, Borovets'. They maintain neutrality towards Bolshevik bands. In the propaganda, calls for struggle against the Bolsheviks are becoming less frequent, and only calls for struggle against the German occupying force remain. The Banderites consider it necessary to improve relations with the Bolsheviks, especially since ties have become closer between England and the USA and the USSR. This indicates that the Banderite movement has opened a front against Germany and will try to attain an independent Ukraine through armed struggle.

The Meinyk faction has also become more active during the last while. Their written propaganda is very active and sometimes even exceeds that of the Banderites.

Abstract 76.

Report no. 29 the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated November 13, 1942. Bandera's group: In the Sarny and Kostopil' regions, a leaflet was disseminated, which had the title "Partisans" and opposed German and Soviet imperialism.

It has been confirmed that political training of youth is in the hands of the "Buitur", "Iunatstvo" and "Prosvita" organizations. Sport training masks military training, which is being carried out with the help of special literature. The aim of all youth organizations is an independent Ukraine.

An illegal communist group was uncovered in Kharkiv and it was confirmed that the group was also trying to bring in nationalists. The Banderite liaison with the communists is Roman Protsins'kyi. He came from Lviv with German troops, but it is not known where he is staying. Banderite meetings took place in his residence. This group works by the five-man system and may intend to carry out sabotage and terrorist action. In the process of investigating this group, a secret Banderite printing facility was uncovered in Kharkiv, during the night of 17.10.42. There was crossfire. Eleven Banderite agents were caught, and much propaganda material and 11 boxes of matrix dies were found in the print shop.

In Bila Tserkva, near Kiev, four people were arrested, including a teacher, for Banderite activity. In Luts'ke a Banderite was shot during an escape attempt.

In Kherson, a Banderite was arrested on suspicion of stealing 6,000 Reichsmarks.

In Kiev, Ivan Shpak was arrested for having personal documents in the name of Zaporozhets'. Shpak has been an OUN member since 1936 and he travelled to Kiev from Lviv at the order of Legenda, the chief Banderite official. Also arrested was Dmytro Marko, whose oersonal documents were in the name of Kravshenko.

Melnyk's group: Among Kuz'myk's materials was a leaflet entitled "One Cause - Two Methods", which stated that "we hate the Bolshevik yoke, but also all other yokes. Only the Ukrainian can be master on Ukrainian territory". Also found in Kuz'myk's residence was a letter from the propaganda chief, Konstantyn Hors'kyi, which gives basic instructions about waging propaganda.

The Ukrainian national party: In Popel'nia, near Zhytomyr, 15 people were arrested, among them a priest, for attempting to organize a national Ukrainian party.

Abstract 77.

Report no. 31 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated November 27, 1942. The Ukrainian resistance movement: the SiPo and SD in Zhytomyr found an anti-German leaflet. [Text provided in translation].

In Lviv, three students were arrested who were said to be Banderite activists. In their lodgings, literature and printing equipment were found. It appears that this was a distribution and courier centre, and also a place where false papers were produced.

In the meantime, V. Lobai was captured. He was the deputy director of the organizational division of the Lviv headquarters and was born on 27.10.1911. He was also the director of the whole courier service. Another six people were arrested, among them a Ukrainian policeman who was a courier.

The main Banderite lodgings are in Lviv. The territorial leaderships are in Kiev for Eastern Ukraine, in Lviv for Western Ukraine, in Rivne or Luts'ke for Volyn' and Polissia, in Chernivtsi or Odessa for Hungary and Romania, and in Berlin for Germany. Many addresses were intercepted.

On 21.11.1942 an action was carried out against Bandera's group in Lviv, during which Gerhard Scharff was killed and another member of the state police wounded. The assailant escaped, although he was wounded. Five people were arrested.

Abstract 78.

Report no. 33 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated December 11, 1942. The Ukrainian resistance movement: In Lviv, another 18 Banderites are arrested, functionaries of the military, propaganda and organizational divisions. Propaganda materials were confiscated, as well as letters with addresses which made allusions to cooperation with the NKVD.

In Kholm, the existence of a branch centre has been confirmed, of which eight workers are known. Arrests are being prepared.

In Lviv, on the evening of 4.12.42, the Banderite director of propaganda, Starukh (pseudonym Synii) was caught. He had on him many letters, written on cigarette papers, which were full of information about Banderite activists who have not yet been caught.

On that same day, in Lviv, the deputy leader of the Banderite movement, Legenda, also known as Semen Sud'ba, whose real name is Ivan Klymiv, was caught. It is said that Klymiv is the spiritual father of the whole Banderite organization.

In the third Kommissariat of the Ukrainian police in Lviv, 10 rifles and other army materials were found.

The Ukrainian police in Lviv is penetrated by Banderites. Five policemen have been arrested.

In the Reich, eight Banderite activists have been arrested. [Names and places are provided].

At the beginning of November, an SS man and a member of the SiPo/SD were killed in Kiev. The killings were carried out by two people in German uniforms. It was the Banderites, acting on the order of their leader, Mohyla. So far, 27 Banderites have been arrested in Kiev.

In Rivne, 13 persons have been arrested for waging Banderite propaganda.

In Stanyslaviv, during the night of 3.10.42, a death sentence was attached to the doors of the residences of two SD functionaries; it was signed by the OUN.

In Kiev, many copies of Sheptyts'ky's letter to Melnyk, dated 7.7.41, have been disseminated. The letter calls for an end to the fratricidal battle between the two OUN factions. Efforts are being made to determine whether the letter is authentic.

Abstract 79.

Report no. 35 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated December 23, 1942. The Ukrainian resistance movement: In Berlin, Vasyl' Bezkhlibnyk, pseudonym "Berkut", leader of the Banderite movement in Germany, has been arrested.

At the beginning of November, a skirmish occurred between a Banderite group and Soviet parachutists, near Rokytno. A number of parachutists were killed and wounded. The Banderites obtained modern Soviet weapons.

In Poltava, a Banderite was arrested and false stamps were found.

In the Mykolaiv district, 10 persons were arrested on suspicion of OUN membership, among them, a school principal and a mayor.

During the last while, many Banderite leaflets have again been seized in Ukraine. One of them had written on it "Famine". [Text provided in translation].

In Kharkiv, some leaflets prepared by the territorial OUN(B) leadership for Eastern Ukraine were confiscated. They called on the population to join the Banderite movement, in order to fight against the German occupying power. [Text of leaflet provided in translation]. A second leaflet, the text of which is also provided, was directed against Moscow.

In the vicinity of Rivne, money has been put into circulation with "Glory to Ukraine! Glory to the Heroes!" and "Glory to Bandera" stamped on it.

Abstract 80.

Report no. 36 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated January 8, 1943. The Ukrainian resistance movement: In the course of action against the illegal Banderite group, the state police in Magdeburg, Braunschweig, Gota Frankfurt/Main and Prague arrested 25 Banderites [names of those arrested are provided).

In Lviv, the priest, Josef Peters, who was born in Siedlungshausen in 1905, was arrested for work, carried out with Ukrainian circles, that was hostile to the Reich.

Abstract 81.

Report no. 37 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated January 15, 1943. The Ukrainian resistance movement: In the Reichskommissariat Ukraine and the General Government, some illegal Banderite brochures were seized, which were dedicated to Dmytro Myron, who was executed in Kiev, and made him a Ukrainian national hero. [Partial text of the brochure is provided].

In the laslo county, a Banderite leaflet was posted on trees and telephone poles, which spoke of the OUN position towards Polish and Soviet partisans. [Text of the leaflet is provided in translation].

In Vienna, in the course of action against Banderite activists, Stanko and Harabach were arrested. In Oppeln, 10 activists were arrested. [Names and dates of birth are provided]. In Hanover, 55 persons were arrested, of whom were freed and three committed suicide. [Names and dates of birth of some of those arrested are provided].

Abstract 82.

Report no. 41 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated February 12, 1943. The Ukrainian resistance movement: In the course of action against the OUN(B), 136 people have recently been arrested in Berlin. [Names, dates of birth and pseudonyms of leading individuals are provided].

A large number of leaflets with different titles have been seized. [Some of them are provided].

In Kiev, 38 members of the intelligentsia have been arrested; it has been determined that the organization has a significant sum of money.

Reliable sources inform that recently the OUN(B) and OUN(M) have been drawing closer together. The general objective is an independent Ukraine. Further radicalization of the OUN has been noted.

Abstract 83.

Report no. 47 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated March 26, 1943. The general situation and mood in Ukraine: German's arrogant behaviour and disregard for the wishes of Ukrainians elicits strong hatred. This is said constantly in Kiev and Ukrainian circles.

The situation in Ukraine with regard to propaganda: Ukrainian national propaganda has recently changed somewhat. Rumours continue that a change in German policy towards Ukraine is expected. There is talk of providing help to the Ukrainian population and true independence.

Abstract 84.

Report no. 48 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated April 2, 1943. In the vicinity of Kostopil', clashes occurred between Soviet bands and Taras Bul'ba's Ukrainian nationalist bands. The Soviets demanded surrender of weapons. The commander of the band called on the Polish population to fight against the Germans along with Russians, Jews and Poles and called Ukrainians an unreliable element.

Abstract 85.

Report no. 49 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated April 9, 1943. In Kovel' county, during the night of 27.3.43, Schutzman members liberated prisoners and inhabitants of work-reeducation camps and fled, taking weapons. All of this is occurring under the influence of nationalistic propaganda. East of Stolyn, Schutzman battalions nos. 108 and 104 have crossed over to the bands. German personnel, who were totally unaware of the situation, were also guilty.

Abstract 86.

Report no. 53 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated May 7, 1943. The activity of Ukrainian nationalist bands in Volyn' and Podillia constantly increases. Soviet bands are less active. Actions against state property and Polish villages are the work of nationalist Ukrainians.

A Ukrainian band captured two young Reichsdeutsche, one of whom was wounded. After being given medical care, they were both freed and given a letter from Savchuk to the Gebitskommissar in Tsuman', which contained threats to Germans. (Text of the letter is provided).

Abstract 87.

Report no. 54 of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, dated May 14, 1943. The centres of activity of the bands are the northern Kiev region, Chernihiv region, Zhytomyr region and Rivne region. Bolshevik and nationalist Ukrainian bands are active. Both sides call on youth to enter their ranks. Bul'ba-Borovets' issued an order to Schutzman members to come to his side. All of this has a significant effect on the population.

 
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