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Name: The Struggle against the UPA and the Nationalist Underground: Informational Documents of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Ukraine, Party obkoms, NKVD-MVD, MGB-KGB. Book four: 1949-1959
Volume: 7
Editor in Chief: P.J. Potichnyj
Editor(s): V. Lozytsky
M. Derkatch
I. Pavlenko
A. Kentij
Editorial board: Ya. Dashkevych
V. Lozytsky
S. Bohunov
R. Pyrih
P.J. Potichnyj
P. Sokhan'
M. Ripeckyj
Iu. Shapoval
H. Boryak
Publication Year: 2003
ISBN (Canada): 0-920092-80-2
ISBN (Ukraine): 966-02-3087-7
Pages Count: 619

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Description

This publication contains documents from the history of the Stalinist regime's struggle against the Ukrainian national-liberation movement during 1949-1959. All the materials are of an informational-reporting nature and are stored in the fonds of the Central State Archive of Civic Associations of Ukraine (the former archive of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine). The collection contains documents of the CC CP(b)U, oblast party committees, and power organs (Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of State Security), et al.

This work is intended for historians, archivists, lecturers of higher educational institutions, students, and anyone with an interest in the history of Ukraine.


Summaries

Page 278. '1949'

The first chapter of the collection contains 45 documents on the history of the Bolshevik regime's struggle against the Ukrainian national-liberation movement during 1949. The collection begins with information of the Rivne oblast' party committee, dated 10 January 1949, about the course of implementing the 1 June 1948 CC CP(B)U resolution "On Improving Mass-Political Work, the Further Development of Collective Farm Building, and the Liquidation of Remnants of Bands of Ukrainian-German Nationalists in Ukraine's Western Oblasts." The Rivne oblast' party committee also sent similar reports at a later date (documents nos. 4, 12, 14, 27).

Other oblast' party committees in Ukraine's western oblasts also sent reports to the CC CP(b)U on the course of the struggle against remnants of UPA formations and the OUN underground. They include a report from the Ternopil' oblast' party committee for January (no. 3), February (no. 5), and March 1949 (no. 9); a report from the Stanyslaviv oblast' party committee for the 1st quarter of 1949 (no. 11), for April (no. 16), May (no. 20), June (no. 22), July (no. 32), August (no. 34), September (no. 37), October (no. 41), and November (no. 45); reports from the Chernivtsi oblast' party committee (nos. 15, 26); the Drohobych oblast' party committee (nos. 29, 44), and the L'viv oblast' party committee for March-April 1949 (no. 13), April-June (no. 19), June-July (no. 23), and a summary report for the first six months of 1949 (no. 30).

The first chapter also includes other types of reports, such as a memorandum dated 18 May 1949 from the military prosecutor of the interior troops of the Ukrainian district to the CC CP(b)U concerning the implementation of the 22 February 1949 CC CP(b)U resolution "On the Memorandum of the Military Prosecutor of MVD Troops of the Ukrainian District about the Facts Pertaining to the Brutal Violation of Soviet Legality in the Activity of So-Called Special MGB Groups" (no. 18); information about the work of the Ministry of Internal Affairs during the first six months of 1949 (no. 25); an excerpt from a memorandum of the Ministry of State Security of the Ukrainian SSR about the course of the state security organs' implementation of the 28 January 1948 CC CP(b)U resolution "On the Status and Measures for the Strengthening of Socialist Legality and Soviet Law and Order in the Ukrainian SSR" concerning the activity of so-called agentura-fighting groups (no. 21); and information prepared by the Ukrainian Ministry of Internal Affairs on work carried out during the first six months of 1949 (no. 24).

Several documents included in the chapter concern the activity of groups for the protection of civil order in Ukraine's western oblasts (no. 8). Some report on the facts pertaining to the transfer of weapons by these groups to OUN and UPA members (no. 36).

On 5 September 1949 the CC CP(b)U approved a resolution on the course of open trials of individual members of the OUN and the UPA. The implementation of this resolution is the subject of the following documents: a memorandum dated 25 October 1949 from the military prosecutor of interior troops of the Ukrainian district (no. 39); information of the Rivne oblast' party committee on the open trial of a group of OUN members (no. 40); and a memorandum of the Chernivtsi oblast' party committee concerning the open trial of OUN member Matsiopa (no. 35).

The following documents may be of particular interest to readers: a memorandum written by the military prosecutor of interior troops of the Ukrainian district, in which he questions the appropriateness of continuing to grant amnesty to members of insurgent formations who turned themselves over to Soviet government organs after 20 July 1949 (no. 33); and a letter from the Ministry of State Security of the Ukrainian SSR to the CC CP(b)U justifying the need to introduce a special passport regime around large cities and certain areas in Western Ukraine that hold particular significance for the Soviet government (no. 43).

A separate group of documents is comprised of reports sent from local government organs, ministries, and departments of the Ukrainian SSR to the CC CP(b)U concerning individual facts of OUN and UPA manifestations on the territory of Ukraine's western oblasts. Noteworthy among them are an announcement dated 9 March 1949 of the Stanyslaviv oblast' party committee about the killing of Bohdan Iatskiv, the deputy responsible leader of the SB of the OUN krai leadership in the Karpats'kyi krai (no. 7); an announcement of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Ukrainian SSR concerning the characteristic manifestations of the OUN on the territory of Ukraine (nos. 10, 17); and information prepared by the Minister of Education of the Ukrainian SSR concerning a request by two female schoolteachers from the village of Butsniv, Ternopil' oblast for a transfer to another region of Ukraine, due to the fact that their lives are in danger from the OUN underground (no. 42).

Page 383. '1950'

The second chapter of this collection contains 29 documents from 1950. As in the preceding chapter, the main core of documents consists of announcements and reports from oblast' party committees in Ukraine's western oblasts, informing the CC CP(b)U about the course of the struggle against the OUN underground and UPA formations. These include information items sent from the Stanyslaviv oblast' party committee (documents nos. 58, 59, 62, 63, 64, 70, 71) and the L'viv oblast' party committee (nos. 56, 57). In its memorandum of 2 December 1950, the L'viv oblast' party committee provides information on the assassination of O. Diakiv, the head of the L'viv krai OUN leadership (no. 74). Information on the circumstances surrounding the death of raion OUN leader S. I. Riabunets' may be found in the 10 February 1950 announcement of the Kam'ianets'-Podil's'kyi oblast' party committee (no. 55).

Particularly interesting are announcements of the Stanyslaviv oblast' party committee concerning measures adopted in connection with locating and liquidating a group of parachutists ejected from a foreign plane in order to establish contact with Roman Shukhevych (no. 66), as well as memoranda concerning the assassination by members of the OUN underground of Burshtyn raion committee secretary V. Voitkiv and measures adopted in this connection by the Stanyslaviv oblast' party committee (nos. 67, 68).

On 30 December 1949 the MGB of the Ukrainian SSR issued an order concerning the proclamation of an amnesty for those members of the OUN underground and UPA formations who appear before Soviet government organs and admit their guilt. The reactions to this order on the part of the population of the city of L'viv and L'viv oblast' is the subject of information sent by the local oblast' party committee to the CC CP(b)U (no. 54). The results of the proclamation of the amnesty is the subject of information of the MGB Directorate of the Ukrainian SSR in Stanyslaviv oblast' (no. 52).

Another large group of documents is comprised of materials sent by the MGB of the Ukrainian SSR to the CC CP(b)U. These include operational announcements for Drohobych oblast' about the results of the struggle against the Ukrainian underground (nos. 49, 50); a memorandum of the MGB Directorate in Stanyslaviv oblast' concerning the liquidation of the OUN underground (no. 51); two information items of the MGB Directorate in Volyn' oblast' about the infiltration of leading posts in rural councils and collective farms in the border raions of this oblast' by former OUN and UPA members (no. 72) and about the course of the struggle against the OUN underground (no. 73); and an announcement about the results of this struggle in Ivanychi raion of Volyn' oblast', which was sent to the CC CP(b)U on 5 September 1950 by the local raion division of the MGB (no. 69).

Deserving separate mention is a memorandum written by the head of internal affairs of the MGB in the Ukrainian District, in which he provides a detailed account of the course and specific circumstances of organizing and implementing the deportation of people accused of links with the OUN and the UPA. This document reveals, in particular, facts relating to some leading Soviet activists in Zhovkva raion of L'viv oblast' who avoided participating in this measure (no. 46).

Page 440. '1951'

The third chapter in this collection contains 14 documents dated 1951.

The chapter opens with a report from the Stanyslaviv oblast' party committee on the results of the struggle against the OUN underground on the territory of this oblast' during the 1st quarter of 1951 (document no. 75). The chapter also includes other reports from the Stanyslaviv oblast' party committee: a report dated April 1951 (no. 76) and a report for the first seven months of 1951 (no. 80). In a memorandum to the CC CP(b)U dated 18 August 1951, the Ternopil' oblast' party committee reports on the underground operating on the territory of this oblast' and the course of the local government organs' struggle against it (no. 83). A memorandum of the Chernivtsi oblast' party committee, dated 15 August 1951, provides detailed facts concerning the circumstances surrounding the liquidation of an OUN combat group (no. 81). Separate mention should be made of an informational announcement of the Kam'ianets'-Podil's'kyi oblast' party committee about the liquidation of leading OUN members in Skala-Podil's'kyi raion headed by "Bohun"-M. P. Shtoiko (no. 84).

The MGB also reported to the CC CP(b)U on the course of the struggle against the Ukrainian underground. The chapter includes information from the MGB Directorate for Ternopil' oblast' on the results of work carried out in the oblast', aimed at the liquidation of remnants of OUN members and on the number of killed and arrested individuals, and uncovered nationalist organizations, as well as information on measures adopted by the MGB Directorate and the militia in order to strengthen security around stores of collective farm grain (no. 85).

Separate mention should be made of documents attesting to the persecution of Ukrainian youth by Soviet government organs. These include information of the Volyn' oblast' party committee about the discovery and liquidation of a nationalist youth organization on the territory of this oblast' (no. 77) and a memorandum of the same oblast' party committee about the liquidation of the nationalist youth organization "Za Ukrainu" [For Ukraine] (no. 79).

The discovery of another nationalist organization "Vil'ni kozaky" [Free Cossacks] on the territory of Rivne oblast' is the subject of information sent to the CC CP(b)U by the Military Prosecutor's Office of the Prykarpats'kyi Military District (no. 87).

Of particular interest are proposals made by First Secretary of the CC CP(b)U Leonid Mel'nikov in connection with measures that, in his opinion, are crucial to intensifying the work of the MGB, and the oblast' and raion party committees in the struggle against the Ukrainian national-liberation movement. This is a detailed plan of action to organize punitive measures and administrative and mass political activity by Soviet government organs in this direction (no. 82).

Naturally, the OUN organized adequate responses to the punitive organs. This chapter includes in particular an announcement of the Administration Division of the CC CP(b)U concerning the liquidation by OUN members of a secret MGB collaborator, a brigadier of a collective farm in L'viv oblast' (no. 88).

Page 494. '1952'

The fourth chapter of this collection contains 15 documents from the history of the struggle against the Ukrainian national-liberation movement during 1952.

The chapter opens with a rather interesting item of information prepared by the MGB Directorate of Ternopil' oblast' concerning the discovery and liquidation of the nationalist youth organization "Spilka ukrains'koi molodi" [SUM: Union of Ukrainian Youth] (document no. 89). The discovery by MGB organs of another youth organization in a high school in Ternopil' oblast' is the subject of information sent to the Central Committee by the Administrative Division of the CC CP(b)U (no. 91).

Other results of MGB activity in Ukraine's western oblasts are included in an information item prepared by the Zolotnyky raion division of the MGB about the OUN underground and its liquidation on the territory of this raion between 1944 and 1951 (no. 90), as well as in a memorandum from the MGB Directorate of the Ukrainian SSR for Ternopil' oblast' concerning an unsuccessful operation to liquidate two OUN underground groups (no. 97).

The question of the order of applying the amnesty to members of the resistance movement who voluntarily appear before Soviet government organs is broached again in a memorandum from 12 February 1952 from the Military Prosecutor's Office of MGB troops in the Ukrainian District. It includes, in particular, proposals to establish clear-cut deadlines for appearing with an admission of guilt, instead of implementing an amnesty without a time limit. The authors of the memorandum also suggest proclaiming an amnesty only for rank and file members of the OUN, and a number of other measures (no. 92).

The largest group of documents consists of announcements from oblast' party committees in Ukraine's western oblasts concerning the course of the struggle against the OUN and measures that were adopted in order to implement certain CC CP(b)U resolutions. These include memoranda concerning the following oblasts: Ternopil' (nos. 93, 102); Kam'ianets'-Podil's'kyi (nos. 94, 95, 96); Volyn' (nos. 99, 100, 103); Drohobych (no. 98); and L'viv (no. 101).

Page 535. '1953-1955'

The main group of documents in this chapter consists of announcements from oblast' party committees in Ukraine's western oblasts about the course of the struggle against the Ukrainian underground. Among them are two information items from the L'viv oblast' party committee, the first of which announces the liquidation of the responsible leader for propaganda in the L'viv krai OUN leadership L. Haiovs'ka ("Ruta") (document no. 109); the second item consists of information on the activization of the Uniate clergy on the territory of L'viv oblast' (no. 115). Included among the memoranda drawn up by oblast' party committees are information items of the Zhytomyr oblast' party committee on OUN activity (no. 112), the Drohobych oblast' party committee (no. 113); and the Volyn' oblast' party committee (no. 118). The Volyn' oblast' party committee also reported to the CC CPU about the liquidated so-called nationalist youth group based in the city of Volodymyr-Volyns'kyi (no. 114).

Separate mention should be made of the memoranda of the Kyiv oblast' party committee. The first of these documents, dated 18 March 1953, announces the liquidation of nationalist groupings on the territory of Kyiv oblast' (no. 105). A second document dated 6 October 1955 contains facts pertaining to the discovery of nationalist leaflets in the city of Kyiv (no. 117).

Nationalist leaflets also uncovered at the Holovka railway station are the focus of information sent by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Southwestern Railway to the CC CPU (no. 107).

Of particular interest to readers are two documents dated 1954, which recount the failure of an operation to capture the OUN leader in Ukraine and Commander-in-Chief of the UPA Vasyl' Kuk (nos. 110, 111).

Other documents worthy of special mention are an information item from the MVD Directorate for Stanyslaviv oblast' about the number of OUN and UPA members and other illegals (altogether 37,130 people) who voluntarily appeared before Soviet government organs between 1944 and 1953; and a letter sent by the secretary of the CC CPU to the CC CPSU, announcing the capture of V. Halasa ("Orlan"), the leader of the krai OUN leadership in the Northwestern Ukrainian lands and member of the Central OUN Leadership (no. 108).

Page 619. '1956-1959'

On 10 March 1956 the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR issued an order granting former prisoners who had been convicted as Ukrainian nationalists the right to return to their former places of residence. The collection includes a considerable number of documents connected with this event. The chapter opens with a memorandum drawn up by the KGB and the Administrative Division of the CC CPU concerning the economic and political situation in the western region of the Ukrainian SSR and the inadvisability of allowing the return of former OUN and UPA members and their families who had been released from the camps (no. 119). The undesirability of this influx of returnees is the subject of a letter sent by secretary of the CC CPU Mykola Pidhornyi [Nikolai Podgornyi] to the CC CPSU (no. 122). The following Soviet organs reported on the harmful-to the Soviet government-impact of the return of former OUN and UPA members released from their places of imprisonment on the situation in Ukraine's western oblasts and measures implemented in connection with this: the MVD of the Ukrainian SSR (nos. 120, 137); divisions of party organs, propaganda, and agitation; the Administrative Division of the CC CPU (nos. 123, 135); local oblast' party committees (nos. 125, 126, 127, 129, 130, 132, 133, 136, 138, 139); the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Ukrainian SSR (no. 128); and the Ministry of Justice of the Ukrainian SSR (no. 134).

Separate mention should be made of an information item dated 15 October 1956, prepared by the CC CPU apparatus, the MVD and KGB of Ukraine, and the Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Ukrainian SSR about the work connected to the return of individuals convicted of anti-Soviet activity to the territory of L'viv oblast' from their places of imprisonment, and their acceptance into local collective farms (no. 124). An information item prepared by the Administrative Division of the CC CPU and the KGB at the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR, dated 15 December 1956, reports on the completion of work required to settle and provide employment to former OUN and UPA members on the territory of Ternopil' oblast' (no. 131).

The situation of the OUN underground in late 1955, according to Soviet data, is the subject of information prepared by the CC CPU on 25 September 1956 (no. 121).

 
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