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Name: Struggle against Agentura: Protocols of Interrogation of the OUN SB in Ternopil Region 1946-1948. Book 3
Volume: 46
Editor in Chief: P.J. Potichnyj
Editor(s): P.J. Potichnyj
Sponsors: OKV UPA and OBVUA
Publication Year: 2007
ISBN (Canada): 978-1-897431-03-0
ISBN (Ukraine): 978-966-2105-00-1
Pages Count: 842

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Description

The Struggle against the Agentura: Book Three

Like the preceding vols. 43 and 44, the present volume of SB OUN interrogations in the Ternopil’ region consists of documents and materials (the so-called «Zaporozhets’» archive unearthed in the vicinity of the villages of Plikhiv and Krasnopushcha in Berezhany raion, Ternopil’ oblast) which were buried by the Ukrainian insurgents. Like the materials from the «Ozerna» archive, they remained hidden in aluminum canisters deep in the ground for nearly five decades. The only person who knew about the cache in the forest on the border between Ternopil’ and Lviv regions and the one in the cemetery located in the village of Krasnopushcha was Stefaniia Hryhorivna Dudar (married name: Kylyn) who had kept the hiding place of this archive a secret for more than forty years.

When the insurgents, realizing the fate that awaited them, were burying their archives in 1949, they took as a witness an 18-year-old schoolgirl, who often helped them pass secret messages or by working on her mother’s homestead, where their hideout was located. The insurgents hoped that the young girl would remain beyond the suspicion of the Soviet security organs, [1] live to see Ukraine’s independence, and then hand over the documents to the Ukrainian State.

Things turned out almost exactly as the insurgents had planned. Stefaniia Dudar-Kylyn carried out the insurgents’ order. In 1991, when her health began to decline because of serious illness, she revealed her secret to her husband Iaroslav Kylyn and her brother Vasyl’ Dudar, who then dug up both archives in November 1991. When Hryhorii Baran, director of the Zboriv Battle Museum [Muzei «Zborivs’ka Bytva»], learned about the unearthed canisters of documents, in early 1994 he paid a visit to Vasyl’ Dudar in the village of Plikhiv. Afterwards, he wrote a short article about this discovery, which was published in the raion newspaper Zborivs’ka Dzvinytsia (no. 3, 18 January 1994). As a result, the broad public learned about the discovery of the insurgent archive.

In time, the materials were dispersed among various organizations. Stepan Andrusyshyn brought most of the documents for safekeeping in the oblast branch of the Ukrainian Republican Party in the city of Ternopil’. Later they ended up in the possession of Petro Kasinchuk, head of the Ternopil’ Territorial Brotherhood of the OUN–UPA («Lysonia»). After storing them briefly, in 2006 Kasinchuk forwarded the originals to the archive at the Centre for Research on the Liberation Movement (TsDVR) in L’viv, where they are currently (2007) stored in the collection «The OUN Security Service.» Photocopies of all the documents were forwarded to the Litopys UPA publishers with the goal of publishing and making them known to broad circles of scholars and readers. Unfortunately, we received these materials after vols. 43 and 44 were printed.

The materials featured in vol. 46 are structured the same way as those contained in vols. 43 and 44. The documents are published in complete correspondence with dates and raions, namely: Velyki Dederkaly, Vyshnivets’, Zbarazh, Zolotnyky, and Kremenets.’ However, some of them, e.g., the case of Oleksandr Oleksiuk from Kremenets’ raion, are wholly connected to the cases of Anna Braslavs’ka, Prokhor Dovhaliuk, and Petro Smykurzhevs’kyi from Velyki Dederkaly raion and the P–O case, which contains announcements and interrogation reports from several raions: Velyki Dederkaly, Vyshnivets’, Kremenets’, Pochaiv, and Shums’ke, i.e., practically from every raion in the northern part of Ternopil’ region. Similarly, the «Iuda Case» includes materials from various raions, such as Zolotnyky, Pidhaitsi, Berezhany, Kozova, and Kozliv.

Individual interrogation reports in this volume, e.g., the «Iuda Case,» fully correspond to materials already published in vol. 43 of Litopys UPA, in which the name of leader «Zhar» and his activity in the MGB’s provocateur fighting groups are mentioned in many interrogation reports, and in vol. 44, particularly the «Reports on the Interrogation of Oleksa Petrovych Voityna and Pavlo Petrovych Voityna.» All these materials are interconnected and help trace the traitorous activity of Vasyl’ Mahdii («Zhar,» «Dolia») who, in carrying out the functions of Okruha Responsible Leader of the SB, was also a secret agent of the MGB and, as such, inflicted much damage on the Ukrainian liberation movement.

In vols. 43 and 44 the real names of «Zhar»–»Dolia» and the individuals who were linked with him were not identified. This lacuna has been filled by the documents contained in the present volume, which not only reveal the real surname of the traitor and the names of the people in his agentura network, but also describe the method and approach behind his agentura activities. It is also worthwhile noting that all the cases tangential to the activities of Vasyl’ Mahdii, until their ultimate termination, were under the control of SB investigator «888» whose real surname, unfortunately, has not been identified.

The interrogations of three captured Soviet officials-two Russians and one Ukrainian: MGB agent Aleksandr Pot’omkin (in the original his surname is listed as Pat’omkin); Dmitrii Shivandronov, an officer of the criminal investigation department of the BB NKVD (Struggle against Banditry of the People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs), and Pavlo Lytvynenko, an MVD staffer and MGB agent-are also extremely interesting. These documents provide information on the recruitment methods, training, and preparation of people for conducting agentura work specifically in the conditions of Western Ukraine. What is most striking about these materials is the degree of brutality, cynicism, and even blackmail with which the higher ranks of the Soviet power structures controlled their subordinates. Disregard for the law, the utter trampling of human rights, corruption, bribery, and looting are unmistakably reflected in the activity of all Soviet state structures without exception.

The documents in this volume also reveal the measures that were adopted by the OUN(M) to renew its clandestine network in Ukraine. This is evident, e.g., in the report of the interrogation of Petro Smykurzhevs’kyi [2] and the «Case of P–O.» These events were taking place in the northern raions of Ternopil’ region, where in mid-October 1946 the MGB created a pseudo-Melnykite organization whose goal was to split the Ukrainian liberation movement and generate an internal struggle. The MGB recruited to the leadership of this organization Petro Smykurzhevs’kyi, a former member of the Taras Bulba-Borovets’ movement, whose brother Volodymyr was at one time a leading figure of the OUN(M) in the Kremenets’ area and later, Second Lieutenant in the Ukrainian Self-Defense Legion. Therefore, from the very outset this organization was under the complete control of the MGB, which exploited it against the OUN(B) and the underground, and also in order to expose «unreliable elements» among the inhabitants of adjacent raions in Ternopil’ and Rivne regions, where a strong Bulba movement and the OUN(M) had at one time existed.

As other sources indicate, during this period the OUN(M) had its own representatives in Ukraine. In 1948 Volodymyr Didovych («Shelest») entered Ukraine, or perhaps Poland, with a «special mission» and returned to Munich only in August 1955. [3]

In «Addenda,» the final chapter of the book, we included an announcement about the death of individual underground leaders, who were killed in the Ternopil’ region as a result of betrayal, in particular by Vasyl’ Mahdii. These materials, which were graciously offered to the Litopys UPA publishers by Bohdan Pytel’ of Ternopil’, come from the «Kalyna» and «Ternyna» insurgent archives that were unearthed in April 2007 in the forest near the village of Petrykiv, Ternopil’ raion. Also included is the extract from an MVD/MGB document that definitively confirms that Vasyl’ Mahdii («Zhar»–»Dolia») was a provocateur, who was subsequently liquidated as a result of an SB OUN special operation.

In view of the fact that thematically and chronologically the materials contained in vol. 46 fully dovetail with the materials in vols. 43 and 44, we did not include a separate list of SB OUN investigators or functionaries of the Soviet secret services. All these names are listed in the geographic-name index at the end of this book and in vol. 44.

Thanks to the efforts of Petro Kasinchuk of Ternopil’ and Ivan Kuzhda from the village of Kupchyntsi in Kozova raion, Ternopil’ oblast, the documents are supplemented by photographs.

The book was prepared for print by Dr. Ihor Homziak, who was responsible for the computer typesetting, layout, and the name index. We extend our heartfelt thanks to Mykola Kulyk for his all-round support in the preparation and publication of the present volume. We owe a separate debt of gratitude to everyone whose dedicated assistance helped turn this latest publishing project into a reality.

Petro J. Potichnyj



[1] According to information provided by Vasylí Dudar, his father Hryhorii Dudar, a former member of the Ukrainian Sich Sharpshooters (USS), actively supported the insurgents. However, as a result of the provocative activity of the MGB agentura, which falsified documents and testimonies, he was arrested by the SB OUN and liquidated. A few months later, the higher SB leadership conducted another investigation that revealed the MGB deception, and an official apology was issued to the Dudar family. Eventually, Vasylí Dudarís mother gave her permission for a hideout to be constructed underneath her house. The hideout was never discovered by the Soviet organs of repression, and the owners filled it up with earth only in the early 1990s.
[2] This surname appears in a number of variants. On p. 127 of his book Vid Voronizha do Ukrains’koho Legionu Samooborony (Rivne: Kalihraf, 2002) Mykhailo Karkots’-Vovk writes about Second Lieutenant Volodymyr Smakurzhevs’kyi («Troian»), the brother of Petro, who was killed in mysterious circumstances in Hanover, Germany.
[3] Vasylí Mykhalíchuk and Vasylí Nahirniak, comps., Bila knyha OUN na zlami XX i XXI stolití (Kyiv: Kyi, 2006), p. 48. On the same page the authors mention the names «Ostap», «Kotí», and «Chalyi» as well as Mykhailo Ostapchuk («Klen») and Dmytro Furmanetsí («Lesyk»), who were sent to Ukraine by the Krai Representative of the PUN. References to «Shelest», «Moroz», and ěMama» also appear on pp. 94-97 in Ihor Halagidaís book Prowokacja “Zenona”. Geneza, przebieg i skutki operacji MBP o kryptonimie “C–1” przeciwko banderowskiej frakcji OUN i wywiadowi brytyjskiemu (1950–1954), published by Instytut Pamięci Narodowej in Warsaw in 2005. There is a lengthy passage about «Shelest» being a recruited agent of the Polish secret services, known under the pseudonyms «Boleslaw» and «Wladyslaw Kowalski» in Grzegorz Motykaís book Służby Bezpieczeństwa Polski i Czechosłowacji wobec Ukraińców 1945–1989 (Warsaw: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, 2005), pp. 221, 229–233, 235, 237–239. There the author writes that «Shelest» returned to Germany in 1955. He also mentions»Kotí», «Chalyi», Ostapchuk, Furmanetsí, and others. This was the so-called «Spider Operation» (Operacja Pająki) whose task was to exploit the OUN(M).

 
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