The compilation contains documents of the UPA Military Okruha command and various subordinate units, its press publications, as well as the reports and information documents of the OUN leadership of Lviv region.
* * *
Chapter One, entitled “Orders and Instructions of the Command,” elucidates various spheres of the leadership of Military Okruha “Buh.” These are primarily orders issued by the commander and the headquarters in 1944-1949, pertaining to various areas of UPA activity in the L’viv region. Orders issued between 1947 and 1949 concern merit awards and promotions of officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates in Military Okruha “Buh.”
The second half of the first thematic chapter consists of documents and materials of individual sections of the VShVO. In particular, these include an instruction concerning intelligence work, signed August 1944 by the head of the 2nd Intelligence Section led by “Arkas” (Volodymyr Rudyi). This document specifies intelligence tasks under insurgent conditions and lists the general principles underlying the work of the military intelligence officer; a sample protocol is included. The document “Temporary Instructions for the Company Warrant Officer”68 discusses the basic work of warrant officers, whose responsibilities included maintaining a register of personnel, provisions, weapons, uniforms, and appropriate registry books. Documents issued by the 6th Political Instruction Section are presented here: a lecture for political instructors (15 May 1944, signed by “Ratai”); instruction no. 1 about political instruction work in UPA units with an addendum (27 June 1944); a sample of a report for political instructors in units and subunits (1945); an instruction to commanders and political instructors of units concerning their duties (1945); orders to political instructors of units concerning the management of journals devoted to instructional work (15 March 1945), some of which are signed by section leader “Strunkyi”-“Vatiuha” (V. Vavruk) and his colleague “Ihor”-“Dyv” (Ihor Sushko). Among the documents of the Medical Section is an instruction to commanders and medical assistants of units (25 June 1944), signed by commander of Military Okruha “Voronyi” (Vasyl’ Levkovych) and Oblast OUN leader “Moroz” (Iaroslav Skaskiv).
The chapter on “Reportive-Informational Documents of the Command” includes reports of Military Okruha “Buh,” signed by its commander, “Voronyi” (V. Levkovych), the heads of the VShVO “Cherniava”-“Liutyi” (M. Onyshkevych) and “Vynar” (V. Rudyi). These documents, partially covering the period from fall 1944 to March 1945-April 1946, include mostly information on battles, raids, and other types of activities undertaken by individual units of Military Okruha “Buh,” as well as data on the functioning of various UPA headquarters, the OUN’s Organizational-Mobilization Section, and nominations of officers. Of particular importance is a list of officers of Military Okruha “Buh” (1 January 1948), which makes note of promotions of officers, including promotion dates, concerning almost every commander that was killed as this document was being compiled. The list also specifies the functions of officers at the time of their death; in some cases real first and last names, and the UPA awards that were bestowed on these officers, are indicated. A separate item is the single known leaflet signed by the Command of VO “Buh” which carries notification about death of Commander Zynovii Tershakovets’ with his full biography.
The second half of the second thematic chapter contains a report of the VShVO’s Political Instruction Section for 1 May-30 June 1945, signed by “Strunkyi” (“Vatiuha”, V. Vavruk). This documents describes the political instruction activity of UPA headquarters and units, and includes the press run of Strilets’ki visti and other publications. The chapter also includes testimony pertaining to the activity of the commander of Military Okruha 1 “Bashta” (city of L’viv) and “Khmara” (V. Kharkiv) and the inspector of Military Okruha “Buh,” which reveals the process of creation and UP activity in the city of L’viv and its environs, as well as the formation of “Kholodnoiartsi” Battalion.
The third thematic section contains information on actions of separate units-Tactical Sectors, battalions and companies.
Three reports by the military inspector of Sokal okruha “Kameniar (Ivan Vashchuk) covering the period 25 June-25 July and 25 October-25 November 1945 pertain to the activity of UPA units, Kushch Self-Defence Detachments, OUN Security Service groups, and to questions of military and political training, medical care on the territory of Tactical Sector “Klymiv”. Of particular attention is the essay on the history of UPA companies in Sokal okruha during 1943-1946 written by “Borodatyi” (Mykhailo Khvalibota). Included is also the letter of Commander “Uhrynovych” of the Tactical Sector “Roztochchia” in which he briefly describes the condition of UPA units in Iavoriv region at the end of 1945 and the beginning 1946.
The documents of “Levy 1” Company concern the period of its sojourn in the Carpathian Mountains, particularly its participation in security duty at the I Grand Assembly of the Ukrainian Supreme Liberation Council in July 1944. The combat path of battalions and companies of “Halaida”, “Druzhynnyky”, “Kochovyky”, “Krylachi”, “Perebyinis” (“Zahrava”), “Pereiaslavy”, “Siromantsi” and “Tyhry” is listed in their chronicles and in separate combat reports. The “Prolom” Company in particular is represented by reports covering the period from 14 April to 17 October 1944. A significant number of documents concern “Kholodnoiartsi” Battalion, in particular reports and an order for the period September-October 1944, and a set of reports from “Kholodnoiartsi I” Company for the period April-June 1946. Also included are reports on the activity of “Kholodnoiartsi 4,” a special purpose subunit, covering the period from September to December 1945.
Mykhailo Folibota (“Lys”-“Borodatyi”, M. Khvalibota) is the author of some of the above-mentioned materials. He was directly involved in these events as the commander of “Perebyinis” (April-September 1944) and “Tyhry” Companies (May 1945-beginning 1946), “Halaida” I (spring-summer 1946), “Halaida” battalion (November 1944-June 1945) and Tactical Sector “Klymiv” (first half of 1945). He almost certainly kept a notebook or had access to various units’ documents, given that his descriptions are accurate and thorough. It may be assumed that he wrote these documents after the disbandment of UPA units in the summer of 1946, although his first reminiscence was published in issue no. 1 (January 1945) of Strilets’ki visti. Commander “Borodatyi,” who was the responsible military leader of Kam’ianka nadraion in 1948-1949), was killed in 1949.69
Reportive-informational documents of the OUN, which comprise the fourth chapter, cover the period from September 1943 to July 1946. They describe the general socio-political and military situation on the territory of L’viv oblast’ (eventually krai) and individual okruhas. They also provide information about the moods of the population, the terror being waged by the occupiers, battles fought by units of Military Okruha “Buh”, Kushch Self-Defence Detachments, and OUN underground fighting groups. Many more informational documents are extant than published here but the goal of compilers was to present the situation in the oblast during strong activities of UPA units.
The OUN’s Organizational-Mobilization Section, whose documents comprise the fifth thematic chapter, is represented by reports and instructions issued by a number of okruhas during 1944. These documents pertain to the organization of units of the UPA and Kushch Self-Defence Detachments, and the furnishment of arms and ammunition for these units.
The UPA and OUN documents on supplies and materiel are contained in the sixth thematic chapter. These are instructions pertaining to the organization of work by the OUN’s Supplies and Materiel Section concerning the furnishment of clothing and food for UPA units, and the management of social services. One of the documents was published jointly by the leader responsible for supplies and materiel of the oblast’ leadership and the Intendant of the VShVO. Supplementing these instructions are notes from intendants of UPA units concerning the acquisition of supplies and materiel from the OUN network. A request for food supplies from Commander “Zalizniak” is the only known extant UPA document stamped with a seal from the territory of Military Okruha “Buh.”
Several documents of the Ukrainian Red Cross comprise the seventh chapter. They reflect the organizational work of the URC, purchase of medical and other materials, and medical and social aid.
The eight chapter features the publications of Military Okruha “Buh.” The printed VShVO’s organ Striletski visti (1944-1945) provides information about events transpiring on various fronts, events taking place in the world and on Ukrainian lands; elucidates various ideological and political questions; and features articles pegged to special events (“Festival of Heroes,” “Festival of Arms,” “30 June,” “The Battle of Konotop,” etc.), a chronicle of actions undertaken by units of Military Okruha “Buh,” information pertaining to those who had distinguished themselves in battles or were killed in battle, sketches of commanders who fell on the battlefield (“Berkut,” “Halaida,” “Ianko,” “Iastrub”), training-instructional materials (military secrets, conduct in captivity, knightly traditions, a soldier’s moral values, punishments, military honours), insurgents’ daily life and mores, a humour section (usually jokes and satirical articles), and even brief notes on the lives of editorial board members. Two issues of the publication Povstans’ke kropylo (1 December 1944-1 January 1945, “Zhubry” Battalion) edited by the battalion’s political instructor “Iurii Vishchun” and aimed at rank and file privates, contain articles with ideological-political content, articles on everyday military life, and materials designed to amuse.
Most of the materials featured in three issues of the publication Litopys UPA (1947, 1949, 1951) are devoted to reminiscences written by participants in the struggle of UPA units and the OUN underground in the L’viv region, with occasional references to other territories (Zakerzonnia, Polissia). Also included is information about distinctions and promotions, poetry, festive orders, and addresses from the editorial board.
The last chapter contains documents that did not fit into previous chapters. There are several documents of the OUN Security Service in L’viv region, correspondence of the underground leaders of L’viv oblast and Horodok okruha on assigning to UPA companies the graduands of “Oleni” officer school, and the documents pertaining to honouring of underground activists with UPA decorations and military ranks. There are also a few obituaries of fallen insurgents and underground workers which contain short biographies of those insurgents who came into OUN underground from UPA units. This information thus permits us to trace the further fate of commanders and soldiers after units of VO “Buh” were demobilized.
The documents and materials republished in this volume fully correspond to the originals.
The compilers assigned titles to all the documents and materials: they indicate the type of document, author’s name (where indicated), addressee’s name, contents, date, and office number. If a date indicating the creation of a document has not been established, it is dated according to content, accompanying documents, etc. In such cases, a provisional date is indicated within square brackets, e.g. [June 1944].
No deletions have been made in the documents. Omitted or illegible sections of texts are indicated by square brackets […]. Unintelligible sections of text are marked graphically as (xx*). Texts of documents are published without authorial underlining. In separate cases for accurate rendering of the text the authorial underlining is graphically marked by (1-xx-1). Documents and materials reprinted from other publications are indicated in the legend of the document.
To the most feasible extent, the compilers of this publication retained the lexicon, and authorial and editorial attributes of the sources. No changes were made to personal names and geographic place names. Punctuation and the use of quotation marks were corrected in keeping with current orthographic rules. Spelling errors were silently corrected. In keeping with the rules of contemporary Ukrainian orthography, prepositions and particles were corrected (e.g., do domu>dodomu; pidchas>pid chas, v nochi>vnochi, rivnozh>rivno zh, v naslidok>vnaslidok). The incorrect use of apostrophes in such words as mad’iariv>madiariv, zviazok>zv’iazok was rectified. Spelling errors that distort meaning are indicated in footnotes. Handwritten additions to texts (individual words, etc.) are indicated with double italic letters, in alphabetical order (a-xx-a). The cryptonyms are given in conformity with the text.
The seal marked is reproduced in the upper right-hand corner of the document text. The seal marked is not reproduced, since the meaning of this word is reflected in the term indicated in the legend of the document. Written additions to documents (addresses, resolutions, etc.) that pertain to their content were preserved and presented as continuations of the text of the document. Other written additions were omitted.
Crossed-out words in the text are not indicated. For greater clarity, in individual cases crossed-out sections have been recreated in the text and graphically marked as (). With the exception of generally recognized abbreviations, abbreviated words have been reproduced in full and graphically marked as (xx[x]).
The authentication of authors’ original signatures on documents was established according to the rule followed in UPA and OUN clerical work. Each document or material is accompanied by a legend indicating its place of storage (abbreviated name of the archive, number of the fond, list, file, folios); the authenticity of documents (original, copy) is also indicated. The reproduction of typewritten documents and materials is not indicated. Only the manuscript reproduction of documents and materials is indicated; information about an earlier publication or reprint is indicated in the legend.
In addition to documents and materials, this volume contains photographs portraying the officers of Military Okruha “Buh” and the OUN’s L’viv oblast (krai), and the military life of insurgents. The captions to the photographs include the functions and military ranks of leaders, which correspond to their current activity in Military Okruha “Buh”; the highest UPA rank of individuals who departed for other territories is listed within parentheses. The captions to photographs depicting insurgent life list available information on the image and the date the photos were taken. The materials are stored in the computerized photo library of the “Litopys UPA” publishing house.
The diagrams, sketch maps, tables, as well as the photographs and short biographical information of the UPA commanders and the OUN leaders are located in Book 1 (vol. 12). Other photographs of insurgents are located in book 2 (vol. 13).
The modified Library of Congress system of transliteration is used in the English-language texts.
Oleksandr Vovkand Volodymyr Moroz collected the documents for this volume. Volodymyr Moroz completed the scholarly-archeographic preparation of the documents, collected the photographs, and prepared the charts, maps, and tables.
The compilers are deeply grateful to the employees of the Central State Archive of the Highest Organs of Power and Administration of Ukraine and the State Archive of the Security Service of Ukraine in Kyiv and especially to Serhii Kokin, Oleksaner Ishchuk, and Volodymyr Hovorun for their assistance in locating and copying documents
We sincerely thank the following individuals for providing materials and invaluable advice: Peter J. Potichnyj, editor-in-chief of Litopys UPA; the Liberation Struggles Division of the L’viv Historical Museum and Volodymyr Boiko, in particular; the L’viv oblast branch of the All-Ukrainian Society “Memorial”; the scholars, ethnographers, and participants of the national-liberation struggle in the L’viv region—Ivan Bryl’ (Chervonohrad, “Memorial”), Roman Vasyl’kiv (L’viv, “Memorial”), Ivan Vasiuta (L’viv), Roman Heneza (L’viv, History Faculty of I. Franko L’viv National University), Myroslav Horbal’ (L’viv, “Memorial”), Oles’ Humeniuk (head of the L’viv krai Brotherhood of OUN - UPA), Hryhorii Dem’ian (L’viv, Institute of Folklore, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine), Bohdan Zhars’kyi (L’viv), Ruslan Zabilyi (L’viv, Center for Study of Liberation Movement), Bohdan Koziars’kyi (Kyiv), Hryhorii Lysak (village of Ohliadiv, Radekhiv raion, L’viv oblast’, “Memorial”), Ievhen Lunio (Iavoriv, Institute of Folklore, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine), Vitalii Manzurenko ( L’viv, publication “Odnostrii”), Volodymyr Matyiashchuk (village of Nemyliv, Radekhiv raion, L’viv oblast’, “Memorial”), Vasyl’ Mykytiuk (village of Potorytsia, Sokal’ raion, L’viv oblast’, county intelligence officer of the Kam’ianka region), Mykola Posivnych (Liberation Struggles Division of L’viv Historical Museum), Mykola Sarchuk (Chervonohrad, raion leader responsible for organization and mobilization), Volodymyr Sereda (L’viv, head of the “Nadsiannia” Society), Ivan Tkachuk (Chervonohrad, Warrant Officer of “Kochovyky” Company), Vasyl’ Filipchuk (Chervonohrad), and many other individuals too numerous to mention. Acknowledgements are also due to the commander of Military Okruha “Buh”, UPA Colonel Vasyl’ Levkovych-“Voronyi” and his wife Iaroslava Romanyna-Levkovych, staff member of the Ukrainian Red Cross and various underground printing houses. Special thanks are due to researchers Petro Sodol (New York) and to Mykhailo Romaniuk (L’viv) for providing documents and a constant flow of advice, assistance in decoding pseudonyms, uncovering photographs, and verifying numerous facts pertaining to the activity of Military Okruha “Buh”.
Mykola Kulyk helped by administrative means and deserves great thanks for his efforts.