The latest volume in the New Series of Litopys UPA contains 266 documents of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) and its rear line services, which until today have never been introduced into scholarly circulation. The chronological framework of these sources spans the period from May 1943 to December 1945. The documents represent the northwestern, central, and northeastern parts of Volyn’ and Southern Polissia, i.e., those Ukrainian and Belarusian ethnographic lands that were part of the insurgent territory of the North-Western Ukrainian Lands (PZUZ). The theme of this collection organically supplements the already published “Volynian” volumes of the New Series (vols. 2, 8, and 11) and is logically connected to them.
The operations of the UPA and its rear line services in Volyn’ and Polissia are the subject of the earliest comprehensive scholarly monographs, scholarly collections, and articles published in the periodical press. In his studies the Ukrainian historian Anatolii Kentii explained the circumstances surrounding the creation of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, provided detailed descriptions of the activities of UPA-North and UPA-West, and tried to define the dominant vectors of the insurgents’ struggle. However, his account of the leadership and structure of the insurgent sub-units of UPA-North and the rear line services network in 1943–1945 is superficial, and he does not offer an adequate analysis of the changes to the structure of the army. Kentii virtually ignores the role of the Security Service (SB) in the organization of mass “purges” of leading activists. Much light could be shed on these episodes if the scholar expanded his source base. Although he utilizes an immense number of sources, he gives priority to documents stored at the Central State Archive of Civic Associations (TsDAHO), particularly those found in the collections of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine (CC CPU) and Soviet partisan formations.43 In his study of the UPA, Iurii Kyrychuk recounts the Ukrainian insurgents struggle against Soviet partisans in Volyn’ and reveals the differences in the organizational structure of army units.44
The monographs of these two historians differ markedly from Anatolii Rusnachenko’s book, which is poorly structured and more of a compendium of facts, with little analysis. Nevertheless, Rusnachenko is arguably the first Ukrainian historian to draw a comparison between the Ukrainian resistance movement and analogous movements of Ukraine’s neighbors, the Belarusians, Lithuanians, Estonians, et al.45 The historian Ihor Il’iushyn’s study, which is based almost exclusively on Polish documents, sheds light on the structure of the Volyn’ okruha of the Armia Krajowa (AK), recounts the circumstances surrounding the creation of the AK’s 27th Volhynian Infantry Division, and gives a detailed description of the skirmishes that took place between the UPA and the AK in January–March 1944 in Volyn’.46 Her conception of the Ukrainian insurgent rear line services as a Western Ukrainian phenomenon, rather than a “Volynian-Polissian” one, is ably argued by the Ukrainian historian Halyna Starodubets’.47
Certain topics in the history of the UPA in the PZUZ are explored in studies authored by non-Ukrainian historians. In keeping with the tradition followed by Polish historians, in his study Grzegorz Motyka focuses on the complex twists and turns of Polish-Ukrainian relations. Besides making an apt comparison of the processes governing the evolution of the UPA in Volyn’, Galicia, and Zakerzonnia, he also raises such controversial questions as the financial sources of the army, its relations with the Germans, and the insurgents’ attitudes to the Jewish population.48 The history of insurgent centers in Belarusian Polissia has been explored by the Belarusian historians Ihor Valakhanovich and Vasil Matokh.49
Local histories of the liberation movement in Volyn’ have become particularly “fashionable” among contemporary Ukrainian researchers. Viktoriia Zhyliuk has summarized data on the UPA in the Zhytomyr region.50 In his study Ihor Marchuk analyzes the structure of the UPA group “Turiv” (Volyn’ region).51 Recently, Iaroslav Antoniuk published a well-grounded article on the Security Service of Volyn’ oblast.52 The Ukrainian Insurgent Army’s operations in the southern part of Rivne oblast are the subjects of studies by Leontii Deshchyns’kyi53 and Mykola Ruts’kyi.54 Valentyn Brukhlii’s study analyzes how the UPA operated in the Korets’ area.55
In recent years, noticeable improvements have taken place in the genre of biography writing. Ihor Marchuk published the first highly readable and well illustrated monograph on Dmytro Kliachkivs’kyi (“Klym Savur”56), the commander in chief of the UPA in Volyn’ and Polissia. An expanded biography of Kliachkivs’kyi57 and brief references to his comrades in arms O. Prysiazhniuk58, P. Koval’chuk, B. Kozak, V. Koreniuk, and S. Ianyshevs’kyi59 are included in the monographs authored by Dmytro Viedienieiev and Hennadii Bystrukhin. The biographies of dozens of Bandera’s followers from the Volyn’ region are included in the biographical supplement to the recently republished work by Petro Mirchuk.60 The role of women in the Ukrainian liberation movement, whose historiographic image has an excessively “male visage,” is a topic that still awaits a researcher.
The inadequacy of methodological tools is a specific feature of the historiography of the Ukrainian liberation movement. Descriptive methods predominate, and quantitative or comparative methods61 are practically unknown. Researchers frequently misuse the illustrative method, which does not allow them to convey the entire breadth of the informational potential of documents. The situation is complicated by the specific character of the primary source base on the history of the UPA and its rear line services: it contains a considerable number of lacunae, particularly in the analytical segment. Thus, it would be promising to apply quantitative methods, particularly content analysis62 (the study of the tonality of documents according to certain parameters, analysis of statistical information using a scale, etc.). At the present time, publications of analytic-synthetic studies in Ukraine are an exception,63 rather than a general, widespread phenomenon.
Some documents pertaining to the Volynian and Polissian structures of the UPA and its rear line services in 1943–1945 have been published in part or in their entirety in special archaeographic collections, supplements to monographs, or scholarly journals.
Volume 1 of the Toronto series of Litopys UPA contains a selection of orders issued by the UPA command (UPA-North) and the chief of the political staff of the “Zahrava” group.64
Volume 2 of the New Series of Litopys UPA contains a total of 221 documents that were issued in 1943. The compilers gave preference to sources stored at the Central State Archive of the Highest Organs of Government and Administration of Ukraine (TsDAVO). These documents were generated by the Supreme Command of the UPA (HK UPA) and its subordinate “Ozero” detachment, the 1st group of the UPA, the “Turiv,” “Zahrava,” “Bohun,” and “Tiutiunnyk” groups, as well as individual sub-units of the latter (a total of 11). Most of these sources cover the period from September to December 1943; there are no documents for the period covering January to March 1943. Order-type documents predominate: there are five times more orders than reports. This volume does not contain any executive documentation issued by the HK UPA or group leaders.65
Out of the 285 sources covering the period from 1944 to 1946, which were published in Volume 8 of the New Series of Litopys UPA, more than two-thirds of the documents concern the insurgent army, while the remaining third focuses on the UPA’s rear line services. The highlights of this collection are sources stored at the Branch State Archive of the Security Service of Ukraine (HDA SBU; fond 13, files 372, 376, 398) and the archives of Ternopil’ (file 31997) and Rivne (file 4245) oblasts. Most of the collection is devoted to executive documents (78 reports alone are included); there are considerably fewer order-type sources (55 orders) and even fewer epistolary documents. The principle governing the systematization of documents is similar to the one approbated in Volume 2. The following sources should be singled out: an order dated 24 April 1944 about the Battle of Hurby; a working copy of a report entitled Hurby, including diagrams entitled “The Battle of Hurby” and the “Bushcha Breakthrough” dated May 1944; and letters written in 1946 in connection with the rebellious insurgent territory “Odesa” (PSK).66
In his compilations the historian Volodymyr Serhiichuk published a number of order-type documents issued by the HK UPA and the command of the “Bohun” group and formation of UPA group no. 33 (ZH UPA no. 33);67 several leaflets issued by UPA-North; a report entitled “A Description of UPA Battles,” covering the period from August 1944 to September 1945, which includes three supplements; reports nos. 1–5 prepared by D. Kalyniuk, the commander of the Kolodzins’kyi” detachment of the “Zahrava” group (for some reason they all bear the same title); and reports written by SB staffer V. Koreniuk (“Modest”) and Captain “Vovk” from the PSK for July and November-December 1945.68
Leaflets issued by the HK and the staff of the UPA detachment “Sich” for the period June-July 1943 were published in the first part of Volume 4 of the corpus edition, Poland and Ukraine in the Thirties and Forties of the XX Century.69 Several order-type documents issued in the raions and nadraions of the “Zahrava” and “Bohun” okruhas in 1944 were published by Andrii Zhyv’iuk and Ihor Marchuk.70
The historians Viedienieiev and Bystrukhin published a copy of a draft instruction about the formation of the UPA’s Military Police (VPZh) in Volyn’ (1943), as well as obituaries of heads of the leading structures of the OUN(B) in the PZUZ, such as O. Prysiazhniuk, V. Koreniuk, and M. Kozak.71 The scholarly monographs of Volodymyr Serhiichuk,72 Anatolii Kentii, and Oleksandr Gogun73 are illustrated by extracts from numerous “Volynian” documents issued by the OUN and the UPA in 1943–1945.
Authentic documents about the UPA and its rear line services in the PZUZ are organically supplemented by memoirs. The publishers of Litopys UPA have always welcomed the opportunity to issue the autobiographical writings of UPA members. The Toronto series of Litopys UPA features the memoirs of M. Omeliusik (vol. 1), R. Voloshyn, V. Makar, Ia. Iasenko, A. Skelia, A. Burevii, H. Iaroslavenko, M. L’vovych, L. Potapiv, “Vadym,” “Mriia” (vol. 2), A. Dol’nyts’kyi, V. Hrabenko, V. Novak (“S. Novyts’kyi”), V. Nykolaiuk, V. Zahrava (vol. 3), R. Petrenko (vol. 27), A. Mazurchuk, T. Bak, and A. Bobrovs’ka (vol. 32).74 The memoirs of Ivan Lytvynchuk, the commander of the “Zahrava” group, were published in Volume 8 of the New Series of Litopys UPA.75 The memoirs of Iurii Stupnyts’kyi, the son of the well known chief of staff of the UPA, Colonel Leonid Stupnyts’kyi, were published as part of the Litopys UPA Library Series.76 Other publishing houses have issued similar works by such authors as I. Pavliuk (“Venus”), M. Skorups’kyi (“Maks”), H. Stetsiuk, S. Mazurets’, and others.77
The documents presented in this volume reached the archival repositories of Ukraine by various routes. A collection of documents belonging to the “Bohun” detachment of the “Turiv” group was captured by Petro Vershyhora’s Soviet partisans during a raid in Volyn’ in January 1944. The documents of the “Mazepa” brigade of the ZH UPA no. 33 fell into the hands of the NKVD in November of the same year: this happened in the small village of Hirnyk near the village of Kukhits’ka Volia, at the junction of Morochne, Manevychi, and Kamin’-Kashyrs’kyi raions of Volyn’ oblast. In early February 1945, the 20th Brigade of NKVD Interior Troops based near the village of Orzhiv in Klevan’ raion of Rivne oblast seized several documents from the dispatch case of D. Kliachkivs’kyi, the UPA commander in chief of the PZUZ. The Soviet secret services confiscated a number of sources concerning the “Tiutiunnyk” group and the ZH UPA no. 44 from F. Vorobets’ during an operation to arrest him in 1946.
To a certain extent, the informational potential of the documents reproduced in this collection revises generally accepted notions about the numerical strength and structure of the UPA and its rear line services in the PZUZ in 1943–1945, and about the evolution of many organizational centers and leaders. The documents that the NKVD seized from Kliachkivs’kyi’s dispatch case finally provide first-hand information about the numerical strength of UPA sub-units (data on three different periods of 1944 are included). Among other things, they reveal that during the crossing of the Soviet-German front in early 1944 there were 6,920 people scattered throughout insurgent centers in the PZUZ, and 6,960 in the spring. That fall there was a sharp drop in personnel, down to 2,600. The history of the “Bohun” and “Kolodzins’kyi” (“Korsun’”) detachments and the “Laidaky” (“Pam’iat’ Krut”) brigade has now been recast, as well as the history of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army during the time of its westward passage through Volyn across the Soviet-German front in late 1943 and early 1944. The tactics used by UPA sub-units from 1944 onward are also noteworthy. Despite widespread accusations to the contrary, the insurgents were open to cooperation with other military-political forces, and they even sought to reach an understanding, on the local level, with representatives of the Russian Liberation Army.
Chapter 1 contains seven paragraphs of UPA documents. § 1 contains documents issued by the first UPA units operating in 1943: orders concerning the 1st group and its 2nd unit (May, July-August); a letter written by the Warrant Officer of the “Shauly” sub-unit of the 1st group to “Leader” I. Lytvynchuk; a chronology of events that took place in the “Chornomorets’” sub-unit in March-June; and a document about the battles fought by the “Sich” detachment in June and July. This section also contains a previously unknown report of the interrogation of M. Martynovs’kyi, a member of the “Berkut” company.
§ 2 contains a previously unknown order issued by the commander of UPA-North, D. Kliachkivs’kyi, about the subordination of I. Klymchak’s detachment to Commander “Ostrizhs’kyi,” dated 27 July 1944, as well as fascinating notes recorded in 1944, which the NKVD seized from Kliachkivs’kyi’s dispatch case in February 1945. These notes provide a detailed description of the sub-units of the “Turiv” group as of 1 February and 1 August 1944 (names, commanders, numerical strength), and list estimates of the number of personnel of 7 sub-units of the “Turiv” group, 9 sub-units of the “Zahrava” group, 4 sub-units of the “Bohun” group, 2 sub-units of the “Tiutiunnyk” group, and the sub-units that were subordinated to “Kropyva” during three different periods: a) “while crossing the front,” b) “up to the great action,” c) as of September 1944.
The documents in § 3 are classified according to the military groups that they represent. The “Turiv” group is represented by directive/order-type, executive, record-keeping/statistical, and procedural-legal documents, one obituary, and official letters. Documents covering the period from September 1943 to January 1944 form a picture of the leadership of the “Bohun” detachment, its battalions (initially, the “07” and “08”, and later, the “Sviatoslav” (“031”) and the “Sahaidachnyi” (“032”)), companies (e.g., “Mazepa”), and a separate sub-unit of Kuban Cossacks. Also included is the administrative work of the detachment’s hospitals, particularly the Svynaryn hospital, as well as documents—mostly economic—of the “Pohrom” sub-unit of the “Kotlovyna” detachment.
This section includes the directive/order-type, executive, record-keeping/statistical, and procedural-legal documents and official letters of the “Zahrava” group. Particularly noteworthy is the selection of orders issued by the “Kolodzins’kyi” detachment in September-December 1943. Also included here are documents of the “Ostap,” “Khmel’nyts’kyi,” “Konovalets’,” and “Bohun” detachments. These sources reflect the situation that arose during the crossing of the Soviet-German front through Volyn’ and Polissia. After UPA sub-units crossed the front westwards, their ranks were replenished and their names were changed (to “Baturyn,” “Khvastiv,” “Pryluky,” “Kotlovyna,” etc.). Particularly noteworthy is the chronicle of the “Kolodzins’kyi” detachment, which was kept from 1943 to 1945.
The “Bohun” group is represented by a Russian-language translation of order no. 21, issued on 9 October 1943 by Commander P. Oliinyk in connection with the cessation of cooperation with the Hungarians, as well as an executive document of the “Hirchytsi” sub-unit.
§ 4 contains directive/order-type, executive, record-keeping/statistical, and procedural-legal documents as well as official letters concerning HO “Zavykhost” (ZH UPA no. 33, “Khmel’nyts’kyi” detachment). The chronological framework of this group of documents spans the period from October 1944 to November 1945. It includes an order issued on 10 November 1944 by L. Iavorenko, the commander of the ZH, and important documents on the history of the “Korsun’” detachment, and the “Laidaky,” “Mazepa,” “Ostroho,” “Pam’iat’ Krut,” “Pomsta Bazaru,” and “Kholm” brigades. The informational potential of the list of fallen members of the “Korsun’” detachment, as well as of the document—“the Golden Book of Heroes” of this same detachment—should be noted.
The administrative work of the ZH UPA no. 44, carried out between the fall and winter of 1945, is represented by documents grouped under paragraph 5 (official letters, lists). The majority of these are official letters written by “Diachenko”, O. Finchuk (“Ol’kha”), and “Volodia” to Commander F. Vorobets’. These documents contain lively discussions of S. Ianyshevs’kyi’s apostasy. Particularly noteworthy is a list, compiled by an unknown individual, of members of the ZH UPA no. 44 who were killed in 1944–1945.
§ 6 contains sources with unique content that originate tentatively from the PZUZ. This is a list of the personnel of the UPA battalion “O[stryi?], the majority of whom hailed from central and eastern Ukraine, Russia’s Rostov oblast, and Belarus. Particularly noteworthy are two “diplomatic” letters sent by UPA sub-units to a Soviet partisan detachment and an unidentified group of the ROA. The declaration of an insurgent codenamed “Borovyi” in connection with his request to take care of his 106-year-old grandmother strikes an “untraditional” note.
§ 7 contains samples of incoming UPA documentation. These are a father’s request, dated 21 December 1943, that his son be released from the “Bohun” detachment of the “Turiv” group, as well as a letter written by a deserter to the commander of the “Laidaky” brigade, dated 21 November 1944.
The documents of the UPA rear line services, which appear in Chapter 2, provide convincing proof that the services began abating in 1944.
The rear line services of the “Turiv” group are represented by orders issued in January 1944 from Kamin’-Kashyrs’kyi nadraion, Senkevychivka raion; reporting documents from “Rostok” Liuboml’ raion of “Bairak” nadraion (January), “Karlyk” Zabolotiv raion of “Kodak” Kovel’ nadraion (January); and information from Kolky raion (February 1944). The selection of record-keeping/statistical documents provides information about the situation with supplies and materiel of the “Pohrom” unit of the “Kotlovyna” detachment in November-December 1943.
This section also contains a number of documents of the “Zahrava” VO: the chronicle originates from Stolyn raion (December 1943); the reports originate from “Ochakiv” raion (March 1944) and “Opiium” raion (May 1944); and the news items are from the territory of Dubrovytsia raion (May 1944). Interesting information is contained in two record-keeping/statistical documents.
An array of fascinating subjects is reflected in the documents of the “Bohun” VO: a report prepared by the commandant of Ostroh raion, dated 7 December 1943; information collected by the responsible SB leader of Rivne nadraion, dated 10 March 1944; a 30 September 1943 report of an investigation of an individual suspected of cooperating with Bul’ba’s forces; and an official letter to the responsible SB leader of Zdolbuniv nadraion, dated 30 November 1943.
The administrative work of the PZK ZH UPA no. 33 is represented by directive documents prepared by the leader of Kolky raion and the propagandist of Horokhiv raion, dated November 1944; two letters written by the responsible SB leader of Kovel’ okruha, dated 13 November 1944; and a letter written in late 1944 by the women’s leader of Berestia okruha to her sister “Zina.”
The present collection is supplemented by previously unpublished official letters addressed to the leader of the PSK ZH UPA no. 44, dated January, September, and December 1945. These documents were captured by the Soviets during their operation to arrest F. Vorobets’ in 1946. Another document originating from the PSK is a financial report from Korets’ raion, covering the period from March to the first half of July 1945.
The present volume also features written documents of the UPA and its rear line services, such as orders, forms, decisions, reports, denunciations, diaries, chronicles, news, information, lists, descriptions, a catalogue, instructions, appointments, assignments, duties, summons, travel documents, certificates, reporting for duty, announcements, releases, reports, furlough card, book of heroes, acts, cheques, demands, declarations, compiled information, an obituary, and official letters. In order to facilitate work with these documents they should be classified thus: directive/order-type, executive, record-keeping/statistical, procedural-legal documents, and official letters.
The documents in this collection were selected according to the following criteria: the representative nature of document type (in order to reconstruct more fully the system of document circulation in the OUN and the UPA by singling out its individual elements: orders, instructions, reports, et al.); completeness of the informational potential (sources with “interesting” (unordinary) content were primarily selected); and chronological uniformity (the compilers selected documents in such a way as to avoid lacunae in the temporal scope indicated by the title of this volume).
The sources that are reproduced in the majority of the book’s chapters are grouped according to the subject-chronological principle. This grouping method allows for “focusing the informational potential of documents on every topic and also, whenever necessary, for revealing the essence of a fact, event, phenomenon, or process with logical consistency.”78 In keeping with this definition, in our case there are two key “topics:” Chapter 1, which features UPA documents, and Chapter 2, which contains documents of the UPA’s rear line services. Each of the chapters is internally divided into paragraphs, groups, and numbers. The sources are systemized chronologically and thus reflect a certain evolutionary period in the history of the UPA or the OUN(B) in Volyn’ and Polissia during a three-year period: 1943–1945. In many paragraphs documents are grouped according to type, beginning with directive and executive ones and ending with official letters.
The number of documents grouped according to the type of source featured in this volume is listed in Table 1:
Document Number %
Directive/order-type 85 31.9
Executive 58 21.8
Record-keeping/statistical 49 18.4
Procedural-legal 14 5.3
Official letters 58 21.8
Incoming documentation 2 0.8
As Table 1 indicates, most of the sources in this collection are directive/order-type documents, followed by executive documents and official letters; then record-keeping/statistical; and procedural-legal documents. Incoming documentation illustrates the link between the UPA and the civilian population.
The documents featured in this collection are stored in Ukrainian national and regional archives (TsDAVO and HDA SBU; and DARO (State Archive of Rivne Oblast), respectively), as well as in the private archive of the historian Ihor Marchuk.
Chronological Representativeness of the Documents79
Year Month No. of documents
1943 May 3
1944 January 27
1945 January 7
Thus, the majority of these documents are dated December 1943 (41 items); November 1943 (27 items); January 1944 (27 items); and March 1944 (20 items). It is clear that whereas an adequate number of documents date to fall-winter 1943 and early 1944, chronological lacunae crop up later (spring 1945). This is in no way unusual. As the Polish historian C. Bobinska justly notes, “as regards a stateless nation, the number of documents about it sharply decreases.” Thus, possible gaps in the corpus of sources “may reflect reality in an incomplete fashion.”80
The titles of the documents reproduced in this volume were assigned by the author of this Introduction. Each title reflects the type of document, its administrative number, date, and place of origin. If the date of a document’s issue has not been determined, it is dated according to its content and analogous documents, etc. The estimated date, which is approximated as much as possible to the real one, is listed within square brackets, e.g. [mid-October 1944]. If the title of a document contains only the codename of a territory from which it originates, a connection is made to the locale to which it corresponds, e.g. [Sarny nadraion “Lisova pisnia”].
Certain documents in damaged condition have been reproduced only partially. In this case, their titles note that this is a passage or short extract. If a document has no beginning or ending, or it is difficult to determine the author or exact date, this information is indicated in the source’s legend. Missing parts of texts or unreadable passages are indicated thus: […]. Whenever the context of a given text allows for deciphering a damaged and thus unreadable passage, the deciphered section is also listed within square brackets.
The sources included in this volume were left practically intact by the compilers, despite the fact that the literacy level of many UPA authors was extremely low.81 Thus, the archaeographic principle of the inviolability of the text of a document was applied here.82
At the same time, the compilers are aware that the authors of a number of documents in this collection followed the so-called Skrypnyk orthography. Thus, several sources use the etymological “o” before the stressed Ukrainian vowels “a” and “ÿ” (áÎãàòî, ãÎðÿ÷èé, ãÎðàçä). The genitive case singular of second-declension nouns ends in -è (ïîäîðîæÈ, íî÷È). If the roots of third-declension nouns end in the consonant -ò, and are preceded by another consonant, then the genitive case singular ends in -è (òâîð÷îñòÈ, ðàäîñòÈ, ñìåðòÈ). This is the same ending for all fourth-declension nouns in the genitive case (³ìåíÈ, ïëåìåíÈ). All indefinite pronouns are written as one word (áóäüõòî, áóäüùî, ÿêèéíåáóäü, etc.). Some words, which begin with the letter ª today start with the letter E (Åâðîïà, Åâïàòîð³ÿ). Letter combinations of foreign words that entered the Ukrainian language in the mid-twentieth century are palatalized (e.g., “la,” “lo,” and “lu” are rendered as “ëÿ,” “ëüî,” and “ëþ” (áàËßíñ, áËÜîê, ìåòàËÞðã³ÿ). Words that contain the letter combinations “ia,” “ie,” and “iu” are rendered as “³ÿ,” “³º,” and “³þ” (ãåí²ßëüíèé, ïàö²ªíò, òð²Þìô). The dipthong “au” is rendered as “àâ” (ÀÂäèòîð³ÿ, ÀÂä³ºíö³ÿ). Thus, documents with the above-described features have been reproduced without change.83
The authors of documents generated by the UPA and its rear line services had a tendency to capitalize the names of organizational positions and centers (e.g., Êîìàíäèð, Äèâåðñ³éíà ãðóïà) and nationalities (Ìàäÿðè, Í³ìàêè). This may be explained by the impact of the German language, which was strongly felt in the 1940s. Therefore, nouns were sometimes automatically capitalized. In every such case capital letters have been changed to lower-case letters.84
Words derived from the lexicon of the local vernacular (“öå¿,” “ñâîìó,” “áî,” “íî,” etc.) have not been altered. No changes were made to the archaic Ukrainian connective “a” in the sense of “and.” Locutions germane to insurgent documentation (e.g., “...ñåêðåòàðÿ ðàéïàðòêîìó ï³ñëàëè â öàðñòâî Ïðîçåðï³íè ³ Ïëóòîíà”; “...êîìàíäèð Ñòåïàí â³ä³éøîâ, ùîá çàñ³ñòè íà íèõ ³ æàðíóòè ùîá ç íèõ ïîñèïàëîñÿ ï³ð’ÿ”) are reproduced intact.
All extraneous notations on a document appear between the end of the text and the legend. If the pseudonyms of individuals mentioned in the documents have been successfully deciphered, and there is biographical information about them, these data appear in footnotes at the first mention. Obsolete words, dialect words, Russianisms, or Polonisms, as well words that do not exist in the contemporary Ukrainian literary language have not been corrected; they appear in a separate list in the Supplement.
In keeping with contemporary rules, punctuation and the use of quotation marks and the apostrophe have been corrected. If the meaning of a certain paragraph, sentence, or phrase in a document is difficult to ascertain, in each case this is flagged in a footnote. The same is done when certain words or sentences are underlined in a document. If a document mentions place-names that have been incorrectly declined, no changes are made so as to minimize editorial intrusions.
Each document is accompanied by a legend noting the document storage location (abbreviation of the archive, number of the fond, list, file, volume, folio/s) and indicating the authenticity of the document (original, copy, certified copy, draft). Also noted is the method used to create each document: written by hand or typed. Information about the same (identical) or similar (other copies) texts of documents (in other archives, fonds, etc.) is also listed in the legend. In each case, details are provided about the writing implements that were used to create a document: pencil, indelible pencil, etc. A translated document and the language of the translation are also noted.
The Modified Library of Congress (LC) transliteration system was used in the English-language texts. The author of this introduction located and selected the documents, and carried out the archaeographic processing of the texts.
The compilers express their gratitude to the following individuals, who provided assistance, advice, understanding, and financial and moral support: V. Brekhunenko, N. Myronets’, O. Udod, H. Novak, O. Ishchuk, V. V’iatrovych, V. Moroz, S. Koval’chuk, and Iu. Horbach. Special thanks are owed to Mykola Kulyk, Petro Potichnyj and to Ihor Homziak for help in compiling the index. Their all-round assistance helped speed up the process of bringing this archaeographic collection to fruition.