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Name: The Struggle Againts Insurgent Movement and the Nationalist Underground: Interrogation Protocols Of OUN and UPA Leaders Arrested by the Soviet State Security Organs. 1945-1954. Book 2
Volume: 15
Editor in Chief: P.J. Potichnyj
Editor(s): V. Lozytsky
Svitlana Vlasenko
S. Kokin
Editorial board: V. Lozytsky
S. Kokin
R. Pyrih
P.J. Potichnyj
P. Sokhan'
M. Posivnych
Iu. Shapoval
Î. Udod
H. Boryak
Sponsors: BORYS HALAHAN – “YARKO”
Publication Year: 2011
ISBN (Canada): 978-1-897431-28-3
ISBN (Ukraine): 978-966-2105-26-1
Pages Count: 840

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INTRODUCTION The present volume is a continuation of vol. 9 in the Litopys UPA series, which was published in 2007. It includes the materials of archived criminal cases stored in the collections of the Branch State Archive of the Security Service of Ukraine (Kyiv) on several members of the OUN and the UPA, who were arrested and convicted by the organs of the Soviet government. These documents are an important source for the study of the history of the clandestine Ukrainian nationalist insurgent movement and the organs of Soviet power. The importance of this collection of documents lies in the fact that they contain information on captured OUN and UPA members and their activities, as well as data on other nationalist figures and their relations with each other, and the organization, activities, and struggle of various insurgent subunits. This volume contains materials from archived criminal cases on seven individuals: Mykola Kharytonovych Pavlovych, Ivan Ivanovych Pavlovych-Babynets’, Petro Oleksandrovych Lykhovs’ky, Viktor Stepanovych Kharkiv, Hryhorii Ivanovych Goliash, Yuliian Mykolaiovych Matviiv, and Stepan Yosypovych Koval’. The majority of these individuals, all of whom held leading positions in the OUN and the UPA, had access to important information. Therefore, their statements may be regarded as a reliable source for the study of the Ukrainian insurgent movement. The volume contains 143 documents and is divided into five chapters. Most of the documents are interrogation reports on these seven arrestees; the remaining documents are interrogation reports on confrontations (ochni stavky). The documents cover a given investigation period and range from January 1945 to September 1954. In fact, the chronology of the events reflected in these documents is much broader. The geographic range of the documents encompasses the oblasts of Western Ukraine, which were part of Poland until September 1939; part of the Ukrainian SSR from September 1939 to the summer of 1941; under German occupation from the fall of 1941 to the fall of 1944; and once again part of the Ukrainian SSR from the fall of 1944. The documents in this collection are organized chronologically. The ordering of the chapters is determined by the date of arrest of every individual, while the location of the documents in each chapter is determined according to the date when they were created. One exception is a fragment from the interrogation report on I. Pan’kiv, the responsible leader of the OUN Security Service (OUN SB) for the city of L’viv, dated 28 October 1944, which is included in the form of an addendum to the interrogation report on Viktor Kharkiv, dated 22 May 1946 (Chapter 2, doc. ¹ 10). Most of the documents have been reproduced in their entirety. The language of these documents is Russian, the official language of the Soviet bureaucracy in the Ukrainian SSR at the time. The lexicon of the interrogation reports fully corresponds to the terminology used by the Soviet security organs in the 1950s. Some vivid examples are the epithets “bandit” (read: “adversary”) “gang” or “gang group” (read: “group of adversaries”) “gang leader” (read: “leader of a group”), “abettor of a gang” (read: “sympathizer”). Owing to the fact that few changes were made to the interrogation reports, it is possible to distinguish the particular “signature” of an investigator. The placement of documents according to the date they were created helps to recreate continuity of the investigation process. Chapter One features materials on three individuals who were grouped together in one case file: Mykola Pavlovych (documents covering the period from 20 August 1945 to 3 October 1945), Ivan Pavlovych-Babynets’ (documents covering the period from 25 January 1945 to 23 October 1945), and Petro Lykhovs’ky (documents covering the period from 11 September 1945 to 1 October 1945). Without a doubt, the main figure in this case is Mykola Pavlovych. According to his case materials, he “deserted from the Red Army, joined the UPA, carried out the functions of a lecturer at a non-commissioned officer candidate school and deputy commandant of the school, chief and deputy chief of the headquarters of the “Vovchak” Detachment, and later, deputy commander and deputy chief of the headquarters of the northern group “Turiv,” deputy and chief of the headquarters of the “Zavykhost” formation; he trained leading cadres; drafted instructions, study programs, the structure of the UPA; issued guidelines on the intensification of the execution of sabotage-terrorist acts; led battles several times and took part in battles against Soviet partisans, NKVD employees and troops; had close links with the Germans, with whom he conducted negotiations about obtaining weapons and ammunition; recruited young people to the ranks of the UPA.” Mykola Pavlovych was born on 23 August 1914 into a peasant family in the village of Sedlyshche, Sedlyshche raion (today: Starovyzhiv raion) in Volyn’. After completing the seventh grade, in 1932 he enrolled at the Technical Land Management School in Kovel’. After the school was shut down, he was forced to complete his studies in Vilnius. He graduated in 1937 with a diploma in technical land management, and for the next two years he worked as a land manager in various districts of Western Belarus’ and Poland. When Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, Pavlovych was drafted into the Polish army. After the Germans occupied Poland, he made his way home, where he was living until the arrival of the Red Army. He found work in the Sedlyshche raion land department, but was laid off in 1940. He then found work as a teacher at the partial high school in Sedlyshche. In the fall of 1940 Pavlovych enrolled at the Faculty of Agriculture at the L’viv Polytechnic Institute (Forestry Department). However, owing to a lack of funds, he was unable to continue his studies and in late 1940 returned to his native village, where he found work as a budget inspector in the raion financial department. With the outbreak of the German-Soviet war in June 1941 Pavlovych was mobilized into the Red Army and sent to the front. He was wounded at the Battle of Kovel’, after which he remained in German-occupied territory. In the fall of 1941 the Department of Public Education in Sedlyshche raion appointed him director of the elementary school in the village of Dubechne, where he worked until it was closed in December 1941. In February 1942 Pavlovych was hired as a forest ranger by the forestry administration of Torchyn raion, Volyn’ oblast, where he worked until March 1943. In February 1943 he married a schoolteacher named Tamara Oleksandrivna Ryzhkovs’ka (the interrogation report on Ryzhkovs’ka is reproduced in Chapter One, doc. ¹ 27). On 26 March 1943 Pavlovych joined the UPA and adopted the codename “Yavorenko.” He was a member until March 1945. Shortly after he joined the UPA, “Rudyi” (Yu. Stel’mashchuk), the commander of the “Turiv” Military Okruha, assigned him to teach topography at the UPA officer candidate school located in the Skulyn forest in Kovel’ raion. On 1 June 1943 he left to take up his duties at the school, where he also served as the school’s deputy commandant. After the courses ended on 31 August 1943, the graduates were assigned to various UPA companies. Starting in mid-September 1943 Pavlovych spent approximately 45 days as the chief of the headquarters of the “Ozero” UPA detachment, which was eventually merged with the “Turiv” UPA group. Until 19 January 1944 he served as second deputy commander of “Turiv” as well as deputy chief of this group’s headquarters. On 9 April 1944 “Vovchak” (O. Shum) assigned Pavlovych to the commander of the “Holubenko” (O. Hromadiuk) UPA detachment, who was stationed in Volodymyr-Volyns’kyi raion. He remained here until June 1944. In October 1944 he arrived in Kamin’-Kashyrs’ky raion, where he was appointed second deputy commander of the “Zavykhost” UPA group led by “Dubovyi” (I. Lytvynchuk), serving as acting chief of the group’s headquarters. On “Dubovyi’s” instructions he devised a program of studies for the UPA officer candidate school in Rivne oblast. As the chief of the headquarters, he prepared operational orders on combat activities, trained rank and file personnel, procured food supplies, etc. On 29 December 1944 he was assigned to the “Kubik” (T. Zinchuk) UPA brigade, where he served as a military specialist. After the arrest of “Rudyi” (Yu. Stel’mashchuk) in January 1945, Pavlovych withdrew from his leading functions. In connection with the intensification of the purges that were being conducted in the ranks of the UPA by the OUN Security Service, he too fell under suspicion and decided to go underground. On the night of 1 March 1945 he made his way home, where he remained in hiding until his arrest. As one of the reasons behind his departure from the UPA he cited the escalation of purges by the SB OUN, which were sparked above all by “Rudyi’s” capture by the NKVD, the death on 12 February 1945 of “Klym Savur” (D. Kliachkivs’ky), the commander of UPA-North, and the escalation of the agentura war against the UPA leadership, waged by the NKVD of the Ukrainian SSR. On 19 August 1945, while Pavlovych was visiting his mother, NKVD troops surrounded the house. Attempting to escape the encirclement, he was wounded in the head and captured. His investigation took place in the NKVD prison in the city of Luts’k. On 27 October 1945 he was charged under Articles 54-1b and 54-11 of the Criminal Code of the Ukrainian SSR. On 4 November 1945 the Military Tribunal of the NKVD Troops of Volyn’ oblast sentenced him to the highest degree of criminal punishment, execution by shooting, with confiscation of property. The sentence was carried out on 14 February 1946. On 20 February 1998 the Military Prosecutor’s Office of the Western region of Ukraine issued a finding with regard to the archived criminal case on Mykola Pavlovych and others, which stated that he was “justly convicted in the indicated criminal case and is not eligible for rehabilitation.” The interrogation reports on Mykola Pavlovych, along with biographical data and information on his participation in the UPA’s clandestine insurgent struggle, contain valuable information on the leading members of the “Turiv” and “Zavykhost” groups, their constituent military formations, number of personnel, etc. Since Pavlovych was the deputy commander and chief of the “Turiv” group headquarters and, later, second deputy commander and acting chief of the “Zavykhost” group’s headquarters, it may be reasonably assumed that the information he provided during his interrogations has a high level of reliability. Furthermore, during the course of his duties he also engaged in registration work, including the registration of personnel. Equally interesting is the information pertaining to the non-commissioned officer candidate school in the Skulyn woods, the organization of work at the school, its program of studies, faculty, number of students, etc. Pavlovych also devised study programs for non-commissioned officer candidate schools, as well as a program designed for new UPA recruits, etc. He also helped develop the UPA’s Disciplinary Statute (on “Rudyi’s” orders), the draft of which was unveiled in the fall of 1943. According to Pavlovych, even though this statute was never validated, it was used in practical work. The interrogation reports on Mykola Pavlovych also contain valuable information on the work of the OUN’s Security Service, active figures of the OUN clandestine movement and leading UPA personnel, and combat actions targeting Soviet partisans as well as NKVD personnel and troops on the territory of Volyn’ and Rivne oblasts, which Pavlovych frequently commanded or in which he fought. The case against Ivan Pavlovych-Babynets’ is part of the same case file as his cousin Mykola Pavlovych. He to was indicted on charges that “he was a member of the UPA, had weapons, completed military training, took part in battles against Soviet partisans, refused to be mobilized into the Red Army, after being arrested he escaped, joined an SB fighting group, took part in killing Soviet citizens and looting their property, [and took part] in ambushes against NKVD personnel and troops.” Ivan Pavlovych-Babynets’ was born in 1909 into a peasant family in the village of Sedlyshche, Sedlyshche raion, in Volyn’. In 1923 he completed one year of schooling. Following his marriage in 1938, he and his wife moved to the village of Myzove, in Sedlyshche raion, where he worked as a farmer. They remained living there even after Volyn’ oblast was occupied by the Germans in 1941. In November 1942 he was ordered into the police service, and worked as a policeman until late July 1943. He was initially assigned to the police station in Sedlyshche raion until April 1943, after which he spent two months with the Kovel’ municipal police force, and finally, the Ratniv raion police force. In September 1943 Pavlovych-Babynets’ joined the UPA detachment led by “Kubik” (T. Zinchuk), adopting the codename “Tykhyi.” After completing military training, he was assigned to a detachment and took part in various battles against Soviet and Polish partisans. During a battle in October 1943 he was wounded and sent home to recover. After the Red Army occupied Volyn’ oblast, he became an illegal and hid until early 1945. In January 1945 he was arrested by the NKVD division of Sedlyshche raion. However, he managed to escape and went to ground until April 1945. That month he joined the “Petrus’” SB raion fighting group. Abandoning his codename “Tykhyi”, he remained a member of the group until July 1945. He returned to his village, where he lived as an illegal. Together with his cousin Mykola Pavlovych, he evaded capture by concealing himself in a hideout located near his house. There, on 29 August 1945, he was captured by an operations group of the NKVD raion division. On 27 October 1945 Pavlovych-Babynets’ was charged under Articles 54-1a and 54-11 of the Criminal Code of the Ukrainian SSR. On 4 November 1945 the Military Tribunal of the NKVD Troops of Volyn’ oblast sentenced him to the highest degree of criminal punishment—execution by shooting, with confiscation of property. The sentence was carried out on 14 February 1946. After examining the archived criminal case on Pavlovych-Babynets’ and others, on 20 February 1998 the Military Prosecutor’s Office of the Western region of Ukraine issued the finding that he was “justly convicted in the indicated criminal case and is not eligible for rehabilitation.” Together with biographical data, the interrogation reports on Pavlovych-Babynets’ contain information on the activities of the local raion police force, which was created by the Germans in several raions of Volyn’ oblast, as well as information about the leading figures and activities of the “Petrus’” SB raion fighting group, etc. Particularly noteworthy is the report on an interrogation that took place on 25 January 1945, during his first arrest by the NKVD (Chapter One, doc. ¹ 1). These materials differ fundamentally from his later statements. The third figure in this criminal case is Petro Lykhovs’ky, who was indicted on charges that he was “a member of an UPA gang, had weapons, completed a non-commissioned officer candidate school, … served as the personal secretary to a battalion commander, and later as the commander of a detachment, … served as a squad leader, warrant officer, and, later, as the chief of units of the “Holubenko” detachment, took part in battles against Soviet and Polish partisans and attacks on Polish villages, carried out terrorist acts against Soviet party activists, engaged in looting the civilian population …” Petro Lykhovs’ky, the son of a peasant, was born in 1923 in the village of Korytnytsia, Lokachi raion, Volyn’ oblast. After completing his schooling in the village, in 1936 he enrolled in the high school in the village of Svyniukhy, where he completed seven grades. Later, he completed eight grades at a school located in the town of Horokhiv. From September 1942 to January 1943 he did his matriculation courses in the city of Volodymyr-Volyns’ky. After failing to complete them, he returned home. In January 1943 he found employment as an apprentice forest ranger in the Sadove forestry administration, where Mykola Pavlovych had worked at one time. In late March 1943 he and Pavlovych joined the UPA “Chornomorets’” Company, adopting the codename “Mazurenko.” During his assignment to this company, which ended in September 1943, he studied at a non-commissioned officer candidate school. After completing his studies, he was promoted to the rank of corporal. In September 1943 he was assigned to a battalion led by Commander “Beskyd” (V. Luk’ianchuk), where he served as secretary. In December 1943 he began serving as secretary to the detachment led by “Sosenko” (P. Antoniuk), where he was assigned to draft orders, directives, and instructions, maintain a register of the detachment’s numerical strength, and carry out a variety of technical duties. He took part in various battles against Soviet and Polish partisans, requisitioned food from the population, etc. He remained with “Sosenko’s” detachment until January 1944; he served as “Sosenko’s” second in command until April of that year and spent one month (until May) in “Vorona” Company. From there he was transferred to a general economic detachment led by “Holubenko” (O. Hromadiuk), where he managed the detachment’s storehouses, supplied the soldiers with food and clothing, and ensured that routine in the detachment was maintained. He remained with “Holubenko’s” detachment until August 1944, when he returned home and abandoned the detachment. Afterwards, Lykhovs’ky worked with the kushch OUN leader (under the codename “Marko”); the raion OUN leader of Lokachi raion (under the codename “Tymish”), and the kushch youth leader (under the codename “Slavko,” and others). On 10 September 1945 Lykhovs’kyi was captured during a battle with NKVD troops. On 27 October he was charged under Articles 54-1a and 54-11 of the Criminal Code of the Ukrainian SSR. On 4 November the Military Tribunal of the NKVD troops of Volyn’ oblast sentenced him to the highest degree of criminal punishment—execution by shooting, with confiscation of property. On 8 December a resolution handed down by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR commuted his capital sentence to twenty years’ hard labor with confiscation of property and curtailment of rights for an additional five years. On 23 July 1956, following a decision issued by the Commission of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Lykhovs’ky was released from the labor camp into his father’s care. On 20 February 1998, following a review of the archived criminal case on Lykhovs’ky and others, the Military Prosecutor’s Office of the Western region of Ukraine declared that he had been “justly convicted” and “ineligible for rehabilitation.” As noted earlier, Lykhovs’ky joined the Ukrainian insurgent movement at the same time as Pavlovych. Thus, the interrogation reports on him also contain information on the latter’s membership in the UPA. The interrogation reports on confrontations that took place between Lykhovs’ky and Pavlovych and between Pavlovych and Pavlovych-Babynets’ and the interrogation reports on various witnesses all contain information that clarify several controversial, unresolved questions. Chapter Two features documents on Viktor Kharkiv, covering the period from 6 February 1945 to 5 June 1946. Kharkiv was born in 1922 into a peasant family living in the village of Nemyliv, Radekhiv raion, L’viv oblast. After completing the seven-grade school in Radekhiv, he left for L’viv, where he enrolled at a two-year agricultural school, from which he graduated in 1938 with a diploma in gardening. In 1937, while he was still in school, he joined the Sokil youth society. In 1938, following his graduation, he returned to his native village, where he joined the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists in early 1939. During his time in the OUN he used the codenames “Chornyi,” “Bludnyi,” and “Khmara” (he was mostly known according to the latter codename). In 1939 Kharkiv was appointed the responsible leader for military affairs of the OUN’s Galician leadership, and after the western oblasts were annexed to the Ukrainian SSR in the fall of 1939, he moved to Cracow. In May 1941 the OUN leadership ordered him and other members of the organization to move to the eastern German city of Neuhammer, where the Nachtigall Battalion was formed. He received one month of military training. After the battalion was disbanded, Kharkiv was assigned to the 201st Schutzmannschaft (Guard) Battalion, which was created in October 1941 from the members of the disbanded Nachtigall and Roland battalions. The 201st Battalion operated in German-occupied Belarus from March to December 1942. In December 1942, following the disbandment of the 201st Battalion, Kharkiv returned to L’viv, where his mother resided; he lived there from January to April 1943. In April 1943 he was appointed responsible leader of the L’viv municipal OUN leadership and later, in the spring of 1944, he became the commander of Military Okruha (VO) ¹ 1 “Bashta,” UPA-West. He organized the first training camp for VO “Bashta’; in May he led all the L’viv-based fighters into the forests and formed the first fighting unit; in July he merged all the units into the “Kholodnoiartsi” Battalion and was appointed its commander. In September 1944, after the dissolution of VO “Bashta,” he was appointed first military inspector of the headquarters of Military Okruha ¹ 2 “Buh,” UPA-West. As inspector, he controlled the UPA’s active formations, replenished their ranks with fighting groups, retrained personnel by creating military training courses, and acquired weapons and uniforms. He went into hiding in Nemyliv in April 1945. In August he moved back to L’viv, where he lived with the aid of forged documents until he was captured. On 28 January 1946 he was arrested by an operations group of the Directorate for the Struggle against Banditry of the NKVD of the Ukrainian SSR. On 29 June 1946 the Military Tribunal of the NKVD Troops of Kyiv oblast convicted him as an “active Ukrainian nationalist” under Articles 54-1a and 54-11 of the Criminal Code of the Ukrainian SSR, according to Article 2 of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, dated 19 April 1943. He was sentenced to twenty years’ hard labor with confiscation of property and curtailment of rights for an additional five years. On 24 January 1956 the military prosecutor of the Kyiv Military District lodged a protest in response to an appeal lodged by Kharkiv and his mother. As a result, the Military Tribunal of the Kyiv Military District excluded Article 2 of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, declaring that it was “unjustly applied,” and therefore reduced his sentence to ten years’ of hard labor camps and curtailment of rights for an additional three years. On 23 March 1995 the Prosecutor’s Office of L’viv oblast issued the finding, based on Kharkiv’s criminal case, that he had been “justly convicted in this case and is not eligible for rehabilitation.” Kharkiv was sent to the Ozernoe corrective-labor camp in Irkuts’k oblast (Russian Federation). After his case was reviewed and his sentenced reduced in 1956, he was released. He lived in L’viv until 1988. Besides providing important information on his activities, the interrogation reports on Viktor Kharkiv include a variety of other valuable data, including information on the activities of a secret organization that existed in L’viv on the eve of the Second World War—the “L’viv Nationalist Krai”—and on its okruhas, the leaders of these districts, and their location, etc. These reports also contain a considerable amount of information on OUN members and UPA soldiers, including the members of the Central Leadership of the OUN, okruha- and oblast-level OUN leaders, members of the Supreme Headquarters of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, UPA commanders, and others. The interrogation reports also mention the formation of the Nachtigall Battalion, later reformed as the 201st Schutzmannschaft Battalion, and the combat operations of the two battalions in German-occupied Ukraine and Belarus. These interrogation reports also contain important information on the military training of UPA soldiers. Kharkiv believed that the main goal of military training was “to train military cadres from among the most active members of the OUN for the UPA, both rank and file and command personnel” (Chapter Two, doc. ¹ 7). The 1950s were the period of the Soviet government’s all-out offensive, whose goal was to annihilate the remnants of the nationalist underground in Ukraine’s western regions. In 1950 alone 100 members of the central apparatus of the MGB of the Ukrainian SSR and 589 representatives of oblast MGB directorates were dispatched from eastern Ukraine to help the local security organs in the western Ukrainian oblasts. One of the results of their activities was the discovery of the whereabouts and the death on 5 March 1950 of Roman Shukhevych, the Supreme Commander of the UPA, the head of the Bureau of the OUN Leadership, and the head of the General Secretariat of the Ukrainian Supreme Liberation Council (UHVR). There were significant losses among other leading UPA cadres on the okruha, nadraion, and raion levels. One of these was Hryhorii Goliash, the subject of the documents pertaining to the archived criminal case featured in Chapter Three. These documents encompass the period from 19 April to 5 June 1950. The period from 19 to 30 April, predating the start of his investigation, is represented by an interrogation report on him and extracts from interrogation reports on other people in connection with Goliash’s case. Hryhorii Goliash, the son of a peasant, was born on 19 August 1910 in the village of Byshky, Berezhany raion, Ternopil’ region. He completed his secondary school education. By 1932 he was an active OUN member. Known in the Ukrainian underground mostly as “Bei,” he also used the codenames “Bul’ba,” “Modest,” “Sholom,” and others. From 1932 to 1937 he was the head of the OUN stanytsia network in Byshky. For a period of some two years, until the summer of 1939, he was the responsible leader for military affairs of the OUN’s Berezhany county (povit) leadership. From the summer to the fall of 1939 he was also the responsible leader for military affairs of the OUN leadership in Berezhany okruha. After Western Ukraine was occupied by Soviet troops in the fall of 1939, Goliash moved to German-occupied Poland, where he served with the police in the city of Strachowice until February 1941. In February 1941 Goliash and other OUN members illegally crossed the border into the USSR, and until June of that year he served as the responsible leader for military affairs of the OUN leadership of Berezhany okruha. From the summer of 1941 to the summer of 1943 he was the personal courier and bodyguard of M. Stepaniak, the OUN krai leader in the Western Ukrainian Lands (ZUZ). In the summer of 1943 he was ordered by Stepaniak to join the SS Galicia Division. After the unsuccessful Battle of Brody in July 1944, Goliash rejoined the OUN underground, where he served as the organizational responsible leader of the OUN leadership of Ternopil’ oblast until August 1945. Between August and October 1945 he headed the liaison point of the “Podillia” OUN krai leadership and liaised between “Danylo” (I. Shanaida), the head of the Ternopil’ oblast OUN leadership, and “Petro” (R. Kravchuk), the OUN leader in the Galician lands. In October 1945 Goliash was recalled on the orders of the Central Leadership of the OUN (TsP OUN) and dispatched personally by Shukhevych to L’viv, where he was tasked with finding safe houses and hiding places for members of the TsP OUN. He remained in L’viv from 1947 to 1950, living in a bunker that he had personally outfitted. He communicated with Shukhevych through his courier, “Anna” (H. Dydyk), and met with him twice in his hideout. On 27 April 1950 Goliash was discovered in his bunker by MGB troops. Before being captured, he fought back and made an unsuccessful attempt to commit suicide. After a brief period of recovery in a clinic of the L’viv State Medical Institute, Goliash was arrested on 5 May 1950. On 15 May he was charged under Articles 54-1a and 54-11 of the Criminal Code of the Ukrainian SSR. The indictment read that “he was a cadre member of the OUN underground, where he held a variety of leading posts, waged an active armed struggle against the Soviet power.” Goliash was held for investigation in the internal prison of the MGB Directorate of L’viv oblast, where on 16 June 1950 he was found dead under mysterious circumstances. The decision to terminate the investigation, issued on 22 June 1950 by the MGB Directorate of L’viv oblast, merely records his death. Some clarifications of the cause of death are contained in the findings of the L’viv Forensic-Medical Morgue: “The death of H. I. Goliash was the result of massive trauma to the head, accompanied by damage to the soft tissues of the head and the face, the splintering of the bones of the skull, and massive injuries to the brain tissue of the large hemispheres of the brain; in addition, the body showed: an open fracture of the right femur, a closed fracture of the tibia, and numerous abrasions on the skin on the lower extremities. All the indicated injuries resulted from Goliash’s body falling from a great height onto a hard, uneven surface; in addition, he did not fall on his head; the injuries to the feet, indicated by the numerous skin abrasions, were clearly the result of a collision with the wall of a structure while his body was sliding down. … The death was violent—trauma from a fall from a height. Taking into consideration the circumstances of this event, as well as the nature of the injuries discovered on Goliash’s body, there are grounds to believe that Goliash’s death was the result of suicide.” In 1993 Goliash’s niece Liubov Parasiuk sent a declaration to the Prosecutor’s Office of L’viv oblast, requesting posthumous rehabilitation for her uncle. On 30 September 1993 Hryhorii Goliash was rehabilitated on the grounds of the Law of the Ukrainian SSR (17 April 1991), “On the Rehabilitation of Victims of Political Repressions in Ukraine.” The interrogation reports on H. Goliash and extracts from interrogation reports on H. Dydyk and M. Uhryn, who knew him from his clandestine work, contain nearly complete information on Goliash’s activities, beginning from the time he joined the OUN and ending with his residence in an illegal house in L’viv. Particularly interesting are fragments of reports that shed light on his friendly relations with Roman Shukhevych and his courier “Anna.” The interrogation reports on Goliash also contain information about various responsible military, financial, organizational, and propaganda leaders of the OUN’s krai, okruha, nadraion, and raion leaderships. These documents also contain some data on his wife Maria Andriivna Gulai, who, according to Goliash’s statements, was a member of the OUN during the German occupation of L’viv and deputy leader of the OUN raion leadership in the women’s network of the L’viv rural raion. She was arrested by the MGB in 1948 (Chapter Three, doc. ¹ 5). The subject of Chapter Four is Yuliian Matviiv, and the only featured documents are interrogation reports on him covering the period from 29 May to 1 November 1952. Matviiv was born in 1919 into a family of village schoolteachers in the village of Biliavtsi, Brody raion, Stanyslaviv oblast (today: L’viv oblast). In 1937 he completed his law studies at the University of Lublin (Poland), and from 1937 to 1939 he was a student at the Faculty of Socioeconomic Studies at a university in Brussels (Belgium). He joined the OUN in 1932 and was occupied mainly with recruiting new members to the organization and providing them with ideological training. He was married to Liubov Dytsio-Matviiva, with whom he had two children. In 1951 his wife was convicted under Article 54-12 of the Criminal Code of the Ukrainian SSR and sentenced to five years of corrective-labor camps. After Soviet troops occupied Western Ukraine in the fall of 1939, Matviiv and his wife moved to Poland. From May 1940 to 23 March 1944 he served in the Ukrainian police, which was subordinated to the German gendarmerie. From 1 May 1940 to October 1941 he was based initially in Hrubieszów (Hrubeshiv), located in Lublin Województwo (Poland) and later, in German-occupied territory of the USSR. From October to November 1941 he was the secretary of the okruha command of the police in the city of Kolomyia. From November 1941 to 23 March 1944 he held the post of raion police commandant in the city of Kuty, Stanyslaviv oblast. On 23 March 1944 Matviiv and the policemen under his command joined the UPA, where he held leading positions under the codename “Nedobytyi.” In January 1945 he was appointed the head of the UPA battalion “Peremoha” with the rank of Master Sergeant. The 450-strong battalion operated on the territory of Stanyslaviv oblast. On 15 April 1945 the Supreme Military Headquarters of the UPA awarded Matviiv the Bronze Cross of Combat Merit and promoted him to the rank of Second Lieutenant. Between May and September 1945 he and his soldiers operated on the territory of Romania. After their return, he completed special courses with the SB OUN in November 1945, after which he was promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant. Between December 1945 and September 1947 he was the SB responsible leader of the Kosiv nadraion leadership of the OUN, and its head from May to September 1947. From September 1947 to May 1948 Matviiv was the SB responsible leader of the Kolomyia okruha leadership of the OUN and later, in May 1948, he was appointed deputy leader of the Bukovyna okruha leadership of the OUN. From July 1950 until his arrest by the MGB in May 1952 he headed this leadership. During the night of 27 May 1952 Yu. Matviiv and M. Krychun (“Cheremshyna”) were captured by the MGB in their forest hideout in the woods near the village of Liucha, Yabluniv raion, Stanyslaviv oblast, delivered to the MGB Directorate in the city of Stanyslaviv (today: Ivano-Frankivs’k), where he was imprisoned in the internal prison of the MGB Directorate. After a preliminary investigation, in July 1952 Matviiv was transferred to the internal prison of the MGB of the Ukrainian SSR in Kyiv. On 28 October 1952 Matviiv’s case was joined with Krychun’s case because, as noted in the resolution calling for the merging of these two investigation cases, they “shared an organizational link and carried out active anti-Soviet activities.” On 18 November 1952 Matviiv was charged under Articles 54-1a, 54-8, 54-9, and 54-11 of the Criminal Code of the Ukrainian SSR. A session of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR was held on 19–20 January 1953 in Kyiv, where Matviiv and Krychun’s case were heard. Both men were sentenced “to the highest degree of criminal punishment—execution by shooting, with confiscation of all property. …The verdict is final and not subject to appeal.” The defendants’ appeals for clemency were denied by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in March 1953, and on 6 April 1953 they were shot in Kyiv. On 30 April 1996 the Prosecutor’s Office of Ivano-Frankivs’k oblast issued its finding on the archived criminal case on Matviiv and Krychun, declaring that both had been “justly sentenced according to the given criminal case and therefore are not eligible for rehabilitation.” The materials of the archived criminal case show that Matviiv’s investigation was conducted intensively: he was interrogated on a daily basis, often twice a day, especially after he was moved to Kyiv. Many witnesses were questioned in connection with his case. In addition to biographical data, the interrogation reports on Matviiv contain complete information on his clandestine activities in the OUN and his combat activities in the UPA and the SB OUN. Of particular interest to researchers is the information that these documents reveal about the various members of the clandestine insurgent movement of the OUN and the UPA on the territory of Stanyslaviv and Chernivtsi oblasts; the network of OUN leaderships on the nadraion and raion levels in those regions; the liaison system, meeting points, and couriers; potential storage places for weapons and documents of the nationalist underground; and various documents of an organizational character, such as programs, instructions, etc. Also noteworthy are Matviiv’s statements about the creation and spread of nationalist organizations in the eastern Ukrainian territories. Other interesting materials may be found in his explanations of the content and character of the documents that were found by the MGB during his capture. These materials include notes variously titled “Addresses,” “On the Basics of Reporting,” “Organizational Guidelines,” “Reporting Scheme,” “Uncontrolled Territories,” “Organization of Work,” “Review of the Situation in the Territory (Scheme),” “For Clarification,” “Assistance from Territory 21,” “Balance As of 1.1.1952,” “Cash Book,” “Miscellaneous,” and others. Also included among these documents are materials of a programmatic nature, in particular drafts of the “Programs of Organizational Training” and “Conspectus of Organizational Training,” dated April 1950. The fifth and final chapter, encompassing the period from 27 August 1953 to 28 September 1954, is devoted to Stepan Koval’. The son of a peasant, Koval’ was born on 3 January 1914 in the village of Korchyn, Radekhiv raion, L’viv oblast. He completed his secondary education specializing in music. In 1933 he joined the Prosvita Society. He was arrested by the Poles in 1938 on charges of engaging in nationalistic activities and was sentenced to five years’ imprisonment. From the late 1930s he considered himself an active member of the OUN. In September 1939, after Soviet rule was established on the territory of Western Ukraine, he moved to German-occupied Poland, where he lived in Hrubieszów County. He engaged in nationalist activities under the codename “Rubashchenko,” initially serving as a subraion head and later, as the OUN raion responsible leader for military affairs. He also organized a branch of the youth formation “Sich” in the village of Zhuzhel’, where he taught the art of war to young men. When the German-Soviet War broke out in June 1941, Koval’ was ordered by the Ukrainian underground to go to the city of Luts’k in German-occupied Ukraine, where he took part in selecting students for an agricultural school established by the Nazi occupying regime. He was the director of this school from September 1941 to March 1943. In March 1943 the entire school—300 people, headed by Koval’—joined the UPA. Between March and the fall of 1943 Koval’ was the chief of an UPA group led by “Oleh” and was mostly engaged in procuring weapons and food supplies. In November 1943 he took part in a meeting held in the hamlet of Stydens’ky, in the Rivne region, which was chaired by “Klym Savur” (D. Kliachkivs’ky). The participants of the meeting discussed preparations for escalating the military and ideological struggle in the western territories after the westward shift of the front. Koval’ was assigned the command of the “Kotlovyna” detachment (300 men), which operated in several raions of Volyn’ oblast. From the summer of 1944 to September 1945 Koval’ was the adjutant of “Dubovyi” (I. Lytvynchuk), the krai leader and member of the Central Leadership of the OUN. He adopted several new codenames: “Burlaka” and “Yurko.” In the fall of 1945 Koval’, suspected of having links with the NKVD, fled from “Dubovyi” and lived as an illegal until 1947. He then acquired forged documents under the name of Dmytro Petrovych Lytvyn (b. 1910), legalized his status, and settled down in the city of Stanyslaviv, where he got married. He was the artistic director of the raion house of culture, studied at a music institute, and was the conductor of a choir at the Stanyslaviv State Pedagogical Institute. Koval’ was arrested on 24 April 1954. On 4 May he was charged under Articles 54-1a and 54-11 of the Criminal Code of the Ukrainian SSR for being “a member of the counterrevolutionary Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, the OUN, [where] he held a leading position, had the organizational pseudonyms ‘Rubashchenko,’ ‘Burlaka,’ ‘Yurko,’ and armed with weapons in 1943–1945, being the commander of the ‘Kotlovyna’ detachment, he carried out nationalist activities on the territory of Volyn’ oblast.” At a hearing of the Military Tribunal of the Subcarpathian Military District held on 20–23 November 1954 Koval’ was convicted under Article 54-4 of the Criminal Code of the Ukrainian SSR and sentenced to ten years of corrective-labor camps, without confiscation of property owing to its absence. On 30 July 1956 the Commission of the Presidium of the Supreme Court of the USSR, convened in connection with his case, issued a finding to reduce his sentence to time served. He was thus released on 8 August 1956, and returned to his family in Stanyslaviv. After Ukraine declared its independence, his case was reexamined by the Prosecutor’s Office. Koval’ was rehabilitated by a decision handed down by this office on 15 September 1992. The first interrogation report on Stepan Koval’, dated 27 August 1953, was drawn up long before his arrest and indictment (Chapter Five, doc. ¹ 1). The next interrogation report is dated 24 April 1954, was drawn up after his arrest (doc. ¹ 13). Chapter Five also includes interrogation reports on witnesses, most of whom were questioned before his arrest. The next reports on Koval’ contain comparisons that were made between his statements and those provided by witnesses during the first interrogation; clarifications of certain facts; and more detailed descriptions of his activities in German-occupied Poland, at the agricultural school in Luts’k, and in armed formations of the UPA, initially under “Oleh’s” command and later, as the commander of the “Kotlovyna” detachment and, finally, as “Dubovyi’s” adjutant. Of particular interest are Koval’s statements concerning the activities of the agricultural school, the number of students and faculty, and the school’s clandestine operations. The interrogation reports also contain information on the structure of UPA Group “North,” its leading personnel, and the terrain of operations of its individual groups (“Turiv,” “Zahrava,” and others). Also noteworthy are Koval’s statements on the circumstances surrounding the death of “Dubovyi,” who was a member of the Central Leadership of the OUN. The documents included in this volume provide important information on the creation and consolidation of the UPA, relations between the leaders of the UPA and the OUN, and the general principles and concrete directions of Ukrainian insurgent activity during and after the Second World War. They also contain data on the various locales where the Ukrainian armed underground operated and on the members of the clandestine insurgent movement and their sympathizers (their surnames and codenames, brief descriptions, activities, etc.). Thus, this volume is an invaluable source for the study of the history of the Ukrainian national-liberation movement in the mid-twentieth century. Together with other sets of documents, these documents are crucial to achieving an objective understanding of the reasons behind the achievements and failures of the struggle for Ukrainian statehood. Volodymyr Lozyts’kyi *** The compilers of this volume assigned a title to each document, designating a cardinal number and specifying the type of document, content, and date. The original title and date of each document were deliberately retained in the title and the text in order to demonstrate the record-keeping practices of the Soviet security organs. The introductory parts of the interrogation reports were also retained: they contain data on the investigator, a brief biographical note about the individual under investigation, and the start and end times of an interrogation. Each interrogation report is followed by a note stating that every page of the report was signed by the interrogated individual, his signature attesting to the fact that he was informed about the content of the interrogation report. Both the original lexicon and the authorial and editorial features of the compiled documents were retained to the maximum possible degree. The documents appear in their original language (Russian). The compilers silently corrected spelling and punctuation mistakes as well as misidentified geographic place-names. The texts of the documents were reproduced in accordance with current rules concerning the publication of historical documentation. Authorial omissions and indecipherable or missing passages are marked by an ellipsis within square brackets: e.g., […]. Omitted words that were supplied by the compilers also appear within square brackets. Most of the documents in this volume are reproduced in their entirety. Only a handful of interrogation reports appear in abbreviated form, mostly reports on witnesses, which do not pertain to the individual under investigation or which contain repetitive content. If a document was signed or its copy was certified, the surname or codename of the individual who signed it appears in parentheses, e.g. (M. Pavlovych). If a signature is missing next to a surname, this lacuna is marked by a dash within parentheses, e.g., (–) Yu. Matviiv. Each document is accompanied by a legend indicating its storage place (abbreviated name of the archive, number of the fond, list, file, volume, folio); designation of authenticity (original, certified copy, copy); and type of document (handwritten script, typescript). The volume consists of an introductory part in Ukrainian and English, five chapters, thematic notes, an index, and list of abbreviations. The following individuals located, selected, annotated, and carried out the archaeographic preparation of the documents: Svitlana Vlasenko, Oleksandr Ishchuk, the late Anatolii Kentii, Serhii Kokin, and Volodymyr Lozyts’kyi. The compilers gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Diana Boiko, Viktoriia Bukharieva, and Tetiana Kotyk. Litopys UPA, New Series, vol. 9: Borotba proty povstanskoho rukhu i natsionalistychnoho pidpillia: protokoly dopytiv zaareshtovanykh radianskymy orhanamy derzhavnoi bezpeky kerivnykiv OUN i UPA (1944–1945) (Kyiv; Toronto: Natsionalna akademiia nauk Ukrainy, Instytut ukrainskoi arkheohrafii ta dzhereloznavstva im. M. S. Hrushevskoho, Vydavnytstvo “Litopys UPA,” Derzhavnyi komitet arkhiviv Ukrainy, Derzhavnyi arkhiv SB Ukrainy, 2007). Zvynuvachuvalnyi vysnovok Upravlinnia NKVS Volynskoi oblasti po slidchii spravi ¹ 1943 vidnosno M. Kh. Pavlovycha, I. I. Pavlovycha-Babyntsia, P. O. Lykhovs’koho. 27 zhovtnia 1945 r., m. Luts’k, HDA SB Ukrainy, fond 5, file 67433, fol. 163. Vysnovok Viiskovoi prokuratury Zakhidnoho rehionu Ukrainy po arkhivnii kryminalnii spravi ¹ 12645 vidnosno M. Kh. Pavlovycha, I. I. Pavlovycha-Babyntsia, P. O. Lykhovs’koho. 20 liutoho 1998 r., m. L’viv, HDA SB Ukrainy, fond 5, file 67433, fol. 208. Zvynuvachuvalnyi vysnovok Upravlinnia NKVS Volynskoi oblasti po slidchii spravi ¹ 1943 vidnosno M. Kh. Pavlovycha, I. I. Pavlovycha-Babyntsia, P. O. Lykhovs’koho. 27 zhovtnia 1945 r., m. Luts’k, HDA SB Ukrainy, fond 5, file 67433, fol. 163. Vysnovok Viiskovoi prokuratury Zakhidnoho rehionu Ukrainy po arkhivnii kryminalnii spravi ¹ 12645 vidnosno M. Kh. Pavlovycha, I. I. Pavlovycha-Babyntsia, P. O. Lykhovs’koho. 20 liutoho 1998 r., m. L’viv, HDA SB Ukrainy, fond 5, file 67433, fol. 208. Zvynuvachuvalnyi vysnovok Upravlinnia NKVS Volynskoi oblasti po slidchii spravi ¹1943 vidnosno M. Kh. Pavlovycha, I. I. Pavlovycha-Babyntsia, P. O. Lykhovs’koho. 27 zhovtnia 1945 r., m. Luts’k, HDA SB Ukrainy, fond 5, file 67433, fols. 163–64. Vysnovok Viiskovoi prokuratury Zakhidnoho rehionu Ukrainy po arkhivnii kryminalnii spravi ¹ 12645 vidnosno M. Kh. Pavlovycha, I. I. Pavlovycha-Babyntsia, P. O. Lykhovs’koho. 20 liutoho 1998 r., m. L’viv, HDA SB Ukrainy, fond 5, file 67433, fol. 208. Vysnovok Prokuratury Lvivskoi oblasti po arkhivnii kryminalnii spravi ¹ 34693 vidnosno V. S. Kharkiva. 23 bereznia 1995 r., m. L’viv, HDA SB Ukrainy, fond 5, file 67581, fol. 218. A. V. Kentii, Narys borotby OUN–UPA v Ukraini (1946–1956 rr.), (Kyiv: In-t istorii Ukrainy NAN Ukrainy, 1999), p. 73. Postanova Upravlinnia MDB Lvivskoi oblasti pro pred’iavlennia zvynuvachennia H. I. Goliashu. 15 travnia 1950 r., m. L’viv, HDA SB Ukrainy, L’viv, file 30853, fol. 60. Postanova Upravlinnia MDB Lvivskoi oblasti pro prypynennia slidchoi spravy H. I. Goliasha. 22 chervnia 1950 r., m. L’viv, HDA SB Ukrainy, L’viv, file 30853, fol. 160. Vysnovok Lvivskoho sudovo-medychnoho morhu pro prychyny smerti H. I. Goliasha. 19 chervnia 1950 r., m. Lviv, HDA SB Ukrainy, L’viv, file 30853, fols. 157–157v. The underground sources indicate that after interrogation he jumped out of a window while being escorted to his jail cell. Postanova viddilu slidchoi chastyny MDB URSR pro ob’iednannia slidchykh sprav vidnosno Iu. M. Matviiva ta M. P. Krychuna. 28 zhovtnia 1952 r., m. Kyiv, HDA SB Ukrainy, fond 5, list 67443, vol. 6, fol. 29. Vyrok Viiskovoi Kolehii Verkhovnoho Sudu SRSR po spravi vidnosno Iu. M. Matviiva ta M. P. Krychuna. 20 sichnia 1953 r., m. Kyiv, HDA SB Ukrainy, fond 5, file 67443, vol. 6, fol. 283. Vysnovok Prokuratury Ivano-Frankivskoi oblasti po arkhivnii kryminalnii spravi ¹ 31008 vidnosno Iu. M. Matviiva ta M. P. Krychuna. 30 kvitnia 1996 r., m. Ivano-Frankivs’k, HDA SB Ukrainy, fond 5, file 67443, vol. 6, fol. 330. Postanova Upravlinnia KDB pry Radi Ministriv URSR po Volyns’kii oblasti pro pred’iavlennia zvynuvachennia S. I. Kovaliu. 4 travnia 1954 r., m. Luts’k, HDA SB Ukrainy, fond 6, file 75175-FP, vol. 1, fol. 58.

 
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