This latest volume in the New Series of Litopys UPA is devoted to the documents and materials issued by the OUN leadership in the Ukrainian region of Bukovyna. Covering the period from 1943 to 1952, this collection contains reports, surveys, news from the territory, instructions, press publications, letters containing information on the activities of the OUN and the UPA in Northern Bukovyna (Northern Bessarabia is also part of Chernivtsi oblast), as well as documents generated by the Soviet security organs that waged a concerted struggle against the Ukrainian liberation movement.
The volume includes an historical-archaeographic introduction, documents and materials (with accompanying English-language annotations), and addenda. The documents and materials featured in this collection are divided into five thematic chapters: 1) reporting-informational documents produced by the OUN structure of Bukovyna; 2) documents produced by the UPA command (announcements, correspondence, orders); 3) propaganda materials, such as instructions, leaflets, appeals, publications issued by propaganda centers; 4) materials of the OUN’s Security Service (SB): reports, records of proceedings, announcements, cautions; 5) materials on the Soviet security organs’ efforts to smash the Ukrainian liberation movement, such as special announcements about the destruction or capture of underground leaders, and the use of agentura fighting groups. In each chapter, the featured documents and materials are arranged chronologically.
During the preparation of this volume, the compiler examined documents from the collections of the following archives: the State Archive of the Security Service of Ukraine (HDA SBU), the Central State Archive of the Highest Organs of Government and Administration of Ukraine (TsDAVO), and the Directorate of the Security Service of Ukraine in Chernivtsi Oblast (USBU ChO). Some documents were reprinted from the scholarly publication Reabilitovani istoriieiu: Chernivets`ka oblast`; Naukovo-dokumental`na seriia knyh; Knyha druha1 and Volodymyr Serhiichuk’s book Ukrains`kyi zdvyh: Prykarpattia, 1939–1955.2
Documents pertaining to the clandestine OUN network in Bukovyna appear in a number of volumes in the series Litopys Ukrains`koi Povstans`koi Armii. In particular, volume 19 of the First Series of Litopys UPA3 contains chronologically arranged information on the activities of OUN fighting groups and UPA units operating in 1944–1946, as well as a brief martyrology of fallen leaders and commanders. Volumes 9 and 15 (New Series)4 contain reports on the interrogations of the underground leaders in Chernivtsi oblast: Artemiziia Halyts`ka, Myroslav Haiduk, and Iuliian Matviiv, who were arrested by the Soviet security organs. (It goes without saying that under pressure from Soviet investigators, the arrestees revealed the structure and leading personnel of the OUN underground network in Bukovyna.)
Owing to the fact that OUN and UPA activities on the territory of Bukovyna have been under-researched, studies on this topic to date are mostly superficial. This subject has been partially researched by the following historians and regional historians: Ivan Fostii,5 Nestor Myzak,6 Andrii Duda and Volodymyr Staryk,7 Hryhorii Dem’ian,8 Volodymyr Moroz,9 and Heorhii Menzak,10 as well as by veterans of the liberation struggles Iurii Ferenchuk11 and Iurii Harbashevs`kyi.12 OUN and UPA activities on the territory of specific districts in Bukovyna have been researched by Mykola Chereshniuk13 (Zastavna) and Mykola Dzhuriak14 (Putyliv).
Many little-known facts on the activities of the Ukrainian nationalist movement in Bukovyna appear in the works of Ukrainian diaspora writers, in particular those by Denys Kvitkovs`kyi and his co-authors,15 as well as in the Lviv publication Litopys neskorenoi Ukrainy (volume 1).16
Some facts pertaining to the struggle of the Bukovynian underground are featured in the works of Petro Mirchuk, Lev Shankovs`kyi, and Vasyl` Veryha.17 Insurgent money (bofony) is the subject of an article by Panteleimon Vasylevs`kyi.18 Biographical sketches of the leaders of the Bukovynian underground were published by Kost` Korol` and Mykola Hnep. 19
In 2010–2011 the compiler of this volume published a number of biographical sketches about individual leaders of the OUN underground and the commander of the UPA’s Bukovyna Battalion. 20
Chapter 1, “Reporting-Informational Documents of the OUN Structures of Bukovyna,” contains reports and surveys of oblast—and following the reorganization—okruha, nadraion, and raion leaderships of the OUN, which cover the period from 1943 to 1951.
Chapter Two, “Documents of the UPA Command,” contains only a handful of documents: a report on the state of insurgent units, the correspondence of the command personnel of the UPA’s Bukovyna Battalion, and two orders, one concerning the D. Vitovs`kyi Company and the other, awards.
Chapter 3 is devoted to propaganda materials; it contains propaganda instructions, leaflets, appeals, and publications of the Bukovyna Propaganda Center for the period 1944–1949.
Chapter 4, which focuses on the materials issued by the OUN’s Security Service, contains a variety of SB documents: a book of rules for SB fighters; reports on the investigation of unusual events and interrogations of individuals suspected of collaborating with the enemy; announcements; and warnings issued to rural activists and agents. Particularly noteworthy is a report by the okruha SB Section of the Bukovyna-based OUN for the third-quarter of 1948.
Chapter 5 focuses on the Soviet security organs’ efforts to smash the Ukrainian liberation movement. It features documents generated by Soviet punitive organs, which waged an intensive struggle against this movement. These include special announcements forwarded to the MGB of the Ukrainian SSR about the liquidation or capture of underground leaders, as well as documents concerning the activities of agentura-fighting groups of the MGB Directorate in Chernivtsi oblast.
All the featured documents and materials are published in full, in complete correspondence with the originals. All documents in this volume were assigned titles by the compiler. They include the ordinal number, type of document, author—where listed—contents, date, and office number. If the date of an article could not be established, it was dated by content, accompanying documents, etc. In any case, a provisional date appears within square brackets, e.g., [November 1945].
Omitted, indecipherable, and damaged parts of texts are indicated by square brackets. Incomprehensible fragments of texts are marked graphically thus:
(õõ*). Reprints of documents and materials from other publications are indicated in the descriptions of documents.
The lexicon and authorial and editorial features of the sources published in this volume were retained to the maximum degree, and personal and geographic place-names were retained intact. Punctuation and the use of quotation marks were corrected in keeping with the current orthographic standard. The texts of documents and other materials have been reproduced on the basis of contemporary rules governing the publication of historical documents. Spelling mistakes were corrected silently. The spelling of prepositions and particles were corrected to reflect current Ukrainian orthography (e.g., pidchas>pid chas; rivnozh>rivno zh; v naslidok>vnaslidok, etc.); the use of the apostrophe was corrected (e.g., mad’iariv>madiariv; zviazok) for the purpose of fully reflecting the content. In addition to generally accepted abbreviations, words that are written in abbreviated form are fully recreated and graphically marked thus: <õõ[õ]>.
Each document is accompanied by a description noting the place where it is held (abbreviated name of the archive, number of the fond, list, file, volume, and folio); the authenticity of each document (original, copy, certified copy); and the method of recreating the documents (handwritten, typewritten). Information about a document’s previous publication or reprinting is also included in the description.
The volume contains photographic portraits as well as scenes depicting life in the underground, which were located in various archival collections (HDA SBU, the archive of the SBU Directorate of Chernivtsi Oblast [USBU ChO]); the Litopys UPA series of publications; the private collections of Mykola Chereshniuk and Mykhailo Andrusiak, as well as the personal archive of the compiler of this volume. The captions to the portraits note the highest functional and military ranks that the pictured individual achieved during his/her period of activities on the territory of Bukovyna. The volume also contains diagrams, charts, and maps. These materials are stored in the computerized database of the Litopys UPA Publishers.
The Modified Library of Congress (USA) system of transliteration was used in the English-language texts.
The compiler gratefully acknowledges the assistance provided by the associates of the HDA SBU Oleksandr Ishchuk, Volodymyr Ivanchenko, and Konstiantyn Baida; staff members of the USBU ChO Vasyl` Bezborod`ko and Borys Marenych; deputy director of the TsDAVO Oksana Berkovs`ka; the head of the Exhibits Department Oleksii Lysakivs`kyi; and head of the Information and Document Use Department of the State Archive of Chernivtsi Oblast (DAChO) Nataliia Masiian.
I owe the following individuals a debt of gratitude for providing me with various materials and advice: Ivan Fostii, editor in chief of the Chernivtsi oblast branch of the research and publishing agency “Knyha Pam’iati Ukrainy” (Chernivtsi); Mykola Chereshniuk, regional historian (village of Kostryzhivka, Zastavna raion, Chernivtsi oblast); the writer Mykhailo Andrusiak (Kolomyia); Iryna Voitsekhivs`ka, head of the Association of Political Prisoners and Repressed Individuals of Chernivtsi Oblast (Chernivtsi); the researcher Vasyl` Humeniuk (L`viv); and Vitalii Manzurenko, editor of the journal Odnostrii (L`viv).
Special thanks to Prof. Petro Potichnyj (Toronto) and Ihor Homziak (L`viv), with whom I consulted regularly during the preparation of this volume for publication, and to Marta D. Olynyk (Montreal), who translated the introduction.
I am grateful to the chief administrator of the Litopys UPA Publishers (Toronto), Mykola Kulyk, for help with administrative matters and donor brought this book to fruition.
Reabilitovani istoriieiu: Chernivets`ka oblast`; Naukovo-dokumental`na seriia knyh, vol. 2, ed. V. Pavliuk et al. (Chernivtsi: Oblasne viddilennia poshukovo-vydavnychoho ahentstva “Knyha Pam’iati Ukrainy,” 2010), pp. 117–42, 150–54, 158–62.
V. Serhiichuk, Ukrains`kyi zdvyh: Prykarpatiia, 1939–1955 (Kyiv: Ukrains`ka Vydavnycha Spilka, 2005), pp. 609–30.
Litopys Ukrains`koi Posvstans`koi Armii, vol. 19: Karpats`ka hrupa UPA “Hoverlia,”; bk. 2: Spomyny, statti ta vydannia istorychno-memuarnoho kharakteru (Toronto, 1992; Lviv, 1993).
Litopys UPA (NS), vol. 9, bk. 1: Borot`ba proty povstans`koho rukhu ³ natsionalistychnoho pidpillia: protokoly dopytiv zaareshtovanykh radians`kymy orhanamy derzhavnoi bezpeky kerivnykiv OUN ³ UPA, 1944–1945 (Kyiv; Toronto, 2007); Litopys UPA (NS), vol. 15, bk. 2: Borot`ba proty povstans`koho rukhu ³ natsionalistychnoho pidpillia: protokoly dopytiv zaareshtovanykh radians`kymy orhanamy derzhavnoi bezpeky kerivnykiv OUN ³ UPA, 1946–1952 (Kyiv; Toronto, 2011).
I. Fostii, Pivnichna Bukovyna ³ Khotynshchyna u Druhii svitovii viini, 1939–1945 rr. (Chernivtsi: Chernivets`ke oblasne viddilennia poshukovo-vydavnychoho ahentstva “Knyha Pam’iati Ukrainy,” 2004).
N. Myzak, UPA-“Zakhid” i zbroine pidpillia OUN u borot`bi za Ukrains`ku Samostiinu Sobornu Derzhavu u 1942–1960 rr. (Chernivtsi; Toronto: Prut, 2011).
A. Duda and V. Staryk, Bukovyns`kyi kurin` v boiakh za ukrains`ku derzhavnist`, 1918–1941–1944 (Kyiv; Chernivtsi, 1995).
H. Dem’ian, “Hutsul`shchyna u vyzvol`nii borot`bi OUN ³ UPA: Narys istorii fol`klorystyky,” in Istoriia Hutsul`shchyny (L`viv, 2000), 5:274–434.
V. Moroz, “Rozhortannia povstans`koi borot`by na Bukovyni u 1944 r.,” Vyzvol`nyi shliakh, no. 8 (2001): 54–69.
H. Menzak, Vklonys`, liudyno, svitlii pravdi (Vyzhnytsia: Cheremosh, 2004).
Iu. Ferenchuk, Bukovyns`ki Karpaty u vohni Povstannia: Spohady ³ svidchennia pro boiovi dii UPA v hirs`kykh raionakh Chernivets`koi oblasti (Chernivtsi: Prut, 2001); idem, Bukovyntsi u vohni Povstannia, 1944–1952 rr. (Vyzhnytsia: Cheremosh, 2006).
Iu. Harbashevs`kyi, Bytva za Bukovynu (Chernivtsi, 2003).
M. Chereshniuk, Spovid` na svitanku (Chernivtsi: Zoloti lytavry, 2005).
M. Dzhuriak, OUN ³ UPA na Bukovyni: spohady, svidchennia ³ materialy pro vyzvol`nu borot`bu, vol. 1: Putyl`s`kyi raion (Chernivtsi: Zoloti lytavry, 2010).
D. Kvitkovs`kyi, T. Bryndzan, and A. Zhukovs`kyi, Bukovyna, ii mynule ³ suchasne (Paris; Philadelphia; Detroit, 1956); D. Kvitkovs`kyi, Borot`ba za ukrains`ku ideiu (Detroit; New York; Toronto, 1993).
Litopys neskorenoi Ukrainy: Dokumenty, materialy, spohady, vol. 1 (L`viv: Prosvita, 1993).
P. Mirchuk, Ukrains`ka Povstans`ka Armiia, 1942–1952: Dokumenty ³ materialy (L`viv: Prosvita, 1991); L. Shankovs`kyi, “Ukrains`ka Povstancha Armiia,” in Istoriia ukrains`koho viiska (1917–1995), comp. Ia. Dashkevych (L`viv: Svit, 1996), pp. 482–695; V. Veryha, Vtraty OUN v chasi Druhoi svitovoi viiny (Toronto: Novyi shliakh, 1991).
P. Vasylevs`kyi, “Bukovyns`ki ‘bofony,’” Drohobyts`kyi kolektsioner, August–September 1993:
K. Korol`, “Motria,” Homin Ukrainy, 17 August 1997, p. 6; M. Hnep, “Ivan Severyn-‘Skryhun’-‘Ivontsio,’” Shliakh peremohy, 17 December 1994, p. 5.
D. Prodanyk, “Providnyk ‘Lev,’” Bukovyns`ke viche (Chernivtsi), 17 February 2010, p. 1; idem, “Kurinnyi ‘Perebyinis,’” Shliakh peremohy, 19 January 2011, p. 10; idem, ‘Povernenyi iz zabuttia,” Shliakh peremohy, 26 January 2011, p. 6; idem, “Providnyk ‘Skryhun,’” Shliakh peremohy, 2 March 2011, p. 6; idem, “Zhyttievyi shliakh providnyka ‘Petrenka,’” Shliakh peremony, 11 May 2011, p. 9; idem, “Okruzhnyi propahandyst ‘Bakun,’” Shliakh peremohy, 17 August 2011, p. 7; idem, “Zabuttiu ne pidliahaie,” Shliakh peremohy, 14 September 2011, p. 7; idem, “Sotennyi Oleksa Ryzhko-‘Borysenko,’” Shliakh peremohy, 16 November 2011, p. 8.