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Name: UPA medical services. Book two
Volume: 32
Editor in Chief: P.J. Potichnyj
Editor(s): M. Ripeckyj
Sponsors: Maria Gulai-Golash-Lion
Publication Year: 2001
ISBN (Canada): 0-920092-446-2
Pages Count: 581

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Description

Introduction

In this second volume of "The UPA Medical Service", we continue to present material on this subject, first addressed in Litopys UPA, Volume 23. The introduction to the first volume provided, in brief, the history and structure of the UPA medical service and the underground Ukrainian Red Cross. Most of the materials presented in the first volume pertained to the period 1942-1944, when the insurgent struggle was at its height. There were also some documents and materials from 1945-1947, the post-World War II period when the entire territory of Ukraine came under Soviet Stalinist occupation or that of the satellite countries.

The material and information used to compile the first volume came mainly from sources outside Ukraine. The published memoirs were by underground participants who lived abroad after the war.

In this, the second volume of "The UPA Medical Service", we present, in addition to material by authors living outside Ukraine, some supplementary material covering the period 1942-1947 which was obtained from Ukraine. This volume also contains documents, memoirs and articles pertaining to the most critical period for provision of medical care to wounded and sick insurgents, 1948-1950. By this time, UPA units had already been disbanded and were obliged to operate in total secrecy. Enemy terror had reached its peak and included not only physical destruction of underground members and arrests and forced deportation of the population, but also underhanded provocations against the underground and the innocent population.

In conditions of such brutal terror, professional medical personnel became completely helpless. Caring for the sick was left to medical students with limited education, hastily trained paramedics and nurses and at times, practitioners of folk medicine. Sometimes, ill insurgents were cared for by individuals who had no medical knowledge, but simply, good hearts and a love for their people.

The materials published in this second volume of "The UPA Medical Service" are organized into six chapters.

The first chapter deals with the Ukrainian Red Cross (UChKh). Some articles, memoirs and sketches on this subject were published previously, in the first volume. These include articles written by Liudmyla Ivchenko about the Ukrainian Red Cross (UChKh) in Kyiv and Dr. Toma Vorobets about the UChKh in Lviv; a memoir by Sofia Stepaniak about Dr. Kharytia Kononenko and the UChKh in Volyn and a memoir by Iryna Savytska about the organization of the underground UChKh in Western Ukraine.

In this, the second volume, we publish a longer article by Halyna Viun, "Under the Mark of the Red Cross in Poltava", in which she supplements the information provided by the authors mentioned above. Until the outbreak of war, Halyna Viun worked as a bookkeeper in Poltava. With the arrival of the Germans, on August 18, 1941, she and several other local activists undertook the task of organizing the Ukrainian Red Cross society (UChKh) in the Poltava region. She served as head of this society until August 1, 1942, when the German occupation authorities officially disbanded the Ukrainian Red Cross.

The first task facing the UChKh was helping Red Army prisoners of war who were living in horrific sanitary conditions and suffering inhuman brutality from the occupying Germans. UChKh workers also began to provide care for widows, orphans and all victims of Soviet terror.

The UChKh society in Poltava became a centre around which gathered the nationally conscious and creative elements of the Poltava population, including members of the underground OUN.

When the Gestapo began a wave of arrests, torture and physical annihilation of Ukrainian patriots, Halyna Viun made fairly successful efforts to save them. After the final disbanding of the Ukrainian Red Cross, it became very difficult to continue providing medical and humanitarian help in Poltava. Some activists, among them Halyna Viun, managed to escape arrest by the Gestapo. Some of the most active underground members entered the UPA in Volyn.

The following participants document the activities of the underground UChKh in Western Ukraine:

  • Anna Stetsko, a medical student, who in 1943-1946 performed the duties of UChKh section head for the city of Lviv and surrounding area. Her memoir describes the work of UChKh cells in a large city; this is in contrast to the memoirs by other UChKh workers, who focus on the efforts of underground medical personnel in villages and forest hideouts.
  • Tadey Pliuhavka, also a medical student, writes about the work of the UChKh on Boiko territory during the period 1944-1945.

Other authors whose memoirs are published in the next four chapters of this volume provide additional information about activity in the underground UChKh.

Chapter II contains materials about the UPA medical service in Volyn and Polissia. The struggle against the Nazi German occupation and the formation of the first UPA units on this territory began in late 1942. The most active period for the UPA and its rear line, in terms of combat and military-administrative activity, was 1943-1944.

This development of national liberation activity required a simultaneous expansion of the system of medical care both for UPA soldiers and the local population.

Until now, it has not been possible to recreate the events of this period in detail and support this accounts with underground documents. The reports, orders and instructions related to UPA military and administrative activity were, for security reasons, carefully concealed in underground bunkers or destroyed.

Now that access to Soviet state archives has opened up in Ukraine, it has become possible to research the history of the Ukrainian national liberation movement using underground sources which had been seized by Soviet security organs.

Collection of such documents is Litopys UPA, new series, volume 2, Volyn and Polissia: the UPA and the Rear Line, 1943-1944.

This collection contains 319 documents, which also include orders, reports and instructions pertaining to the area of medicine and health. Reprints of these documents, with additional information and explanations, are presented in Chapter VI of this volume.

It is important to note that during the Second World War, there was, in Volyn and Polissia, a serious shortage of medical and health personnel. The only school for field paramedics, which operated in Rivne during the Soviet occupation, was completely destroyed by the war in 1941. Some Ukrainian doctors who had practiced in Lutsk, Rivne and Volodymyr Volynskyi had left for the west in 1939-1940. When the Germans arrived, the Nazis removed Jewish doctors and Volyn was left almost without physicians.

In early September 1941, while Volyn was still controlled by the Wermacht and the German civilian administration had not yet taken over the local government, the leaders of the temporary Ukrainian county administration in Rivne made an appeal to physicians in Lviv. Alarmed by the critical situation of medical and health care in their region, they asked Lviv doctors to come to their aid and send at least a few physicians to Volyn.

The representatives of the Lviv doctors, in the persons of Dr. Osinchuk and Dr. V. Karkhut, with support from the chief of the German military health service, who was staying in Rivne at the time, managed to achieve some successes. Six Ukrainian doctors were sent to provide medical care to the Volyn population. Among them was Dr. M. Vasyliv-Kornyliv, who was named chief of the Volyn district health directorate, which was headquartered in Rivne.

The chapter "UPA Medical Service in Volyn" opens with an article by Dr. M. Vasyliv, who gives the history of the Rivne nursing school and emphasizes its role in providing medical personnel for the UPA. Dr. Dmytro Sahaiko, a surgeon and instructor at the nursing school, entered the UPA in spring 1943. He had served as director of the surgical hospital in Rivne and brought with him to the UPA the entire nursing staff.

Later, Dr. Sahaiko ("Enei", "Bravyi") became chief physician of the medical service of the "Zahrava" Military Region in Volyn.

Complementing the article by Dr. M. Vasyliv is the information provided by Tetiana Bak ("Yaryna"), the Nad-raion UChKh leader in the Kostopil region.

In her autobiographical account, she also provides information about Dr. D. Sahaiko and gives the names of his nurses and the pseudonyms of his co-workers in the underground hospital.

Following this account are memoirs written by nurses who worked in the UPA medical service or UChKh in the Kremianets region. These include memoirs and information authored by Larysa Tomchuk ("Topolia"), Antonina Mazurchuk ("Vyshnia") and Anna Bobrovska ("Nezabudka").

Chapter III contains memoirs and sketches authored by witnesses and participants of the UPA medical service or the underground Ukrainian Red Cross in Halychyna.

Oleksa Zeleniuk, an advanced student of medicine, performed the duties of a physician in the UPA, devoting himself exclusively to surgery. In contrast to other authors, he spends little time describing his personal experiences and the conditions of the UPA struggle and focuses more on professional medical concerns.

Oleksandr Bolekhivskyi worked as a field paramedic in an UPA unit in the Stanyslaviv region in 1943-1944. He was seriously wounded and thus had the experience of also being a patient. His memoirs are an interesting portrayal of his personal experiences while being treated underground by a UChKh nurse and subsequently, in a Hungarian field hospital.

The detailed memoirs written by nurses depict the very difficult conditions in which they performed their humanitarian work during their years in the underground. These memoirs also recount the fates that befell the nurses, including brutal NKVD investigations, imprisonment and deportation.

Yevheniya Hutsuliak-Andrusiak writes about events in the Chornyi forest region of Ivano-Frankivsk oblast. Yaroslava Romanyna-Levkovych, in her memoir "Beyond the Limits of the Possible", and her sister Yevheniya, in her memoir, "The Lace of Fate", describe the events that took place in Lviv oblast. Maria Levytska-Zahoruyko informs about the UPA medical service in the Zolochiv region.

Romana Simkiv describes the nursing course in the Dolyna raion.

One of the memoirs by Ivan Shvak-Shul ("Orlyk") presented in this chapter describes the activity of the UPA medical service in the Ternopil region. The other recalls Iryna Babuniak ("Nina"), an advanced student of medicine, who died heroically while providing medical care to wounded UPA soldiers during combat near Chortkiv.

Olha Klymtsiv writes, in fictional form, about Liuba Veres, a pharmacist, who was killed with a group of insurgents who blew themselves up with grenades in a bunker in the Rohatyn region.

Stepan Babiak ("Orlenko"), senior messenger and paramedic in the company commanded by R. Hrobelskyi ("Brodych") in the Lemko region, attempts to depict the work of an UPA paramedic with reference to episodes from his life. Bohdana Troshko ("Bohdana") describes how, as a hastily trained paramedic, she treated wounded insurgents as late as the 1950s; when she became seriously ill, she had to treat herself.

Chapter IV consists of biographical information about the physicians who were active in UPA medical units and the UChKh system. Owing to the difficulty of finding complete information about underground doctors, the biographies are presented in a variety of forms. The same is true of the biographies of leading members of the nursing and paramedical staff.

Included in this volume of "The UPA Medical Service" are biographies of the following physicians:

  • Dr. Matviy Lotovych, lecturer at the Lviv Medical Institute and personal physician of General Roman Shukhevych and other leading members of the underground;
  • Dr. Bohdan Savka, chief physician of the UChKh krai leadership;
  • Dr. Yaroslav Makarushka, director of the hospital in the village of Bibrka, who treated and hid underground members and personally treated OUN Leadership Bureau member Dmytro Mayivksyi, who was wounded in combat with the Gestapo;
  • Dr. Pavlo Klochnyk, a graduate of Sorbonne University in France, who spent many years as a doctor in the town of Krakovets and later served as an UPA physician in a company of the battalion commanded by Mykhailo Shpontak ("Zalizniak") in the Yaroslav-Liubachiv region;
  • Dr. Boris Yavorskyi, graduate of the medical faculty of Lviv University, who practiced in the Ternopil region and served as an UPA physician in the Lemko region; in summer 1947, during the "Wisla" action, he was captured by the enemy while wounded;
  • Dr. Petro Skobelskyi, who entered the UPA from the "Halychyna" Division after the battle near Brody;
  • Dr. Yevhen Karanovych, a physician practicing in Kamin Koshyrskyi, in Volyn, who served as an UPA physician from 1942 and was killed in combat in 1943;
  • Dr. Antin Kolman, a surgeon from Lviv, who operated on OUN Leadership Bureau member Dmytro Mayivskyi, who was seriously wounded in combat with the Gestapo; Dr. Kolman was killed in 1945, in the Carpathian Mountains, while working as an UPA doctor under the pseudonym "Vuhliar";
  • Yevhen Luzhetskyi ("Shuvar"), graduate of the Veterinary Science Institute in Lviv, founder of the UChKh network in Peremyshl;
  • Hryhoriy Drul ("Slavko") , medical student, organizer of nurses training and surgical training for medical students in 1944-1945 in the Lviv region;
  • Illia Oberyshyk, medical student, UChKh director in the Ivano-Frankivsk oblast in 1944-1947;
  • Yaroslav Martynets, final-year medical student, who performed the duties of an UPA physician in the Chornyi forest, in the Stanyslaviv region, under the pseudonym "Berest";
  • Bohdan Koval, medical student, who performed the duties of physician from July 1944 in the Rudky-Komarno region;
  • Liubomyr Poliuha, student of the Lviv Medical Institute, who worked as a communications officer for the krai UChKh leadership headed by Kateryna Zarytska.

In addition to biographical information about the above physicians and medical students, this volume also contains brief biographies of those members of UPA and OUN medical and health units about whom it was possible to obtain information. Among them are Myroslav Hrebeniuk ("Barvinok"), Kateryna Havryliv ("Zelena"), Hanna Panashiy, Nadiya Savchak ("Khrystia", "Sonia") and Oleksander Vorobiy ("Halia").

Chapter V provides biographical information about doctors who practiced their profession legally and at the same time, co-operated with the Ukrainian underground. Many of them could not be identified. These doctors include:

  • Dr. Rodion Slipyi, a veteran of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen and the UHA, who worked as a physician in Strusiv, in the Ternopil region; in 1943-1944 he collaborated with the UPA medical and health units;
  • Dr. Maksym Tymkiv, who worked as a physician in the Lviv region and later, in the Stanyslaviv region; he served as an UPA doctor in 1945;
  • Dr. Ivan Pankiv, who ran a medical practice in the Kolomyia region; in his memoir, he describes his experiences during 1941-1947, the period of activity of the Ukrainian underground;
  • Dr. Lionhyn Melnyk, a physician from the Rohatyn region, who treated Ukrainian insurgents during the German occupation; with the return of the Soviets in 1945, he was arrested.

Chapter VI presents documents relating to the activities of the medical and health service which are reprinted from Volume 2 of the new series of Litopys UPA, Volyn and Polissia: the UPA and the Rear Line, 1943-1944.

These documents come from the following collections: the Central State Archive of the Higher Organs of Ukraine (TsDAVOU) and the Rivne Oblast State Archive (DARO). Some information was also obtained from the Central State Archive of Non-governmental Organizations of Ukraine (TsDAHOU) and the State Archive of the Security Service of Ukraine in Kyiv.

The documents are organized into three subchapters.

The first subchapter consists of orders issued by the UPA Supreme Command (HK UPA) in 1943-1944. During this time, the HK UPA was the highest sovereign authority and implemented a state of war on the territory of its activity. The UPA structure was organized in terms of the front and the rear line. The front included UPA combat units, while the rear line included OUNSD military and administrative activities. The military authority the UPA Supreme Command, headed by Dmytro Kliachkivskyi ("Klym Savur") and military Chief of Staff Leonid Stupnytskyi ("Honcharenko") governed the front and the rear line. Under the authority of the Chief of Staff came the following divisions: organization/operations, intelligence, communications and supply, training and the medical/health service. Under the authority of the rear line commander were the following sections: organization/mobilization, Security Service (SB), social/political, materiel management, communications, civilian administration and the Ukrainian Red Cross.

A good deal of information on medical/health matters is found in the following orders of the UPA Supreme Command:

  • No. 19, Order no. 16: To group commanders on functional and military/administrative matters;
  • No. 22, Order no. 18: To UPA commanders, rear line commanders and UPA medical/health workers on defense against germ and chemical attack;
  • No. 25, Order no. 21: To group commanders, commanders of military regions, the Ukrainian Red Cross;
  • No. 26, Order no. 22: To group commanders, rear line commanders, political leaders, the Ukrainian Red Cross;

All the above orders are signed by the Supreme Commander of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Dmytro Kliachkivskyi (pseudonym "Klym Savur", "Panas Mosur"). Order no. 16 is also signed by the military Chief of Staff, Leonid Stupnytskyi (pseudonym "Honcharenko"). Order no. 18 is also signed by the chief physician, Sydor Savchyk.

In addition to orders dealing with administrative and supply issues relating to the medical/health service, there are some that deal with professional medical matters, such as:

  • measures to prevent disease;
  • hygiene in combat units, the rear line and among the local population;
  • medical examination of soldiers and school-age children;
  • a healthy diet;
  • organization of military and civilian hospitals, pharmacies, laboratories.

The second subchapter consists of orders issued by the UChKh Commander, including:

  • Document no. 49: Ukrainian Red Cross regulations manual;
  • Document no. 50: Instructions on the organization of UPA and rear line health services.

The third subchapter presents documents of Group Commands (Military Regions), nadraions, raions and local sections of the UChKh. They serve to supplement the documents of the UPA Supreme Command.

These documents include:

  • No. 145: 1. Report about the condition and activity of the "Zahrava" Military Region rear line; 2. Red Cross Section;
  • No. 151: Order of UPA Group Commander "Enei" to nadraion and raion commanders about help for the UChKh;
  • No. 162: "Enei's" group; Order no. 24: To UPA commanders and soldiers, Military Region commanders and the Red Cross;
  • No. 165: "Enei's" group; Order to nadraion and UChKh commanders about reorganization of hospital services;
  • No. 196: Rear line commander "Ptashka"; Order no. 10: To Ukrainian Red Cross workers about the work of the charitable section.

After these orders come documents no. 224, 226, 229, 243, 268, 281 and 301.The documentary materials mentioned below are found in Chapters 1 and 4 of this volume.A copy of the "Minutes of the Interrogation of P.P. Marchenko" and the "Information Note by the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the Ukrainian SSR Riasnyi to the Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Ukraine, D. Korotchenko, about the Discovery of the Nationalist Underground in the Poltava Region" are appended to the sketch by Halyna Viun "Under the Mark of the Red Cross in Poltava".

Documents obtained from Soviet collections are appended to the biographical information about Dr. Matviy Lotovych.

***

The style in which each memoir published here is written has been left unchanged, in order to reflect the author's personal approach to the reality he or she experienced. The language of the memoir reflects the author's intellectual and educational level, which heightens the documentary value of the account.

***

The Archive of Litopys UPA, Medical Sector, contains a large number of materials and documents which could not be published in the two volumes of Medychna Opika UPA. Here one finds unfinished memoirs of participants or incomplete information about physicians, medical men, nurses and other UChKH workers. All of these materials require scrutiny and supplemental information. An effort will be made to publish these materials in one of the future volumes of "Litopys UPA-Biblioteka", in order that they may be available to those researchers who are interested in this subject matter.

***

I would like to thank all those who helped in the preparation of this volume. Special thanks to all members of the UPA Medical Service and the Ukrainian Red Cross, who, in their memoirs and illustrative materials, left for us this picture of the unusually difficult conditions in which they were forced to practice medicine and care for UPA soldiers and members of the armed underground.

***

I am also grateful to Prof. Petro J. Potichnyj, the Responsible Editor of the "Litopys UPA" for his editorial advice, to my wife Mariika ("Oksana"), and sons Andrii and Yurii for cooperation in the preparation of this book, to Mykola Kulyk for help with adminstrative matters and Lesia Duk and Omelian Hrabets' for completing the editorial-technical tasks.

Modest Ripeckyj


Summaries

Page 68. Under the mark of the Red Cross in Poltava, 1941-1942

Halyna Viun, whose maiden name was Hryshko, was born on October 25, 1912 in Dubno, Volyn. Her father was an officer in the Russian imperial army and during the period of Ukrainian statehood, 1918-1921, served as an officer of the Ukrainian army. During the Soviet occupation, the entire family was persecuted. Halyna’s father was arrested and died in an unknown prison.

Halyna obtained a higher education with great difficulty. In 1937, she and her family moved to Poltava, where she worked as a book-keeper until the outbreak of war.

In 1941, when the German occupation began, Halyna, Zinayida Potulnytska and Antonyna Kushnir-Burko initiated organization in Poltava of the Ukrainian Red Cross society.

Immediately after the Nazi occupation of Ukraine, community activists and Ukrainian physicians began to form the Ukrainian Red Cross in different regions of Ukraine, with the main centres located in Kyiv, Lviv, Rivne, Poltava and Dnipropetrovsk.

The retreat of the Soviets and arrival of the German army in Poltava on September 18, 1941, gave Halyna hope for a change for the better. However, the brutality of the new occupiers dashed all such expectations. Particularly disillusioning was the attitude of the Germans to the masses of Ukrainians serving against their will in the Red Army, who allowed themselves to be taken prisoners of war. It was in the Poltava oblast that the Germans closed their enormous encirclement of the Soviet Army, which was defending Kyiv, and captured more than half a million soldiers. Through the city came enormous numbers of prisoners of war, whom the Germans were herding into camps particular, in the notorious Khorol death camp. The prisoners were mainly young men who after only a few weeks in German hands were so debilitated by hunger, cold and torture that they had lost all semblance of humanity. The Germans were killing them in public, in particular, the weaker ones who could no longer walk.

The Soviets were also responsible for this tragedy, as they had not signed the international convention granting prisoners of war protection by the International Red Cross. Thus, they gave the Germans a free hand to treat the prisoners as they wished.

In this tragic situation, Halyna Viun and her colleagues decided to help the prisoners of war. In early November 1941, a general public meeting was called and the Poltava region Ukrainian Red Cross society was formed. As there was yet no civilian German administration in the city, permission was obtained from the German military command to register the Poltava region Ukrainian Red Cross officially with the city government.

The primary task of the Ukrainian Red Cross was to help the prisoners of war. The work proceeded with great difficulty. The living and sanitary conditions in the prisoner-of-war camps were dreadful. Prisoners were dying off, not only from hunger and cold, but also from mass epidemics. The Germans did not help the sick and wounded, but treated them worse than «healthy » prisoners. Only the physicians and paramedical personnel who were among the prisoners tried to do what they could.

Until the arrival of the civilian administration, the German military command tolerated the activity of the Ukrainian Red Cross. As head, Halyna was able to get access to the prisoner- of-war camp and organize a number of brave and dedicated persons for charitable work. With much effort, the Ukrainian Red Cross was granted premises in Poltava and collections began for food products, bedding and bandages. Contacts were made with physicians in the camps and agreements were made for care of the sick. After some time, Halyna was able to make contact with the German military commander of the camps and obtain permission to establish a «hospital » for prisoners of war.

At the end of November, 1941, in a destroyed school building, the provisional Ukrainian Red Cross hospital began to operate. With the help of a Poltava physician, Dr. Nahai, contacts were made with other doctors and hospitals. Contacts were also made with sympathetic German physicians, Dr. Braun and Dr. Fikus. Dr. Fikus helped the Ukrainian Red Cross for purely humanitarian reasons, placing himself in great danger from his superiors. The Ukrainian Red Cross society also took on another activity, helping the victims of Soviet terror. Particularly active in this area was Kushnir-Burko. There was a need for charitable assistance to the widows and orphans of the victims of Soviet repressions, as well as to the victims themselves when they survived prisons, camps and exile. The Ukrainian Red Cross and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church became the main independent centres of Ukrainian life in Poltava under German occupation. The Ukrainian Red Cross was also the centre around which gravitated all the nationally-conscious and creative people of the Poltava region, including the two branches of the OUN.

In spring 1942, preparations began for transferring Poltava to the control of the German civilian administration. Repressions began against active Ukrainians of the Poltava region, as well as against OUN members who had arrived from Western Ukraine and abroad to help build national life.

The Ukrainian Red Cross developed a new area of activity, that of helping prisoners of the German occupiers. The most eminent Ukrainian activists were arrested. Without any trial, after terrible tortures, the organizers and leaders of self-administration under German occupation and collaborators of the Ukrainian Red Cross were executed. Among those murdered were: Fedir Borkivskyi, a participant of the 1918-1920 liberation struggle, prisoner of the Solovki Islands. concentration camps and editor of «Holos Poltavshchyny», Oleksander Dyhas, Deineka and Kuzmenko.

In Poltava, an openly anti-Ukrainian policy began to be applied by the Germans, who were helped by «ignorant residents,» Russians and remaining Soviet agents. On August 1, 1942, the German administration officially dissolved the Ukrainian Red Cross society in Poltava. The society’s organizational and charitable work was assisted primarily by people from the OUN underground, who at this time were moving all through Ukraine using underground channels. Many of them were arrested by the Gestapo, along with some young women from Poltava who were working in the Ukrainian Red Cross. It was not possible to get them out of prison. Halyna mentions some of their names. Fylymon Radko, a peasant from Volyn, died under German torture in prison. He had helped the Ukrainian Red Cross while working for the Ukrainian underground. M. Zaborovskyi, a former Solovki Islands prisoner, was a very active Ukrainian Red Cross volunteer who had links with the OUN underground and served as the first editor of «Holos Poltavshchyny.» As the Poltava Ukrainian Red Cross centre had no mail or personal contacts with other cities, Zaborovskyi agreed to perform a special Red Cross mission, walking to Kyiv to make contact with the capital. On the way, he searched out prisoners of war and helped organize the Ukrainian Red Cross in villages and raions. When he reached Kyiv, he was captured by the Gestapo and sent to a temporary concentration camp in Berdychiv. He escaped with the help of the underground and entered the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) in Volyn.

By autumn 1942, the German occupanior administration had eliminated, by means of prohibition, arrests and even executions, the entire network of Ukrainian Red Cross centres in Poltava. Lviv, Rivne, Kyiv and Dnipropetrovsk. After that, the Ukrainian Red Cross could engage in medical and charitable activities under its own name only underground, in the UPA.

Page 80. The underground Ukrainian Red Cross in the Lviv oblast

Anna Stetsko was born on February 25, 1922, in the village of Miklashiv, Lviv oblast. Her parents were elementary school teachers. She graduated from high school in Lviv in June, 1941 and in 1942, during the German occupation, began studies at the Medical Institute.

While still a high school student, Anna joined the OUN youth organization. After completing her ideological training in July, 1941, she worked with school-age youth in Lviv and the surrounding area.

In 1943, Anna («Sira», «Hrechka») began to work in the underground Ukrainian Red Cross. The Ukrainian Red Cross director, Kateryna Zarytska («Moneta»), sent her for training in the surgical department of the Mytropolyt Sheptytskyi People’s Hospital, where she would hurry after her lectures at the Medical Institute. Her task was to quickly acquire basic practical knowledge of surgery and traumatology because such experience was not available in the initial semesters of study at the Medical Institute.

As of summer 1943, Anna began to work as Ukrainian Red Cross section head for Lviv and vicinity. She worked mainly in training, providing courses for medical aides and nurses. The course participants, about 15 - 16 young women, were taught how to assist the sick and wounded in the specific conditions of the underground.

In her memoir, Anna speaks about people she met, both Ukrainian Red Cross workers and active UPA and OUN members. She also describes her experiences during her service in the underground.

One of the important assignments Anna obtained from Zarytska was to find an appropriate location, in the home of a nationally-conscious family, for outfitting a small hospital in which sick or wounded underground members could be treated. She was also given addresses of locations where sick people had been placed. She provided them with care according to a physician’s orders or, most frequently, relying on her own judgement. In cases of serious wounds or illness, she sent the patients for treatment to the Surgical Clinic in the Medical Institute. This was very risky for both the doctors and the patients.

The author does not recall the names of all the doctors who collaborated with the underground Ukrainian Red Cross; she names only two: Antin Kolman and Prof. Borys Andriyevskyi. Among the patients for whom Anna cared was Nadia Romaniv, the wife of Col. Vasyl Sydor («Shelest»).

In spring 1944, Anna also began to do Ukrainian Red Cross charitable work. She cared for the families of refugees from Eastern Ukraine, who had arrived in Lviv ahead of the Soviet-German front. They were mainly scholars, writers and artists, as well as older people, who were destitute or helpless in their new circumstances.

On July 27, 1944, Lviv was occupied by the Red Army. The Soviet system of repression began to be applied in Western Ukraine. People were arrested and underground links were destroyed. Anna continued to care for a few sick underground members while still pursuing her medical studies. On November 16, 1946, she was arrested by the NKVD and sentenced by a war tribunal to 10 years in prison camp and three years of deprivation of rights. She was freed from her prison camp in Vorkuta in 1955 and in 1957, moved to Karaganda in Kazakhstan, where in 1959 she completed her medical studies and obtained her medical degree. Only in 1968 did she obtain permission to return to Lviv. From then until her retirement, she worked in the Lviv tuberculosis hospital.

Page 90. The Ukrainian Red Cross in the Boiko Region, 1944-45

From 1943, while a student at the Medical Institute in Lviv, the author, T. A. Pliuhavka, carried out assignments for local OUN leaders. One of these assignments was to provide a guard, along with other students, for Ukrainian professors threatened with assassination by the Polish underground.

Rather than do mandatory service in the German Baudinst, the author worked in the disinfection brigade in places where Epidemic Typhus and Typhoid fever were rampant. To prepare for this work, he took a two-month course given by doctors R.Osinchuk and V. Keleman. The course program also included a full cycle of lectures about emergency medicine. The knowledge obtained during these courses later proved useful to participants working in the UPA health service.

In March 1944, the author worked partly underground and was instructed to go into the Stryi region. After becoming familiar with the terrain, he served as instructor of first aid and emergency treatment for wounded men and accident victims. The first nurses’ course was held in the village of Kopanka, near Skolie; the second course took place in the mountains, near Slavsk, and the third, in July 1944, in the village of Hrabivka. About 20 girls from neighbouring villages took the courses.

In addition to his teaching duties, when needed, «Markiyan» helped treat the wounded and sick. The author describes how he became practically acquainted with the activities of the Ukrainian Red Cross (UChKh) and acquired medical experience working in insurgent conditions.

In early autumn 1944, when the front was approaching Skolie, the author, with a group of underground members, joined the detachment commanded by «Ren», which was moving eastward. In that detachment he met his colleague from the Lviv Medical Institute, Dr. O. Slipa («Tseka»).

After the crossing of the front, the author found himself near the village of Trukhaniv, where he was made UChKh medical service section head for the Skolie raion, and later, for Stryi. A good structure existed there for organized UChKh work and the mountains were safer than the lowlands. The author’s work became much easier wnen physician Dr. «Yurko» arrived with two experienced assistants. At first, «Yurko» provided treatment and performed operations in village houses, and later, in the forest in an underground bunker.

In December 1944, the author was sent for two month of additional training for medical students, directed by Drs. B. Savka («Sofron») and Ya. Olesnytskyi («Yarko») in the village of Poruchyn near Brody. In February, after completing the courses, the author returned to the Stryi region. Work became difficult, as there were constant raids, skirmishes with the Soviets and problems in caring for the wounded. On March 25, the KGB captured the author while he was sleeping. «Markiyan» began a new stage of life in prisons and camps, which continued until 1956.

Page 100. Dr. Mykola Vasyliv: In the footsteps of the young men of Kruty

The author of this article is Dr. Mykola Vasyliv, who served as chief of the Volyn district Health Directorate during the German occupation. He describes little known events from the history of the Rivne School of Nursing in 1942-43. The nursing school was organized in Rivne in the autumn of 1941, during the period of German occupation of Volyn. At this time, there was a serious shortage of medical personnel in Volyn and the group of Ukrainian doctors who organized the school in Rivne adapted its program to the existing conditions. The school’s graduates were intended to be generally qualified as nurses, midwives and hygienists. Where there were no medical professionals, they were to take the place of doctors. And if the need arose, they were to serve as good nurses in the Ukrainian army or insurgent army.

In spring 1942, the Germans closed all high schools except trade schools. A few months later, they also forbade teaching in trade schools. In October 1942, the Reichskommissariat Medical Department ordered that the intensive program at the Rivne nursing school be cessed and authorized future provision of only limited paramedical training.

In spite of the obstacles put in place by the Germans, the directors and teachers of the nursing school continued to teach their intensive program, concealing its nature in various ways from the occupational authorities.

Volyn became the field of intense UPA activity and this was taken into account by the school’s directors. The German authorities began to persecute Ukrainian doctors and some of them were joining insurgent detachments.

In spring 1943, surgeon Dr. Dmytro Sahaiko, an instructor at the nursing school and director of the Rivne surgical hospital, entered the UPA, taking with him the entire surgical nursing staff.

From that time, nurses began systematically to «escape into the forest». In their place, new candidates were entering the nursing school. Many of the students ended up in the UPA medical service, and those who remained at home also had links with the underground. The author does not know what happened to the nurses who joined the insurgent units. There were reports that many of them were killed. The first to be killed in the Kremianets region was nurse Fedotivka, the first student to complete the Rivne School of Nursing.

Dr. Dmytro Sahaiko («Enei») became the chief physician of the «Zahrava» Military Region Medical Service in Volyn.

Page 104. Medical care in the UPA in the Rivne Region, 1943-45

Tetiana Bak was born in 1923, in Dubetsk, Peremyshl county. She began high school in Peremyshl, completing it in Rivne, Volyn, in 1942. She was in the underground from summer 1943 until November 1945, when she was arrested by the NKVD. She was sentenced to 25 years of hard labour and five years of deprivation of rights. She served in prison camps in Vorkuta until 1955. She returned to Ukraine in 1967.

In her sketch, Tetiana Bak gives information about the medical care provided on the territory of the UPA «Zahrava» Military Region, where the chief physician was Dr. Dmytro Sahaiko («Bravyi», «Enei»). She cites the names, pseudonyms and positions of the persons who worked in UPA medical units of the UPA and in the underground Ukrainian Red Cross on this territory.

Page 119. My autobiography and memoirs of my time in the UPA

Larysa Tomchuk-Medvedchuk was born into a peasant family in 1926, in the Kremianets region. During the First World War, her father had served in the UNR army and he brought up his children in a patriotic spirit.

Larysa and her older sister, Halyna, attended school in Kremianets, where they studied in Polish, while learning Ukrainian from their parents at home.

In 1939, Volyn fell under the Soviets and only with difficulty did the Tomchuk family avoid being sent to Siberia. When German troops entered Kremianets in 1941, the local prison was opened. Larysa and Halyna visited the prison and were faced with shocking sight. Corpses of murdered prisoners lay in pools of blood, with skin stripped off and wires sticking out of their ears; women had their breasts cut off. The author could not look at these dreadful scenes and fled the prison.

Soon the Germans began to show their true face, closing schools, sending young people to work in Germany and executing members of the Ukrainian intelligentsia. In autumn 1942, the Gestapo arrested the author’s father. Newly organized UPA units began to attack German bases and prisons. During an attack on the Kremianets prison by UPA Commander «Kruk», in February 1943, Larysa’s father was freed along with other prisoners.

Larysa and her sister, Halyna, were recruited for nurses’ training, which was being given at the headquarters of UPA Commander «Kruk». Larysa began her training in April, 1943.

There were forty students, both men and women. The medical courses were being given by Dr. Borshch from Kremianets, who used the pseudonym «Kycheriavyi.» He was a Jew who had been rescued from the ghetto along with his wife. Ukrainian history and ideological and political subjects were taught by Hordiy Zahoruiko («Harmash»), from the village of Kulykiv near Kremianets, whose father had been executed by the Germans.

After completing training, the graduate nurses were given different assignments. Some were sent to Polissia, others to work with UPA companies or village insurgent hospitals. Larysa Tomchuk («Topolia») remained at the head quarters hospital. The physician there was Borshch («Kucheriavyi») and the nurses were «Synychka» and «Nina», who had previously been a nurse at the Kremianets prison.

After a time, the hospital was moved to the village of Ilavytsia, which was located near a forest. On August 20, 1943, an order arrived to immediately load the wounded onto wagons and return to headquarters. The wagons had barely left the village and entered the forest when German units, which had been taken from the front to deal with Ukrainian insurgents, came into the village. In the forest, UPA units, headed by commanders «Enei», «Kruk» and «Kropyva» took defensive positions. The wounded and medical personnel were sent with a guard deep into the forest.

Battles began between UPA units and the advancing Germans. Airplanes dropped bombs on the forest, setting it on fire. At night, the UPA commanders brought their units out of the encirclement and moved them to a neighbouring forest. The wagon carrying the wounded also arrived safely under guard.

After several days in the forest, the wounded were dispatched to neighbouring villages. Commander «Kruk» assigned nurse «Topolia» to go with two wagons of lightly wounded soldiers and a two-man guard to the village of Uhorske, where there was an insurgent hospital supervised by nurse «Tosia.»A month later, the hospital was moved to Ilavytsia. There, Dr. «Kucheriavyi» and nurse «Synychka» cared for the wounded.

In early December 1943, «Topolia» was assigned by the super-raion chief Andriy Lobar («Marko») to care for the wounded commander «Kropyva», who was near Dubno. He had been wounded in the right thigh; the bullet was still in the muscle and the wound was healing slowly. «Topolia» cared for the wounded commander for two weeks, until he left for a meeting of the krai leadership. «Topolia» returned to the village of Ilavytsia, where she became very ill with abdominal typhus. In late February 1944, she was moved to the village of Kokuriv, Kremianets raion, from where, in April, debilitated by her illness, she returned home.

On May 2, 1944, under Soviet occupation, the author was arrested by the NKVD and on July 12, 1944, she was sentenced to seven years of imprisonment and three years of deprivation of rights. Within two years after Larysa’s arrest, her sister, Halyna, was arrested and sentenced to 10 years in the Vorkuta camps. At the same time, her father was arrested and sentenced to 10 years. In 1947, her mother was sent to Siberia.

Larysa Tomchuk was released in August 1950 without the right to change her place of residence. She married and in 1962 moved with her husband to the town of Korosten, Zhytomyr oblast. Her husband died in 1975. Only in 1990 did she return to Kremianets.

Page 139. An UPA Medical aide in the Kremianets region

The author of this memoir was born in 1927 in the village of Stupno, Rivne oblast, Volyn. In 1943, when UPA units were being formed, she signed up for medical aide courses which were being offered in a neighbouring village.

Teaching the courses was a woman doctor whose name the author does not remember. After completing the courses, the author was assigned to «Lisovyi’s» company in the UPA South Military Region. There she immediately began to give first aid to soldiers wounded in German attacks on insurgent units. Fighting with the Germans was relatively easier, because after their actions against the UPA, the German units returned to the front and the area became calmer.

Things became more difficult in the spring of 1944, when the front moved westward and the Soviets began large-scale actions against the UPA. The author was present during a two-day battle of UPA units who were surrounded by Soviets in the forests near the village of Hurby. She provides a lively depiction of that hellish experience. The situation appeared hopeless: there were many wounded soldiers and not enough drugs, bandages, water or food. To avoid being captured alive by the enemy, seriously wounded soldiers shot themselves with their own weapons. With their last remaining strength, the author and her comrade picked their way through the battlefield bandaging the wounded and helping the medical personnel move them to a safer place. In spite of heavy losses and many wounded, the UPA units succeeded in repelling the Soviet attacks.

After this battle, the author was sent to care for wounded men in hideouts located in nearby villages. Working in difficult conditions, the author moved constantly from one hide-out to another performing her nursing duties until January 1945, when she was captured by the Soviets together with four wounded soldiers. After an investigation and interrogation, in April 1945, the author was sentenced to 20 years, while the wounded soldiers received death sentences, which were later commuted to 25 years of imprisonment and deportation. The author served her sentence in the Norilsk concentration camps. As she had been a minor when sentenced, she was released in 1954. She returned to Dubno in Volyn only in 1965.

Page 169. My path in the UPA

Oleksa Zeleniuk begins his memoir with an autobiography. He was born into a peasant family in 1923 in the village of Zhabokrych, Kryzhopil raion. In 1935, his father escaped communist repressions and moved with his family to Odessa. In 1940, Oleksa graduated with distinction from the medical technical school in Odessa and was sent to study at the Medical Institute in Lviv. His stay in Lviv awoke his national sentiments.

With the outbreak of the Soviet-German war in 1941 and after the retreat of the Red Army, Zeleniuk decided to remain in Lviv. During the German occupation, he continued his studies. In June 1944, before the return of the Soviets, he decided to flee to the west. On his way to the Carpathian Mountains, he was recruited to the Ukrainian national liberation underground, where, under the pseudonym «Paster», he worked as a physician and specifically, a surgeon, until his arrest by the Soviets in February 1947.

He had learned the basics of surgery in Odessa, while still a student in the medical technical school. He worked in the experimental surgery laboratory of the first surgical clinic of the Odessa Medical Institute, assisting professors Barinstein and Sosnosvkyi and lecturer Babskyi when they operated on animals, in particular, dogs.

Zeleniuk was sentenced by a field tribunal in Stanyslaviv to ten years’ imprisonment, which he served in the Inta concentration camp. He was released in 1956. Only in 1964 did he resume first-year studies at the State Medical Institute in Lviv, which he completed with distinction, earning a medical degree in 1971.

***

In his memoir, the author describes his first weeks in the underground, where he gradually became accustomed to his new conditions and treated only minor illness.

Subsequently, he was sent to work in an underground bunker with a woman pharmacist who used the pseudonym «Kalyna.» They sorted collected medications, packs of bandages and a small quantity of surgical instruments.

In summer 1944, shortly before the arrival of Soviet troops, «Paster» was transferred to the wooded areas of the Carpathian Mountains, near the towns of Bolekhiv and Hoshiv.

There, in a forestry compound, a partisan hospital was established which held many UPA soldiers wounded in battle with the Germans. The author, along with a Georgian doctor who had escaped from a German prisoner of war camp, treated the wounded, performed minor surgery and put casts on injured limbs. The first assistant in the hospital was a nurse, Tonia Korol, who later married a leading member of the underground, Yaroslav Melnyk («Robert»).

Camped in the forest near the hospital was the battalion commanded by «Kozak.» In the nearby village of Luzhky, courses were being given for nurses and radio operators.

When the front drew near, the hospital was dismantled and recovered soldiers returned to their units. The sick were placed in village houses. The medical students were moved south-west to the Bolekhiv region, where fierce battles were taking place between the Germans and Soviets. The author got through the front with great difficulty.

Near Hoshiv, he became acquainted with a physician using the pseudonym «Vuhliar» and a medical student, «Kopytko.» «Vuhliar» had completed his medical studies in Prague and was now working as an UPA doctor.

UPA units were maneuvering in the Bolekhiv forests and the author provided medical help to the wounded. Fortunately, no-one sustained serious wounds or required major surgery, because he did not have the necessary surgical instruments.

At the end of the summer, when the German front moved out of Ukraine, «Paster» was transferred to the Kalush region, to the village of Kamin close to the Chornyi Forest. There, in two large rooms of a village house, an operating room was established. The walls and ceiling were whitewashed and the floors scrubbed clean. The long narrow table that had been in the house, with straps added for attaching patients, became an operating table. Beside it were two small tables for holding instruments and bandages. To assist in the surgical procedures, a team was formed of three nurses and medical aides, headed by the author. The hospital was supplied with a set of German surgical instruments.

The author’s duties were all medical, consisting mainly of surgery. Patient placement and the provision of pre- and post-surgical care was the responsibility of medical aides and the physicians or medical students assigned to this task. The duties of overseer were performed by an older man from Kalush, Kylybai, whose family had suffered terribly at the hands of the NKVD. In 1940, all the members of his family had been arrested and shot. The overseer’s job was to place patients in different houses and see to the preparation of hiding places and provision of food supplies.

The author describes the operations he performed in the hospital. The most frequent were limb amputations. There was no possibility of performing major operations on abdominal wounds or brain or spinal surgery. The author provides some examples of his work in the form of a medical report. One evening in late autumn 1944, a young soldier using the pseudonym «Harkavenko» was brought to the hospital. Wounded in the left elbow and left shoulder, he was in critical condition, with sepsis, ischemic and gas gangrene. Surgery was performed under ether anesthesia. The author did not have a full set of surgical instruments; he lacked a surgical bone saw, so he had to use a saw borrowed from the forge. Still, the operation was successful. Afterward, the patient was taken on a stretcher to an underground medical hide-out. After staying there for more than a month, the soldier was discharged to the care of relatives.

As another example of his orthopedic surgery, the author cites the case of UPA Colonel Vasyl Andrusiak («Hrehit»), who was wounded on January 14, 1945. Chloroform anaesthetic was administered by Dr. Myroslav Martynets («Berest»); «Paster» was assisted by Dr. «Foka» and the surgical nurse was Dr. «Berest’s» sister. The operation was complicated, but proved successful. Andrusiak’s post-operative care was provided by Dr. «Berest» and nurse «Bohdanna.» The colonel suffered no ill effects except for a tolerable limitation of movement in the elbow joint.

The author describes some other operations he successfully performed during the summer of 1946. A young soldier using the pseudonym «Bohdan» sustained a serious chest wound from a grenade. His right collarbone and second and third right ribs were broken and he had a rupture of his right lung and pneumothorax. Assisted by nurse «Zena», Dr. «Paster» operated for more than four hours. He did not expect the patient to survive and still believes this man was cured not by him, but by God.

During his four years in the underground, «Paster» performed many different operations. While some were successful, others led to complications which sometimes resulted in death. The memoir also describes some personal experiences: tragic events, brutal NKVD raids on villages, barbaric torture of insurgents and defenseless people.

The author provides the dates of events, place names and the real names and pseudonyms of various people. He ends his memoir stating that while he entered the UPA in disillusionment and fear, having witnessed the heroism of his people, he became convinced that they would one day win freedom.

Page 201. Memoirs

Oleksander Bolekhivskyi was born in 1925 into a peasant family in the village of Vorona, Stanyslaviv oblast. While still a child, he was orphaned: his mother died when he was three years old, and his father, when he was nine.

After completing elementary school in his village and high school in Stanyslaviv, he trained for one year as a medical assistant. For a brief period, he worked as a nurse in the city hospital.

Oleksander was interested in music and Ukrainian literature and had an opportunity to spend time with artists. In spring 1942, he was taken to Germany for forced labour. In 1943, he escaped and returned to his village.

Immediately on his arrival in the village, Oleksander was recruited to the OUN youth organization, where he used the pseudonym «BIyskavka». In July 1943, he became a medical assistant in an UPA unit. He was assigned to the newly-established company of commander «Kozak», which was quartered in the village of Bohorodchany, Otyniya raion. In the company, Oleksander was given the pseudonym «Zdorovenko». At that time, «Kozak’s» company numbered about 200 soldiers. The author gives information about the officers and the unit’s weapons. The company did not yet have a medical service.

Shortly after the author’s arrival, the company set out on a raid into the Carpathian Mountains. Near the city of Kolomyia, they had their first skirmish with a German military unit. In the skirmish, five Germans were killed, while one soldier from the company was killed and another wounded, who was treated by the author. «Kozak’s» company reached the highland pastures, where, amid high mountains, not far from Kosmach, was the temporary camp of the non-commissioned officers’ school. Two companies were quartered there, commanded by «Lypei» and «Don». With the addition of «Kozak’s» company, a battalion was created commanded by «Lypei».

Working in the camp was a doctor from Bukovyna and the author became his assistant. The doctor had with him many medications, bandages and medical instruments. He was an experienced professional and the author learned a lot from him. The soldiers in the camp were young and healthy and rarely became ill, so the author and the doctor had time to visit the sick in the neighbouring villages. At the camp the doctor and his assistant gave courses to two groups of medical assistants and presented lectures on first aid to battalion personnel.

In mid-October 1943, the Germans brought in many military units and began attacks on the Carpathian forests, where the insurgent companies were located. In the first attack on «Lypei’s» camp, many German soldiers were killed and wounded and the Germans retreated. On the UPA side, two soldiers were killed.

In November, the Germans again attacked the camp, but again without success. At the end of the month, while part of the battalion remained in the Carpathians, the rest of the soldiers, led by commander «Kozak», moved to the Chornyi Lis (Black Forest) near Stanyslaviv. The author went with them. In the Chornyi Lis, they joined the battalion commanded by V. Andrusiak («Hrehit»).

On November 28, 1943, German troops surrounded the insurgent camp in Chornyi Lis. The battalion managed to escape from the encirclement. During this operation, several soldiers were wounded and the author treated them at medical centres in neighbouring villages. Their wounds were light and in two weeks they returned to the camp in the woods.

Subsequently, the author was assigned to serve as medical assistant in the Tovmach povit. His duties included providing courses for health instructors and treating sick insurgents in the area. With some short breaks, the courses continued until March 1944.

When the German-Soviet front approached, medical assistant «Zdorovenko» moved with the area’s underground leaders into the Bohorodchany povit. In April 1944, the Germans succeeded temporarily in pushing the Soviets out of the Stanyslaviv region. From that time, the author began to operate partly above ground, using forged documents with the name Vasyl Savchyn. He travelled to different towns to obtain medications and bandages. He describes in detail the people he met on the way. In July 1944, with the renewed approach of the front, UPA units were instructed to move their bases to the Carpathians. Many of the units were joined by members of the underground network. The author, along with the Tovmach povit leadership, joined the battalion commanded by Major «Hrim».

On August 1, 1944, the author was instructed to go with two medical assistants to visit a sick person in the village of Huta. On the way back to their UPA companies, they met a Hungarian army unit, which fired at them with rifles and machine guns. The medical assistants jumped over a stream and disap peared among the houses, while the author, who was wounded in the leg, fell to the ground. He bound his own wound and stopped the bleeding with a tourniquet. A nurse, «Rozha», was sent by the UPA unit to help him. The wounded author was carried over the stream to a village house. The nurse changed the dressing and immobilized his leg using a metal rail. The author spent about two weeks in Huta under nurse «Rozha’s» care. He was informed by UPA couriers that the UPA command had concluded a non-aggression pact with the Hungarian army. One day at noon a Hungarian officer came to see the author and declared his willingness to take him to a military hospital for treatment.

The author subsequently describes his experiences and treatment in a Hungarian military hospital in the village of Rafailova and later in the town of Marmorsky Syhit. In hospital in the town of Koshytsi (Kosice), he underwent an operation by German surgeons and a few days later was put onto a medical train that was transporting wounded soldiers to Germany. In Nowy Sacz, Poland, the Germans put out all the civilian wounded. The author remained in the surgical ward of the Nowy Sacz hospital until the arrival of the Red Army. In January 1945, the Soviets organized a military hospital on the fifth floor of the hospital. The author stayed in the civilian part of the hospital until the end of April, when he was released. With great difficulty and after many adventures, which he recounts, he managed to return to his native village of Vorona in the Stanyslaviv region.

On September 1, 1946, Oleksander Bolekhivskyi entered the preparatory program of the Medical Institute in Ivano-Frankivsk and completed his medical degree in February 1966.

Page 213. Na verkhiv'iakh Hutsulshchyny

The author of this memoir Dr. T. Polishchuk in April 1944 moved with his family from Lviv to the Carpathian mountains. His new position there was the county medical officer overseeing the regions of Kosiv, Kuty and Zhab‘ie. There were very few physicians in the region with the exception of Dr. V. Stefurak and Dr. M. Kotsiubynskyi both practicing in Kosiv.

At that time in Hutsulshchyna the units of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) were already quite active, and the leadership of the underground engaged dr. T. Polishchuk to be also active in the the medical service units of the UPA. He performed these duties from April 1, 1944 to his arrest by the NKVD on October 7, 1945.

During his activity in Hutsulshchyna he had personal contacts with prominent commanders of the UPA, Col. Fedir Stefanovych (“Kropyva”), Battalion Commander “Kruk” and the OUN Okruha Leader Hryhorii Lehkyi (“Borys”). Among others he also mentions physicians Savochka, Maria Lypkaliuk, and her sister, who was Okruha Leader of the Ukrainian Red Cross (UchKh) for Kolomyia region.

Dr. T. Polshchuk recounts various tasks that he had to perform, such as founding of the underground hospital on the Blakhava, beyond the Magura mountain, organizing of two medical courses in 1944 in the village of Holovy, Zhab‘ie region (with 23 girls), and in the village of Krasnoil (33 girls), and one in 1945 in the village of Kosmach for 40 male medics of the UPA units. At the same time the author carried on the daily work of a dispensing physician, and once a week participated in the examination of the UPA personnel. He was also periodically called upon to carry out medical examination of the UPA recruits.

Dr. T. Polishchuk did his atmost not to allow Hutsulshchyna to lag behind the Lviv and Ternopil regions. It was for this that he was arrested, sentenced to twenty years in Soviet concentration camps and denied his citizenship rights for additional five years.

Page 223. My memoirs

Yevheniya Hutsuliak was born on August 15, 1919 in the city of Sniatyn. After completing seven grades of elementary school, she entered high school, but owing to illness was unable to complete it. Yevheniya’s parents were nationally-conscious Ukrainian peasants who raised their children in a patriotic spirit. The author, her older sister Maria, brother Volodymyr and the youngest sister, Lida, all took part in the underground struggle against the Germans and Soviets who were occupying Ukraine. As of 1941, the author and her sister Maria were members of the OUN.

Yevheniya worked in the Narodna Torhivtia store in Sniatyn, where she simultaneously performed duties as courier for the underground. In that capacity, she met Vasyl Andrusiak, her future husband. During the summer of 1943, Vasyl Andrusiak was instructed to organize UPA units in the forests of the Stanyslaviv region.

Because of suspicion regarding her relationship with Vasyl, Yevheniya was arrested by the Gestapo in January 1944. She managed to escape and from that time remained in the underground.

In the village of Kosmach in the Carpathian Mountains, the author trained as a medical assistant with the underground Ukrainian Red Cross. The director of these courses was Dr. «Motria». When the front line approached the Carpathians, the author returned to the Sniatyn area. In March 1944, the Soviets occupied the Sniatyn region. In addition to nursing duties, Yevheniya was also assigned other tasks. The Soviets were conducting raids on villages and fields, taking people away, some to prison, others to the army, while still others were shot on the spot. Young people from the Sniatyn and Horodenka region were escaping into the Carpathians. The author describes a number of cases where she provided nursing care and simultaneously directed people through contacts to the UPA.

In the midst of these frightful events, the author’s mother unexpectedly appeared in the village of Vovchkivtsi, looking tearful and wan. She told the author about mass arrests in Sniatyn. Lida, their youngest sister, who was fifteen years old, was arrested on the road when she came out of school with thirty school friends. The NKVD was constantly searching for Yevheniya and her brother, VIodko. The conversation with her mother was interrupted because the author was called at night to tend to a wounded soldier. When she returned, she and her mother continued their worried discussions until morning. On that cold, foggy morning, the mother left her daughter in tears. The two never saw each other again.

Yevheniya’s parents were arrested and sent out to the Archangel taiga, where her mother died in April 1945 and her father, in 1946.

At the end of December 1944, the author was sent to the Chornyi Lis region.

In January 1945, Yevheniya was informed by UPA couriers that Vasyl Andrusiak, who, under the pseudonym «Hrehit», was now commander of the Military District, was wounded in both arms. On January 14, UPA physician Oleksa Zeleniuk («Paster») performed a complicated operation. Through underground contacts, the author made her way to the hiding place where «Hrehit» was recovering from the operation under the care of Dr. «Berest» and nurse «Bohdanka». After a few days, nurse «Bohdanka» moved to «Sokil’s» company and Yevheniya stayed with the patient.

In early April, the underground hospital was moved to another hiding place. A wounded company commander, «Pavlo», was also brought there. Dr. «Berest», assisted by Yevheniya, cared for the wounded men.

The Soviet special units known as the «Red Broom» began a blockade of villages and were conducting raids in the forests. There was danger that they would discover the hiding place, so the medical personnel and patients were obliged to abandon their location and go deep into the spruce forest. Fortunately, the enemy did not discover the hiding place and all the patients and medical personnel were able to return.

After the raids, the Soviets pulled their troops into the raions and towns. For the first time since he was wounded, Commander «Hrehit» gathered his battalion together in the forest. The battalion commanded by P. Vatsyk («Prut») was ordered into the Lemko region and Dr. «Berest» left with this battalion. The author remained with the patients. Commander «Hrehit’s» postoperative wounds healed slowly. The dressings had to be changed every day and other wounded men also needed to be treated. Company commander «Pavlo» became seriously ill. Yevheniya made contact with Dr. «Soika», who was in charge of an underground hospital in the village of Pidpechery. The doctor confirmed the diagnosis of gangrene of the arm and ordered that the patient be moved to her hospital. During the crossing of the front, Dr. «Soika» had lost her right arm, so she worked using only the left one. She uncovered the wound and inserted a drainage tube and the patient gradually got better. The author stayed for five days to help Dr. «Soika», then went back to the hiding place where her fiance, «Hrehit» was recovering.

On May 11, 1945, in the village of Posich, Yevheniya married Vasyl Andrusiak, commander of the Military District. After the wedding, «Hrehit» returned to his UPA units. Yevheniya stayed in the village of Hrabivka and treated lightly wounded soldiers.

During the winter of 1945-46, the Soviets increased their control over the villages and the author was obliged to move to a hiding place – a bunker in the forest, near the village of Hrabivka. There were twelve people in the bunker and all of them, including the author, were sick with typhus. There was nothing to treat them with except aspirin.

On February 26, company commander «Zaporozhets» arrived at the bunker with the news that his company had been smashed by the Soviets and that commander «Hrehit» had probably been killed in battle. Only later did the author learn additional details about her husband’s death. Because of danger that the Soviets would discover the bunker in which the author had been hiding, she was moved to another raion through underground contacts. There, on March 10, 1946, Yevheniya gave birth to a son, whom she named Vasylko, after his father.

The situation in the region became extremely difficult. NKVD troops blockaded the villages and were going from house to house checking documents and looking for hiding places. Yevheniya was obliged to stay In hiding by day; only in the evening could she come out to see her son, who was staying nearby with trustworthy people. On August 7, 1947, Yevheniya was arrested and her little son, who was one year and five months old, was taken away. On December 12, 1947, Yevheniya Hutsuliak Andrusiak («Mriya», «Zena») was sentenced by a military tribunal to ten years’ imprisonment under articles 54/a and 54/11. She served her sentence in camps in the northern Ural Mountains. Her greatest punishment was not knowing the whereabouts of her son.

Yevheniya Hutsuliak was released in 1956 and relentlessly searched for her son, who until the age of three had been in an orphanage and then was adopted by a childless couple living in EIna, Smolensk oblast. Following great efforts on her part, a court ruled that her son, who was now twelve years old, should be returned to Yevheniya.

Page 268. Medical service in the Zolochiv UPA military district

Maria Levytska, a student of the Lviv Medical Institute, worked in the UPA medical service from August 1944. She was accepted into the UPA medical unit by a surgeon using the pseudonym «Havrylo»; she does not provide his real name. At that time, Dr. «Havrylo» was giving medical courses in the Brody region. Because the author was a medical student, he sent her immediately to work with UPA units in the Zolochiv area.

The author begins her memoir with general information about the working conditions of the UPA medical service in 1944-45.

Next, she describes some of her experiences. She treated the wounded in hide-outs, provisional underground hospitals and «wolf holes», pits hurriedly dug out and disguised which could fit only one, and in exceptional cases, two wounded soldiers. The number of wounded and her workload varied with the intensity of the fighting.

Conditions for medical work were very difficult and became even more so with every passing month. It was often impossible to move through the area as the «Red Broom», special NKVD units, swept through Halychyna and Volyn. The great majority of people in the villages helped UPA units, in particular the wounded, in any way they could. Although they lived in constant danger and fear, they truly sympathized with underground members. Without their help, the underground struggle would have been impossible. In her wanderings, she encountered many interesting people, some only once, others more frequently, but she does not remember all their pseudonyms and the underground did not use real names. The people she remembers include Myron Tarnavskyi («Zynoviy»), son of the Ukrainian Galician Army general, who was a power engineer. He worked in the propaganda and political education centre and was captured alive by the Soviets. The author does not know his further fate. She also mentions a fellow student of the Medical Institute, whose real name was Yakubovskyi and pseudonym «Bureviy». He was killed in spring 1945, when «Lapaidukh’s « company was fighting against the Soviets. Company commander «Lapaidukh», whom the author did not know at that time, later became her husband.

In addition to describing her medical work, the author depicts terrible scenes of the terror wrought by the «Red Broom» and other NKVD units. The Soviets sometimes sent the Red Army to battle the UPA, but Red Army soldiers carried out these assignments unwillingly. Citing her own experiences, the author shows the differences in behaviour between NKVD and Red Army troops. Describing the NKVD action against the village of Trudovychi in autumn 1945, the author writes: «They attacked the village by surprise. Nobody had time to send a warning. I remained in the house, which had still not been identified by the NKVD, and the raiders passed it by. Through the window I saw how they ended their raid. They were leading the old people they had arrested, beaten, bloody, with hands tied behind their back. Suddenly, some horses galloped along the street, pulling a vehicle with NKVD men. Behind the vehicle, a greyhaired man was tied by the feet. I could not tell whether he was alive or dead. His bloody head, face and entire inert body, in a white, blood-soaked shirt, hands tied behind his back, jumped up and down on the rut-covered road.»

In that same village, on November 26, 1945, the NKVD arrested the author. In the last part of her memoir, she describes in detail the sadistic, inhuman physical and moral torture she and other prisoners underwent during the interrogation, in prison, transport vehicles and concentration camps. The author was sentenced by a war tribunal under article 54-1A, 54-11 to 10 years of imprisonment and five years of exile.

Page 275. The UPA medical service in the Ternopil region

The author begins his memoir by describing events at the Medical Institute in Lviv during the years 1942-43. This was the time when UPA units were being formed and the Institute’s students, including Ivan Shvak, began to organize the UPA health service and the Ukrainian Red Cross (UChKh).

The students were being watched by the Gestapo, the Soviet underground and agents of the Polish Armija Krajowa (AK). Under Polish rule, up to 1939, there had been discrimination against Ukrainians and for that reason, the professors and students in the Lviv medical faculty had been almost exclusively Polish. Now they found it difficult to accept that most of the students and many of the professors were Ukrainian. The AK began terrorist actions against Ukrainian professors. On August 15, 1943, AK assassins killed the medical faculty’s dean, Andriy Lastovetskyi. Other Ukrainian professors were also under threat. The students organized a guard for their professors and Ivan Shvak was a member of that guard.

In April 1944, as the German-Soviet front approached Ternopil, many students entered the underground to work in the Ukrainian Red Cross (UChKh) and UPA units. The author and a few other medical students moved to the Ternopil oblast. They were assigned to work in the UChKh underground network in the Chortkiv region. In early September 1944, Ivan Shvak (pseudonym ««Orlyk») was sent to upgrade his qualifications by taking more advanced medical courses. The courses were held first in the village of Siltse and later, in the village of Poruchyn, Berezhany povit. They were organized by Hryhoriy Drul («Slavko») and the instructors were Dr. B. Savka («Sofron») and the surgeon Yaromyr Olesnytskyi («Yaryi»).

In November, 1944, «Orlyk» was ordered to join the «Siri Vovky» battalion, commanded by Petro Khamchuk («Bystryi»), which was operating in the Chortkiv region.

On June 6, 1945, the author was seriously wounded in the left leg. He was treated and hid out in the village of Ulashkivtsi in the Chortkiv region. As a result of his wound, he remained an invalid. On December 16, 1946, through underground contacts, he made his way to Lviv, where he managed to attain legal status as a refugee from Poland.

Page 331. Beyond the possible

Yaroslava, the daughter of Hryhoriy Romanyna and Kateryna Ozhiyivska, was born in 1921 in the village of Nestanychi, Radekhiv raion, Lviv oblast. Her father served as cantor in the village church until he was deported to Siberia. Yaroslava’s patriotic upbringing was provided by her parents and by the parish priest of Nestanychi, Rev. Ya. Murovych. The family had four children and all took an active part in the liberation struggle. The author completed seven grades of elementary school and continued her studies by correspondence.

In 1943, when the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) was operating in Volyn, many young people came through the area near the author’s village on their way to join the UPA. Yaroslava headed the women’s section, first at the local village level in Nestanychi, then at the raion level for the Radekhiv raion. Her duties included directing young women to the nursing courses organized by the Ukrainian Red Cross (UChKh). The courses were given by Dr. Bohdan Savka («Sofron»). Yaroslava also collected medications and helped prepare food and necessary supplies for UPA units.

During the entire period of Nazi occupation, the Germans conducted raids against young people, taking them by force to work in Germany. While the Germans were still in control, Soviet partisans from Medvedev’s detachment attacked the village and robbed and killed innocent peasants. To defend the population, Local Self-defense Units (SKV) were being formed. These units engaged in skirmishes and combat with Germans and Soviets.

Yaroslava recalls a fight which took place near her village on September 17, 1944. Taking part in the action were the companies commanded by «Berkut» and «Kulish» and a local SKV unit. The author did not participate directly in the combat, but the killed and wounded soldiers were brought to Nestanychi, where she provided medical assistance to the wounded. From them she learned the result of the combat: 14 insurgents were killed and 10 were wounded. The UPA units succeeded in breaking out of their encirclement. The author’s brother, Bohdan («Dub»), took part in this action. Yaroslava describes the funeral held for the fallen soldiers. Local girls and women washed their bodies, wrapped them in sheets and bedspreads and buried them in the cemetery. She and other local women placed the wounded insurgents in houses with hiding places and gave them medical assistance.

At the end of September 1944, Yaroslava was transferred to the Lopatyn raion. Her duties were more numerous here because UPA units from Volyn were also coming to this territory. The author cites examples of the medical treatment provided to wounded soldiers. With emotion, she describes the death scene of a seriously wounded soldier, Vasyl Humeniuk. He died in Yaroslava’s arms while waiting for his mother, who was coming to be with her dying son.

In early January 1945, the regional head, «Vira», added the Toporiv area to the author’s responsibilities. Fighting became more frequent, there were many wounded men and the underground UChKh workers had many heavy responsibilities. Medications, bandages and food supplies were difficult to procure.

In February 1945, the Soviets intensified their raids and the author temporarily moved to Volyn because in the villages there the situation was calmer. After Easter, Yaroslava was transferred to the Velyki Mosty raion. The superraion head of the UChKh there was Kateryna Kalynovych («Barvinok») from the Sokal region. The author was replacing «Kvitka», who had been imprisoned by the Soviets and had poisoned herself in prison.

The author describes various incidents from the work of the underground Ukrainian Red Cross. Often, the most primitive treatment methods had to be used. She describes a case where an internist using the pseudonym «Smereka», who did not have surgical training, had to amputate a gangrened arm. He performed the operation in a village house, without anesthetic or appropriate surgical instruments. An experienced nurse assisted the doctor. Yaroslava helped the nurse and provided moral support to the patient and the doctor, who was anxious about performing the operation.

In the Velyki Mosty raion, Yaroslava spent most of her time caring for lightly wounded men. Among the seriously wounded, she recalls insurgent «Kruk», who before completing his recovery was captured by the NKVD. She also mentions insurgent «Dub», who was being cared for by nurse Mariyka Burko («Chereshnia»). The KGB surrounded the place where «Dub» was hiding. Recognizing the hopelessness of his situation, he pushed the nurse away from his side and killed himself with a grenade. The wounded nurse was taken alive by the NKVD.

With every year, the situation became more difficult. The author survived the winter of 1945-46 thanks to the local population, who hid insurgents in spite of the risk that this entailed to their freedom, property, families and their lives. The author describes numerous incidents, naming the places where they occurred and giving the names or pseudonyms of wounded insurgents and the people who helped them.

In 1946, the conditions in which medical assistance was provided became very difficult. The Soviets arrested many of the young women working in the underground. During the winter of 1946-47, moving around the area became even more dangerous. The Soviets introduced passports and increased the frequency of checks and surprise attacks. In 1947, Yaroslava moved to the Zhovkva raion, where she spent the winter of 1947-48 in a bunker. Insurgent ranks were thinning, the enemy assault did not diminish and the enemy’s tactics were changing, with the use of increasing numbers of agents provocateurs. The author went deep into the underground and from that time, lived only in bunkers. She still assisted the wounded and sick as needed and also worked as a typist for underground leaders.

During the winter of 1948-49, Yaroslava was transferred to the propaganda section, which was led by Stepan Khankiv («Nosach»). The author describes various incidents showing her attempts to perform nursing duties in deplorable conditions.

The underground members were joined in their bunker by «Mechnyk», who previously had worked in the military district headquarters. Once, while he was operating the portable oil stove, the fuel spilled out and burned his face and hand. Yaroslava cared for him for several weeks until his wounds healed. The forest bunker was small and had many people staying in it. Water was lacking because the streams had frozen. Every person in the bunker was permitted one glass of water per 24-hour period. In spring 1949, Yaroslava was called to another bunker to care for a soldier who was wounded in the neck. The underground doctor was not able to come because he himself was wounded in the leg and was being treated in his bunker. Yaroslava regularly washed the soldier’s wound and changed the dressing and gradually the wound healed. In the fall, after completing her treatment of the wounded man, she returned to the propaganda centre bunker. There she became seriously ill with radiculitis and was unable to walk. She spent the winter of 1949-50 in the bunker. In spring 1950, she moved into the forest near Briukhovychi, near Lviv. In July 1950, she was sent to work as a typist to the Mageriv raion, where she continued to treat the sick and wounded as needed. She spent the winter of 1950-51 partly in a bunker in Briukhovychi and partly in a bunker in the forest. The circumstances were becoming critical and the author lost contact with the underground leadership.

On January 24, 1952, Yaroslava Romanyna was captured by the MGB. She was taken from the bunker unconscious because of a gas grenade.

Page 338. Nursing courses in Luzhky

The author writes about the medical courses which were offered during the summer of 1944 in the village of Luzhky, Dolyna raion. This was high in the mountains, far from any paved road or urban centres. In the forest near the village was an underground hospital, and somewhat further, the «Oleni» UPA school for non-commissioned officers.

The training was organized by «Halychanka,» the oblast chief of the underground Ukrainian Red Cross. Thirteen girls with high school education took part in the three-month training. The courses were taught by Dr. «Amikus», who was of Jewish origin but spoke Ukrainian well. The course was extensive and included anatomy, for which the physician used Latin names, physiology, internal illnesses, surgery and pharmacology. «Amikus» emphasized herbal treatments. The training was concluded in July 1944 with examinations and the awarding of certificates.

Page 345. Memoir of a company medical assistant

In his memoir, Stepan Babiak («Orlenko») briefly describes his arrival in the UPA and his training as a medical assistant.

In autumn 1944, after the destruction of the «Halychyna» Division near Brody, the author was in the village of Ortynychi and found lodgings with a local farmer.

In the village, the Soviets were conducting mass conscription to the Red Army. The young people escaped the village and were hiding in the swamps near the Dnister River. The author joined them. Nearby was quartered the «Bulava» company, to which Stepan Babiak volunteered. Using the pseudonym «Rys», he was assigned to «Zelenyi’s» platoon.

In the company, the author first helped the medical assistant treat a wounded man. The soldier had stepped on a mine, which exploded and tore off his leg. After receiving first aid, the wounded man was carried to a house on the edge of the village, with the instruction that the local Ukrainian Red Cross (UChKh) was to care for him.

A short time later, the author and another soldier were assigned to company commander «Karmeliuk’s» personal guard. «Karmeliuk» was moving to the Carpathian Mountains, where he was instructed to form a new UPA company. In the village of Ploske, Staryi Sambir region, the author joined the «Surma» company, commanded by «Buryi». He was assigned to train under the company’s medical assistant, «Bulba».

«Bulba» was a good instructor and Stepan quickly and easily acquired the necessary knowledge. He was helped by the fact that he had already taken a short first aid course while in the «Halychyna» Division. After completing his training, the author began to perform the duties of platoon medical assistant, using the pseudonym «Orlenko». Stepan Babiak carried out his duties conscientiously, for which he was respected by soldiers and patients.

In January 1945, the «Surma» company crossed the Sian River westward near the village of Stuposiany and stayed in the village of Berizhky. There, in the snow, the company quartered peacefully until early spring. The unit was joined by doctor «Rat», who gave the company medical assistants training that was quite exhaustive considering the difficult insurgent conditions. The author learned a lot from these lectures and from personal conversations with the doctor.

In spring, the «Surma» company raided past the village of Volosate to Transcarpathia, where they had some skirmishes with the Soviets. «Orlenko» had to give medical assistance only to lightly wounded soldiers.

His early experience in performing medical duties gave Stepan strength and endurance for his later work as company medical assistant in the extremely difficult conditions of insurgent struggle.

Page 352. Iryna Babuniak ('Nina')

The author begins his memoir with biographical information about his fellow student, Iryna Babuniak. She was born in 1921 in the village of Verbiv, Berezhany povit, Ternopil oblast. Her parents were teachers and Berezhany region activists. Iryna completed high school in Berezhany together with the author of the memoir. Like all the members of her family, she loved singing and music. After the war, her younger brother, Yaroslav, served as director of a wellknown Ukrainian choir in Manchester, England.

In 1940, Iryna Babuniak entered the Lviv Medical Institute, where in 1942, the author was also a student. In early April, when the German-Soviet front approached Ternopil, many medical students entered the underground to work in the Ukrainian Red Cross and UPA units. Among these young volunteers were Iryna Babuniak («Nina») and Ivan Shvak-Shul («Orlyk»). As instructed by the oblast Ukrainian Red Cross leadership, they waited for the passage of the front, then took courses to perfect their medical knowledge. The courses were completed by 15 students and were taught by Dr. Bohdan Savka («Sofron») and a surgeon, Dr. Yaromyr Olesnytskyi («Yaryi»). After graduation, Iryna Babuniak was sent to work with the Ukrainian Red Cross medical service in the Chortkiv region, while Ivan Shvak-Shul was assigned to the medical service of «Bystryi’s» battalion.

In late winter 1944 and spring 1945, when the «Red Broom» special NKVD units were attacking UPA units, «Nina» cared for wounded insurgents. She was killed on the field of battle on April 23, 1945, while giving medical assistance to wounded UPA soldiers. «Nina» was shot through the shoulder and pierced in many places with bayonets. She was interred in a common grave in the cemetery of the village of Bilche-Zolote.

Page 368. The lace of fate

Yevheniya Romanyna-Chorniy, born in 1923 in the village of Nestanychi, Radekhiv raion, Lviv oblast, had two sisters and a brother, all of whom were active in the struggle against the German and Soviet occupiers.

In 1943, the author became a member of the Ukrainian underground. She organized women, cared for the wounded and sick and made contacts between villages. The village of Nestanychi was near a forest in which «Chernyk’s» companies were camped. They frequently engaged in actions and brought the wounded to the village for treatment.

In February 1945, the Soviets arrested the author together with some other young women and subjected them to interrogation and beatings. She spent three months in prison. Thanks to a guard who collaborated with the Ukrainian underground, she managed to escape. For this, the KGB arrested her mother. Later, her father was also arrested. Although released, her parents were not left in peace. In 1947, they were deported to Prokopovsk, Kamerovo oblast.

The author describes her experiences after her escape from prison. She spent three months in the hide-out of Rev. Murovych, the Nestanychi parish priest, who endangered his own life to help Ukrainian insurgents. From there, using underground contacts, she made her way through different villages. In the village of Kupychvolia, she met her older sister, Yaroslava («Marta»), who was the raion leader in the Mostyska raion. They worked together caring for the sick and treating the wounded as they could. They were proud of the fact that although they had no formal medical training, they were able to help sick and wounded insurgents. They stayed for some time in the Zhovkva region.

The author describes several occasions when, with their heads wrapped in scarves, looking like old women, they made their way from village to village and treated wounded men in hide-outs. She mentions various places and the real names and pseudonyms of people whom she met and cared for.

The years passed and conditions became progressively more difficult. The author had to conceal herself in forest hide-outs and go into the village only occasionally. The ranks of the underground grew thinner and leading members were killed off. The author provides their pseudonyms, real names and conditions of death. Those who remained alive carried on their work.

In 1949-50 the raids, ambushes and killings continued. In 1950, while searching for a winter hide-out in the Radekhiv region, Roman Mandryk («Chornota») and «Viter» were killed in a skirmish with the KGB. «Boitur» was wounded and the author treated him. When his wound healed, he went back to the field. The last time she met Roman Shchepanskyi («Boitur»), chief of the Lviv region, was in 1952. From him she learned that her sister, Yaroslava («Marta»), had been captured by the Soviets, sentenced and deported to Vorkuta.

During the winter of 1953-54, the author lost contact with the last underground members in her region. She was alone and concealed herself in hide-outs until 1956.

Page 373. Bohdana Troshko ('Bohdana')

The author, in her short memoir, relates her experiences as a nurse in the UPA Medical Service. She studied nursing in 1940/41 in the Medical VUZ in Stanyslaviv, and upon completing her studies worked as a surgical nurse in the oblast hospital.

In 1943, when the urgency was being organized against the Germans, «Bohdana» collected and stored medical instruments and supplies. Shortly thereafter she became a nurse in the UPA battalion (kurin) commanded by «Hamaliia». In very difficult conditions she gave medical aid to wounded insurgents and related some episodes from that period which remained forever imbedded in her memory. Especially moving for her was the death of the Battalion Commander «Hamaliia», who was seriously wounded in battle with owerwhelming enemy forces and shot himself in the head in order to avoid capture.

In January 1946 «Bohdana» nursed the wounded Commander of the UPA Tactical Sector, Vasyl Andrusiak («Hrehot»). In February, 1946, she received a chest wound in battle. At the time, she was unable to access an underground medical station and while hiding in a village hut in Nazariv singlehandedly nursed herself to health.

Page 377. Liuba Veres

The author writes about Liuba Veres in short story form.

Among the brightest young people in the village of Bukova was the beautiful Liuba, daughter of Mykhailo Veres, principal of the local school, and Olena Semkova. There was also another daughter, Dariya, but she died at a young age.

After the death of her sister, Liuba, as the only remaining child, became the centre of her parents’ affection. She grew to be lively and curious, with a love for books. After completing high school in Rohatyn, she studied pharmacy in Lviv.

Her parents moved to the village of Sloboda, near the city, where they built their house. In her free time, Liuba went to the village to visit her parents and keep in touch with people of her own age.

With the start of war, events in the village unfolded rapidly. In 1943-44, the young people took up arms and went into the surrounding forest. Liuba, who was smart, strong-willed and decisive, similar in character to her father, could not stand idly by. From Lviv she supplied bandages, medications and other useful materials to the insurgents, sending them through people who could be trusted.

The Ukrainian underground quickly became very active in the Berezhany forest and in the villages and forests of the Lviv region.

Liuba believed that she was doing her duty in assisting the Ukrainian underground, all the more so as one member of the underground was the man she loved. In late autumn 1948, Liuba was arrested in Lviv. Shortly afterwards, the NKVD detained her parents in Pukiv, but they soon released them. Liuba succeeded in escaping from Lviv and she entered the underground in her area.

On the cold day of the Feast of the Epiphany, January 19, 1945, a tragedy took place in the forest near the village of Pylyp. NKVD units surrounded the hiding place in which a group of Ukrainian insurgents were staying. Seeing the hopelessness of their situation, to avoid falling into the hands of the enemy, all those present killed themselves with grenades or guns. Among them were Liuba Veres and an insurgent from another village, Petrusko Zhychkivskyi («Zenon»), the man she loved.

The author provides the names by which the people were known in the village.

Page 382. Dr. Bohdan Savka

Bohdan Savka was born in 1904 in the village of Richytsia, Rava Ruska county. He graduated from high school in Sokal and obtained his medical degree from the university in Krakow in 1927. He operated a medical practice in Krystynopil (now Chervonohrad), near Sokal.

From 1942, Dr. Bohdan Savka collaborated with the Ukrainian underground using the pseudonym «Sofron». He provided training courses for paramedics and nurses in the Sokal region. From 1943 to 1946, «Sofron» was chief physician at the UPA-Zakhid military headquarters and in the krai leadership of the Ukrainian Red Cross (UChKh). In autumn 1944, he provided surgical training to medical students in the Berezhany region.

In late 1946, Dr. B. Savka was instructed by the UChKh leadership to come out of the underground. Using the name Petro Zagnoiskyi, he worked as a paramedic in the Ternopil region. In mid-December 1947, he was arrested and sentenced to 25 years in prison camps. After his release from the Gulag, Dr. Bohdan Savka worked as chief physician in the village of Zatkivsti, Vinnytsia oblast. He died on November 18, 1980.

Page 393. The personal doctor

Dr. Matviy Lotovych was born in 1903 into a peasant family in the village of Hayl, near Ternopil. After completing high school in Ternopil, he began medical studies in Warsaw and obtained his medical diploma from Lviv University in 1932.

From 1933 to 1944, he worked as a doctor in the town of Kamianka Strumilova. In April 1944, when the German-Soviet front approached Lviv, Dr. M. Lotovych with his family moved to the Carpathian Mountains, where UPA units were operating. He stayed In the villages of Hrebeniv and Rozhanka Vyzhnia, south of the town of Skolie. There he made contact wtth UPA commanders operating in the region. He gave medical care to the local population white at the same time treating wounded insurgents. He helped the UPA medical service by providing medications and medical supplies.

In April 1945, Dr. M. Lotovych and his family returned to Lviv, where he worked as assistant professor at the Lviv Medical Institute.

In the summer of 1946, he renewed his contacts with leading members of the Ukrainian underground. He was the personal physician of UPA Supreme Commander Roman Shukhevych. As much as he was able, he also treated notable members of the Ukrainian resistance and secretly passed drugs and medical equipment to the underground Ukrainian Red Cross.

On April 7, 1948, the MGB arrested Dr. Lotovych. After undergoing a difficult investigation in prison, he was sentenced on December 6 of that year to 25 years in concentration camps. He was sent to the special camp in Taishet, Irkutsk oblast, in Siberia, where he died on September 9, 1953.

Added to these biographical data are archive copies of the MGB investigation and sentence, as well as excerpts from the memoirs of his daughter, Halyna Vivchar, his niece, Lubomyra Poliuha, fellow prison camp inmates, Dr. Neuman and Dr. Edward Freifeld, and medical assistant Yevhen Nakonechnyi.

Page 397. Dr. I. Yaroslav Makaruchka

Yaroslav Makarushka was born in 1908 in the village of Sivtsi, Stanyslaviv oblast. He graduated from the Ukrainian Academic High School in Lviv in 1926. He completed his medical studies at Lviv University in 1933 and obtained his medical degree from Berlin University tn 1941.

During his student years, Ya. Makarushka was a member of UVO and OUN and for his underground Ukrainian independentist activities was sentenced by the Polish government of occupation to six years’ imprisonment.

During the German occupation of 1941-44, he worked as a doctor and was director of the hospital in Bibrtsi. He collaborated with the OUN underground and the UPA and hid and treated wounded underground members. Or. Yaroslav Makarushka personally cared for OUN Leadership Bureau member Dmytro Mayivskyi, who in 1942 received a serious stomach wound during a fight with the Gestapo in Lviv.

In 1944, Dr. Ya. Makarushka travelled through Vienna to Germany. In 1947, he emigrated to the USA and after obtaining his medical license, worked in hospitals in New York state. He retired in 1988 and died 13 March, 1998.

Page 399. Borys Javorskyi

Borys Yavorskyi was born in the village of Rudnyky, Lviv oblast. He graduated from high school in Stryi and completed his medical studies in Lviv in 1936. He ran a medical practice in Skalat, Ternopil oblast. In 1944, he worked as a doctor in the Polish Army (WP). In 1945, Dr. Yavorskyi entered the UPA medical service in the Sanok region. Under the pseudonym «Yakym», he performed the duties of physician. In the difficult conditions of insurgent life, Dr. «Yakym» not only treated insurgents, but tried to keep detailed medical documentation, including medical history records, daily medical reports and monthly reports on frequencies of woundings and illnesses.

In the summer of 1947, during the «Wisla Action» and the forced deportation of the Ukrainian population of the Lemko region, «Yakym», who was wounded, fell into enemy hands.

Dr. Borys Yavorskyi was sentenced by the Polish war tribunal to 15 years’ imprisonment. After eight years he was released and because of the loss of his medical diplomas was obliged to work as a medical assistant in Waibrzych, Poland. He died on May 27, 1977.

Page 408. Dr. Pavlo Klochnyk

Pavto Ktochnyk («Sirko») was born in 1899 in the town of Krakivets, Yavoriv povit. He completad high school in Yavoriv, then studiad medicine in France, at the Sorbonne. Afterward, he worked in the university clinic in Sorbonne, where he obtained his medical degree.

After returning to Ukraine, he ran a private medical practice in the town of Krakovets until 1943. In late 1944, Dr. Klochnyk entered the Ukrainian insurgent Army. Using the pseudonym «Sirko», he worked as a doctor in the Liubachiv and Yaroslav regions, in companies of the battalion commanded by Ivan Shpontak («Zalizniak»), then went to work in the underground Ukrainian Red Cross network. He was a good doctor and conscientiously performed his duties. In addition to providing medical care to UPA soldiers, he also treated the local population. On November 28, 1945, Dr. Pavto Klochnyk («Sirko») was captured by the Polish army and brutally killed.

An addition to the biography are memoirs about Dr. P. Klochnyk’s medical activity in the Ukrainian underground, written by UPA participant Oleksander Gereg.

Page 412. Dr. Petro Skobelskyi

This biography of Petro Skobelskyi was written by his sister, Marta Tsehelska.

Petro was born in 1914 in the town of Zolochiv, Lviv oblast, the son of jurist Atanaziy Skobelskyi and Anna Bachynska. After completing high school and medical studies in Lviv, he worked from 1939 as a doctor in Zolochiv. In 1941, when, with the arrival of the German army, the Zolochiv prison was opened, Petro Skobelskyi headed the medical commission investigating the tortures inflicted by the NKVD on murdered prisoners.

Petro specialized in surgery in Gratz, Austria. In 1943, when the Ukrainian «Halychyna» Division was being organized, he volunteered to work as a doctor in the Division. In July 1944, he participated in the Division’s battles against the Soviets near Brody. After the Division’s destruction, Petro entered the UPA. Working in very difficult underground conditions, he treated wounded UPA soldiers in the Zolochiv region. He was killed in a hiding place near the village of Slovita by a special NKVD unit while giving medical assistance to a wounded insurgent. Only after many years of searching did his sister, Marta, learn the circumstances and location of his death and find his grave.

Page 415. Dr. Yevhen Karanovych ('Karavan')

Dr. Yevhen Karanovych (Karavan) was born in 1901 on the outskirts of Sokal. His parents were Panteleimon and Maria, nee Ivanets. After graduating from the Sokal high school, he studied in the medical faculty of the secret Ukrainian University in Lviv and completed his studies at the Jagellonian University in Krakow.

From 1931, he worked as a doctor in the town of Kamin-Koshyrskyi in Volyn. He had contacts with the Ukrainian underground from 1942. When UPA units began to operate, he became an UPA physician, caring for sick insurgents while continuing to treat the local population.

Dr. Yevhen Karanovych was killed during a Soviet partisan attack in 1943. He was buried in a common grave of fallen UPA soldiers in the village of Khotin, Kamin-Koshyrskyi raion, Volyn oblast.

Page 418. Yaroslav Martynets ('Berest')

Yaroslav Martynets was born in 1921 in Bohorodchany, Stanyslaviv oblast. After completing high school in Stanyslaviv, he studied at the Lviv Medical Institute until July 1944. At the end of that year, he volunteered to serve as a physician in the UPA in the Chornyi Lis (Black Forest), Stanyslaviv region. He worked as a doctor first in the «Skazheni» battalion, then in the «Pidkarpatskyi » battalion, which was commanded by Vasyl Andrusiak («Hrehit») and as of summer 1945, by Pavlo Vatsyk («Prut»). Martynets performed his duties with devotion and in his free time, wrote articles for underground publications. He was killed in combat with NKVD troops on July 15, 1948, in the village of Zaviy, Stanyslaviv region.

Page 422. Yevhen Luzhetskyi ('Shuvar')

Yevhen Luzhetskyi was born in 1918 in the village of Mohylnytsia, Ternopil region. He attended high school and studied theology in Lviv. During the Soviet and German occupations, from 1939 to 1944, he studied veterinary science and graduated from the Veterinary Institute in Lviv. At the same time, he studied singing.

Yevhen Luzhetskyi was one of the founders of the UChKh network on Ukrainian ethnic territory in Poland, in the Przemysl region. «Shuvar» was a talented organizer and instructor of medical assistant courses. For a brief time, he worked in the UChKh network in the Lemko region and then again in the Przemysl region. In 1947-48, he performed the duties of battalion doctor in the Przemysl battalion.

In 1947, Yevhen Luzhetskyi left with «Hromenko’s» company on a mission into Western Europe. While crossing the Carpathian Mountains, he was seriously wounded in the leg. In order to avoid being taken alive, he shot himself in front of the soldiers.

Page 424. Yevhen Hryhorii Drul ('Slavko', 'Luhovyj')

Hryhorii Drul («Slavko», «Luhovyi») was born on November 9, 1921 in the village of Postolivka, Ternopil oblast. He completed Secondary Education in Ternopil and from 1942 to 1944 he studied the Medical Institute in Lviv.

In March 1944, he joined the underground and, in 1944/1945 worked at first as a medic in UPA medical units and later organized courses for medical students at which Dr. Bohdan Savka («Sofron») and Dr. Yaromyr Olesnytskyi («Yaryi») were principal lecturers.

Hryhorii Drul was also responsible for the pharmaceutical supplies at the Krai Leadership of the Ukrainian Red Cross (UChKh).

On May 2, 1945, H, Drul was captured in an unconscious state by the NKVD and sent to a concentration camp where he stayed until 1955. After his release he was kept in Ukhta under KGB control until 1960. Upon return to Ukraine, he was allowed to study at the Polytechnical Institute in Lviv, but was never permitted to work in his chosen profession. He was, however, allowed to work as a skilled laborer. He was pensioned in 1986.

Page 427. Myroslava Hrebeniuk ('Barvinok')

Myroslava Hrebeniuk was born on April 11, 1918, in the village of Mushkativka, Ternopil oblast. She completed high school in Ternopil in 1939.

Myroslava was gifted with artistic and musical talent, but having no opportunity to pursue such studies, she worked as a teacher. In 1941, she married Yuriy Onuferko, who died at a young age, in 1944, at the hands of the Soviets.

Myroslava Hrebeniuk entered the Ukrainian underground. Using the pseudonym «Barvinok», she worked in the underground Ukrainian Red Cross under the direction of Dr. Olya Slipa («Tseka»). She cared for the wounded and those ill with typhus and she herself became seriously ill. On the order of company commander «Kalyna» she was sent for treatment to Lviv. There she lived above ground using the surname Dermanchuk.

After her recovery, she worked as a bandura player in the group led by Sinhalevych, and later in the «Chornohora» ensemble. In 1946, she was recognized by an informer and was arrested by the NKVD as she was coming off the stage with her bandura.

Myroslava Hrebeniuk was sentenced by a military tribunal to 25 years’ imprisonment and five years’ deprivation of rights. She was released as an invalid on January 19, 1955. She lived in Lviv and worked in the city philharmonic orchestra until 1965.

Bedridden by a serious illness, Myroslava died on January 31, 1996. She was buried in the Lychakivskyi cemetery in Lviv.

Page 429. Kateryna Havryliv

Kateryna Havryliv was born in the village of Trukhaniv, Lviv oblast. She studied agronomy in Pidmykhailivtsi, Rohatyn raion, and completed her practical work in Dubliany, near Lviv. From 1936 to 1941, she lived with her sister in Warsaw. In 1941, she returned to Ukraine and lived in Lviv. In November 1943, she was sent to take nursing courses in the village of Sprynia, Drohobych oblast. After completing the courses, she worked as a first aid Instructor for the underground UChKh, and with UPA units in the Drohobych oblast. In January 1945, she took upgrading courses in the village of Poruchyn, Berezhany raion. After completing the courses, she worked as director of the Medenyts raion UChKh, in the Drohobych region. She came out of the underground in 1950.

Page 432. Hanna Panashiy

This short account about Hanna Panashiy was written by her sister.

Hanna was born on January 1, 1908, in Stanyslaviv, where she completed high school and studied pharmacy. Until 1939, she worked in private pharmacies.

After the end of the war, from 1945 to 1948, she was in charge of the oblast hospital pharmacy. During all this time she had contacts with the Ukrainian underground and supplied medications to UPA medical units.

At the beginning of 1949, she was arrested by the Soviets and sentenced to 25 years’ penal deportation. Hanna’s mother and her sister with her 7-year-old daughter were deported to the Khabarovsk krai. Hanna was released in 1956. Two years later, she returned to Stanyslaviv, where she died in 1980.

Page 434. Oleksandra Vorobiy ('Halia')

«Halia», nadraion underground Ukrainian Red Cross (UChKh) leader, was born in 1922 in the town of Yaroslav. She completed high school in Sokal in 1942. After training as a teacher, she taught in the Sokal region. There she took UPA nursing courses, which were given by Dr. B. Savka («Sofron»). From 1944-47, «Halia» was the nadraion UChKh leader and cared for sick and wounded UPA soldiers in the Sokal and Radekhiv regions.

Oleksandra Vorobiy was arrested by the NKVD and sentenced in Lviv to 10 years in strict regime prison camps. She served her sentence in Mordovia and was released in 1956. After her release, she worked as a nurse in a tuberculosis dispensary until 1985.

Page 438. Nadia Savchak ('Hrystya', 'Sonya')

Nadia Savchak was born on March 8, 1924 in the village Hlyniany, Lviv Oblast. She completed Secondary Education in 1943 and in that year she entered the Medical Institute in Lviv. In the second half of 1943 Nadia Savchak («Khrystia») helped to organize the underground network of the Ukrainian Red Cross (UChKh) in Berezhany region. In 1944, after the return of Bolsheviks to the Ternopil region, Nadia Savchak (now «Sonia»), together with an UPA unit, was sent into Stanyslaviv region. She died in battle in Chornyi Lis on November 1, 1944 together with Commander «Hamaliia», OUN leader Vasyl Turkovskyi («Pavlo») and twenty other insurgents.

Page 440. Liubomyr Poliuha

Liubomyr Poliuha was born in Lviv on August 9, 1925. He graduated from a branch of the Academic High School, then studied for three semesters at the Medical Institute in Lviv. In 1944-45, he performed assignments for the OUN and UPA. In 1946, he resumed his studies, but when he was threatened with arrest, he went back underground. Lubomyr Poliuha served as a messenger with the Ukrainian Red Cross leadership for Kateryna Zarytska, Gen. Roman Shukhevych and Dr. M. Lotovych. In late 1847, he was wounded in combat and fell into the hands of the KGB. He served in a labour camp in Inta until 1955. After his release, he completed his medical studies at the Medical Institute in Semypaletyn, Kazakhstan. He presently works as a physician In Tsiurynsk, Kherson oblast, Ukraine.

Page 443. Bohdan Koval

Bohdan Koval was born in 1918 in the Lviv oblast. He completed high school in Lviv and in 1940-44 studied at the Lviv Medical Institute. In July 1944, he joined the UPA and was sent to serve as UPA doctor in the Sambir region. There he treated not only wounded insurgents, but also the local population. The conditions were difficult, because the Soviets frequently attacked underground hospitals. During the night of February 25 to 26, 1945, NKVD special units surrounded the village and attacked the underground medical bunker, killing Koval, a nurse, the guard and wounded and sick insurgents. After the attack, they removed the bodies of the people who had been in the bunker and made them objects of derision in the town centre. Koval’s body was taken to the town of Rudne, where it was displayed outside the NKVD building and kept for an entire week «for identification».

Page 445. Petro Horodnyk

Petro Horodnyk was born in 1917 in Koniushky Korolivsky, Rudka county, Lviv region. After completing high school at the Minor Seminary in Lviv, he entered the Lviv Medical Institute, where he studied until May 1944. While still a student, he had contacts with the OUN and in July 1944, he entered the UPA, working as a physician in the Rudka-Komarno region. He was killed in January 1946, during a surprise attack by the NKVD on the underground hospital.

Page 447. Illia Oberyshyn

Illia Oberyshyn was born in 1921 in the village of Potik, Ivano-Frankivsk oblast. He graduated from high school in Rohatyn and studied at the Medical Institute in Lviv. From 1938, he was a member of the OUN, and in 1944, while still a medical student, entered the underground. He served as regional director of the Ukrainian Red Cross in the Ivano-Frankivsk oblast until 1947. From 1948 to 1951, he performed additional duties in the underground. As of 1950, because of the critical situation of the Ukrainian underground, Oberyshyn hid out alone until early 1991.

Page 450. Dr. Rodion P. Slipyi

Rodion P. Slipyi was born in 1887 in the village of Zazdrist, Terebovlia povit. He completed high school in Ternopil and medical studies in Gratz, Austria in 1922. During World War I, he served in the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen, then in the Ukrainian Galician Army. Having an Austrian diploma, he obtained his medical license in Poznan, Poland in 1926. From that time, he worked in general medical practice in the town of Strusiv, Ternopil region.

During World War II, he collaborated with the Ukrainian underground and helped the UPA medical service. Subsequently, he entered the «Halychyna» Division as a doctor. After the destruction of the Division, he ended up in Mittenwald, Bavaria, Germany, where he died on June 1, 1948.

Page 462. From the cradle to the grave (Excerpts from the Author's Memoirs)

Dr. Ivan Pankiv was born into a peasant family on April 6, 1910, in the village of Chortovets (Nazarenkove), Ivano-Frankivsk oblast. He attended elementary school in his village and graduated with distinction from high school in Kolomyia in 1929.

For a Ukrainian student to enter medical school in Western Ukraine under Polish occupation was very difficult. For that reason, Pankiv studied at Montpellier University in France. He passed his state medical exams in 1938 and defended his doctoral thesis suma cum laude in 1939.

On his return to Halychyna, he did not have permission to practice medicine, so he temporarily provided free medical care to local peasants. With the arrival of Soviet rule in Western Ukraine and during the German occupation of 1939-43, he worked in a polyclinic in Obertyn and occasionally in an out-patient clinic in Chortovets.

With the return of the Soviets in 1944, he worked in the Obertyn polyclinic and organized paramedical-midwifery centres in the larger raion villages and his own village.

From 1942, Dr. Pankiv had links with the Ukrainian underground, treating the sick and supplying medications. When the UPA was fighting the NKVD in the region, he went into the field to treat wounded insurgents and performed operations under difficult conditions. Under the Soviet terror, he experienced dangerous situations. He was aware of his responsibility towards his people, as well as his duties as a husband and father of young children. In his journal, he states: «At night there was banging on the window, as though warning of fire. The children and Genusia began to cry in fear. It turned out that a group of wounded insurgents had been brought. One of them died of hemorrhage, another was wounded in the chest - pneumothorax. After providing assistance I sent them all to the Kolomyia hospital. It was hard to work at that time and even harder in the villages. At night it was difficult to tell who was who.»

With God’s will, Pankiv was saved from the hands of the NKVD. No one denounced or betrayed him and the enemy never found evidence of his links with the underground. However, repression did not bypass his family. In early 1948, his brother, Dmytro, who worked in a pharmacy, was arrested and sentenced to 25 years. His brother VasyI, was deported to the Chita oblast.

Dr. Pankiv found it increasingly difficult to work in Obertyn. The local authorities mistrusted him because of his brother, Dmytro. Pankiv tried to obtain a transfer to a larger raion centre. In 1951, he managed to find work in Kolomyia, where he took on the duties of radiographer in the inter-raion tuberculosis dispensary.

In 1971, Dr Pankiv’s health deteriorated. He undeiwent a series of operations and was unable to practice his profession full time. He retired in 1978. In September 1981, his wife, Genia, who had been caring for him, died suddenly. Dr Ivan Pankiv died on February 28, 1982, and was buried in the cemetery in his native village, Nazarenkove.

Page 465. Dr. Lionhyn Melnyk

Dr. Lionhyn Melnyk was born in 1902 in the town of Rohatyn. He completed his medical studies in Graz, Austria in 1929 and later practiced medicine in his native town. During German occupation (1943-1944) when the UPA became active in the region, he visited surrounding villages and provided medical aid to insurgents. Upon the return of the Soviets in 1944, he was arrested and sent to Siberia. He was allowed to return only in 1953 and continued to work as a physician inTernopil until his untimely death in 1958.

Page 467. Dr. Maksym Tymkiv

Maksym Tymkiv was born in 1901 in the village of Dolishnie, Lviv Oblast. He completed his medical studies at the Charles University in Prague in 1929 and received his accreditation to practice medicine at the University of Poznan in Poland. At first he worked as a physician in Strilyska Novi near Lviv and later moved to the town of Deliatyn in Stanyslaviv Oblast. He was very active in providing medical aid to sick and wounded members of the UPA. He was killed while serwing in the UPA during 1945, but the place and circumstances of his death are not known.

Page 17. Introduction

In this second volume of «The UPA Medical Service», we continue to present material on this subject, first addressed in Litopys UPA, Volume 23. The introduction to the first volume provided, in brief, the history and structure of the UPA medical service and the underground Ukrainian Red Cross. Most of the materials presented in the first volume pertained to the period 1942-1944, when the insurgent struggle was at its height. There were also some documents and materials from 1945-1947, the post-World War II period when the entire territory of Ukraine came under Soviet Stalinist occupation or that of the satellite countries.

The material and information used to compile the first volume came mainly from sources outside Ukraine. The published memoirs were by underground participants who lived abroad after the war.

In this, the second volume of «The UPA Medical Service», we present, in addition to material by authors living outside Ukraine, some supplementary material covering the period 1942-1947 which was obtained from Ukraine. This volume also contains documents, memoirs and articles pertaining to the most critical period for provision of medical care to wounded and sick insurgents, 1948-1950. By this time, UPA units had already been disbanded and were obliged to operate in total secrecy. Enemy terror had reached its peak and included not only physical destruction of underground members and arrests and forced deportation of the population, but also underhanded provocations against the underground and the innocent population.

In conditions of such brutal terror, professional medical personnel became completely helpless. Caring for the sick was left to medical students with limited education, hastily trained paramedics and nurses and at times, practitioners of folk medicine. Sometimes, ill insurgents were cared for by individuals who had no medical knowledge, but simply, good hearts and a love for their people.

The materials published in this second volume of «The UPA Medical Service» are organized into six chapters.

The first chapter deals with the Ukrainian Red Cross (UChKh). Some articles, memoirs and sketches on this subject were published previously, in the first volume. These include articles written by Liudmyla Ivchenko about the Ukrainian Red Cross (UChKh) in Kyiv and Dr. Toma Vorobets about the UChKh in Lviv; a memoir by Sofia Stepaniak about Dr. Kharytia Kononenko and the UChKh in Volyn and a memoir by Iryna Savytska about the organization of the underground UChKh in Western Ukraine.

In this, the second volume, we publish a longer article by Halyna Viun, «Under the Mark of the Red Cross in Poltava», in which she supplements the information provided by the authors mentioned above. Until the outbreak of war, Halyna Viun worked as a bookkeeper in Poltava. With the arrival of the Germans, on August 18, 1941, she and several other local activists undertook the task of organizing the Ukrainian Red Cross society (UChKh) in the Poltava region. She served as head of this society until August 1, 1942, when the German occupation authorities officially disbanded the Ukrainian Red Cross.

The first task facing the UChKh was helping Red Army prisoners of war who were living in horrific sanitary conditions and suffering inhuman brutality from the occupying Germans. UChKh workers also began to provide care for widows, orphans and all victims of Soviet terror.

The UChKh society in Poltava became a centre around which gathered the nationally conscious and creative elements of the Poltava population, including members of the underground OUN.

When the Gestapo began a wave of arrests, torture and physical annihilation of Ukrainian patriots, Halyna Viun made fairly successful efforts to save them. After the final disbanding of the Ukrainian Red Cross, it became very difficult to continue providing medical and humanitarian help in Poltava. Some activists, among them Halyna Viun, managed to escape arrest by the Gestapo. Some of the most active underground members entered the UPA in Volyn.

The following participants document the activities of the underground UChKh in Western Ukraine:
– Anna Stetsko, a medical student, who in 1943-1946 performed the duties of UChKh section head for the city of Lviv and surrounding area. Her memoir describes the work of UChKh cells in a large city; this is in contrast to the memoirs by other UChKh workers, who focus on the efforts of underground medical personnel in villages and forest hideouts.
– Tadey Pliuhavka, also a medical student, writes about the work of the UChKh on Boiko territory during the period 1944-1945.

Other authors whose memoirs are published in the next four chapters of this volume provide additional information about activity in the underground UChKh.

Chapter II contains materials about the UPA medical service in Volyn and Polissia. The struggle against the Nazi German occupation and the formation of the first UPA units on this territory began in late 1942. The most active period for the UPA and its rear line, in terms of combat and military-administrative activity, was 1943-1944.

This development of national liberation activity required a simultaneous expansion of the system of medical care both for UPA soldiers and the local population.

Until now, it has not been possible to recreate the events of this period in detail and support this accounts with underground documents. The reports, orders and instructions related to UPA military and administrative activity were, for security reasons, carefully concealed in underground bunkers or destroyed.

Now that access to Soviet state archives has opened up in Ukraine, it has become possible to research the history of the Ukrainian national liberation movement using underground sources which had been seized by Soviet security organs.

One important publication presenting a collection of such documents is Litopys UPA, new series, volume 2, Volyn and Polissia: the UPA and the Rear Line, 1943-1944.

This collection contains 319 documents, which also include orders, reports and instructions pertaining to the area of medicine and health. Reprints of these documents, with additional information and explanations, are presented in Chapter VI of this volume.

It is important to note that during the Second World War, there was, in Volyn and Polissia, a serious shortage of medical and health personnel. The only school for field paramedics, which operated in Rivne during the Soviet occupation, was completely destroyed by the war in 1941. Some Ukrainian doctors who had practiced in Lutsk, Rivne and Volodymyr Volynskyi had left for the west in 1939-1940. When the Germans arrived, the Nazis removed Jewish doctors and Volyn was left almost without physicians.

In early September 1941, while Volyn was still controlled by the Wermacht and the German civilian administration had not yet taken over the local government, the leaders of the temporary Ukrainian county administration in Rivne made an appeal to physicians in Lviv. Alarmed by the critical situation of medical and health care in their region, they asked Lviv doctors to come to their aid and send at least a few physicians to Volyn.

The representatives of the Lviv doctors, in the persons of Dr. Osinchuk and Dr. V. Karkhut, with support from the chief of the German military health service, who was staying in Rivne at the time, managed to achieve some successes. Six Ukrainian doctors were sent to provide medical care to the Volyn population. Among them was Dr. M. Vasyliv-Kornyliv, who was named chief of the Volyn district health directorate, which was headquartered in Rivne.

The chapter «UPA Medical Service in Volyn» opens with an article by Dr. M. Vasyliv, who gives the history of the Rivne nursing school and emphasizes its role in providing medical personnel for the UPA. Dr. Dmytro Sahaiko, a surgeon and instructor at the nursing school, entered the UPA in spring 1943. He had served as director of the surgical hospital in Rivne and brought with him to the UPA the entire nursing staff.

Later, Dr. Sahaiko («Enei», «Bravyi») became chief physician of the medical service of the «Zahrava» Military Region in Volyn.

Complementing the article by Dr. M. Vasyliv is the information provided by Tetiana Bak («Yaryna»), the Nad-raion UChKh leader in the Kostopil region.

In her autobiographical account, she also provides information about Dr. D. Sahaiko and gives the names of his nurses and the pseudonyms of his co-workers in the underground hospital.

Following this account are memoirs written by nurses who worked in the UPA medical service or UChKh in the Kremianets region. These include memoirs and information authored by Larysa Tomchuk («Topolia»), Antonina Mazurchuk («Vyshnia») and Anna Bobrovska («Nezabudka»).

Chapter III contains memoirs and sketches authored by witnesses and participants of the UPA medical service or the underground Ukrainian Red Cross in Halychyna.

Oleksa Zeleniuk, an advanced student of medicine, performed the duties of a physician in the UPA, devoting himself exclusively to surgery. In contrast to other authors, he spends little time describing his personal experiences and the conditions of the UPA struggle and focuses more on professional medical concerns.

Oleksandr Bolekhivskyi worked as a field paramedic in an UPA unit in the Stanyslaviv region in 1943-1944. He was seriously wounded and thus had the experience of also being a patient. His memoirs are an interesting portrayal of his personal experiences while being treated underground by a UChKh nurse and subsequently, in a Hungarian field hospital.

The detailed memoirs written by nurses depict the very difficult conditions in which they performed their humanitarian work during their years in the underground. These memoirs also recount the fates that befell the nurses, including brutal NKVD investigations, imprisonment and deportation.

Yevheniya Hutsuliak-Andrusiak writes about events in the Chornyi forest region of Ivano-Frankivsk oblast. Yaroslava Romanyna-Levkovych, in her memoir «Beyond the Limits of the Possible», and her sister Yevheniya, in her memoir, «The Lace of Fate», describe the events that took place in Lviv oblast. Maria Levytska-Zahoruyko informs about the UPA medical service in the Zolochiv region. Romana Simkiv describes the nursing course in the Dolyna raion.

One of the memoirs by Ivan Shvak-Shul («Orlyk») presented in this chapter describes the activity of the UPA medical service in the Ternopil region. The other recalls Iryna Babuniak («Nina»), an advanced student of medicine, who died heroically while providing medical care to wounded UPA soldiers during combat near Chortkiv.

Olha Klymtsiv writes, in fictional form, about Liuba Veres, a pharmacist, who was killed with a group of insurgents who blew themselves up with grenades in a bunker in the Rohatyn region.

Stepan Babiak («Orlenko»), senior messenger and paramedic in the company commanded by R. Hrobelskyi («Brodych») in the Lemko region, attempts to depict the work of an UPA paramedic with reference to episodes from his life. Bohdana Troshko («Bohdana») describes how, as a hastily trained paramedic, she treated wounded insurgents as late as the 1950s; when she became seriously ill, she had to treat herself.

Chapter IV consists of biographical information about the physicians who were active in UPA medical units and the UChKh system. Owing to the difficulty of finding complete information about underground doctors, the biographies are presented in a variety of forms. The same is true of the biographies of leading members of the nursing and paramedical staff.

Included in this volume of «The UPA Medical Service» are biographies of the following physicians:
– Dr. Matviy Lotovych, lecturer at the Lviv Medical Institute and personal physician of General Roman Shukhevych and other leading members of the underground;
– Dr. Bohdan Savka, chief physician of the UChKh krai leadership;
– Dr. Yaroslav Makarushka, director of the hospital in the village of Bibrka, who treated and hid underground members and personally treated OUN Leadership Bureau member Dmytro Mayivksyi, who was wounded in combat with the Gestapo;
– Dr. Pavlo Klochnyk, a graduate of Sorbonne University in France, who spent many years as a doctor in the town of Krakovets and later served as an UPA physician in a company of the battalion commanded by Mykhailo Shpontak («Zalizniak») in the Yaroslav-Liubachiv region;
– Dr. Boris Yavorskyi, graduate of the medical faculty of Lviv University, who practiced in the Ternopil region and served as an UPA physician in the Lemko region; in summer 1947, during the «Wisla» action, he was captured by the enemy while wounded;
– Dr. Petro Skobelskyi, who entered the UPA from the «Halychyna» Division after the battle near Brody;
– Dr. Yevhen Karanovych, a physician practicing in Kamin Koshyrskyi, in Volyn, who served as an UPA physician from 1942 and was killed in combat in 1943;
– Dr. Antin Kolman, a surgeon from Lviv, who operated on OUN Leadership Bureau member Dmytro Mayivskyi, who was seriously wounded in combat with the Gestapo; Dr. Kolman was killed in 1945, in the Carpathian Mountains, while working as an UPA doctor under the pseudonym «Vuhliar»;
– Yevhen Luzhetskyi («Shuvar»), graduate of the Veterinary Science Institute in Lviv, founder of the UChKh network in Peremyshl;
– Hryhoriy Drul («Slavko»), medical student, organizer of nurses’ training and surgical training for medical students in 1944-1945 in the Lviv region;
– Illia Oberyshyk, medical student, UChKh director in the Ivano-Frankivsk oblast in 1944-1947;
– Yaroslav Martynets, final-year medical student, who performed the duties of an UPA physician in the Chornyi forest, in the Stanyslaviv region, under the pseudonym «Berest»;
– Bohdan Koval, medical student, who performed the duties of physician from July 1944 in the Rudky-Komarno region;
– Liubomyr Poliuha, student of the Lviv Medical Institute, who worked as a communications officer for the krai UChKh leadership headed by Kateryna Zarytska.

In addition to biographical information about the above physicians and medical students, this volume also contains brief biographies of those members of UPA and OUN medical and health units about whom it was possible to obtain information. Among them are Myroslav Hrebeniuk («Barvinok»), Kateryna Havryliv («Zelena»), Hanna Panashiy, Nadiya Savchak («Khrystia», «Sonia») and Oleksander Vorobiy («Halia»).

Chapter V provides biographical information about doctors who practiced their profession legally and at the same time, co-operated with the Ukrainian underground. Many of them could not be identified. These doctors include:
– Dr. Rodion Slipyi, a veteran of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen and the UHA, who worked as a physician in Strusiv, in the Ternopil region; in 1943-1944 he collaborated with the UPA medical and health units;
– Dr. Maksym Tymkiv, who worked as a physician in the Lviv region and later, in the Stanyslaviv region; he served as an UPA doctor in 1945;
– Dr. Ivan Pankiv, who ran a medical practice in the Kolomyia region; in his memoir, he describes his experiences during 1941-1947, the period of activity of the Ukrainian underground;
– Dr. Lionhyn Melnyk, a physician from the Rohatyn region, who treated Ukrainian insurgents during the German occupation; with the return of the Soviets in 1945, he was arrested.

Chapter VI presents documents relating to the activities of the medical and health service which are reprinted from Volume 2 of the new series of Litopys UPA, Volyn and Polissia: the UPA and the Rear Line, 1943-1944.

These documents come from the following collections: the Central State Archive of the Higher Organs of Ukraine (TsDAVOU) and the Rivne Oblast State Archive (DARO). Some information was also obtained from the Central State Archive of Non-governmental Organizations of Ukraine (TsDAHOU) and the State Archive of the Security Service of Ukraine in Kyiv.

The documents are organized into three subchapters.

The first subchapter consists of orders issued by the UPA Supreme Command (HK UPA) in 1943-1944. During this time, the HK UPA was the highest sovereign authority and implemented a state of war on the territory of its activity. The UPA structure was organized in terms of the front and the rear line. The front included UPA combat units, while the rear line included OUNSD military and administrative activities. The military authority – the UPA Supreme Command, headed by Dmytro Kliachkivskyi («Klym Savur») and military Chief of Staff Leonid Stupnytskyi («Honcharenko») governed the front and the rear line. Under the authority of the Chief of Staff came the following divisions: organization/operations, intelligence, communications and supply, training and the medical/health service. Under the authority of the rear line commander were the following sections: organization/mobilization, Security Service (SB), social/political, materiel management, communications, civilian administration and the Ukrainian Red Cross.

A good deal of information on medical/health matters is found in the following orders of the UPA Supreme Command:
– No. 19, Order no. 16: To group commanders on functional and military/administrative matters;
– No. 22, Order no. 18: To UPA commanders, rear line commanders and UPA medical/health workers on defense against germ and chemical attack;
– No. 25, Order no. 21: To group commanders, commanders of military regions, the Ukrainian Red Cross;
– No. 26, Order no. 22: To group commanders, rear line commanders, political leaders, the Ukrainian Red Cross;

All the above orders are signed by the Supreme Commander of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Dmytro Kliachkivskyi (pseudonym «Klym Savur», «Panas Mosur»). Order no. 16 is also signed by the military Chief of Staff, Leonid Stupnytskyi (pseudonym «Honcharenko»). Order no. 18 is also signed by the chief physician, Sydor Savchyk.

In addition to orders dealing with administrative and supply issues relating to the medical/health service, there are some that deal with professional medical matters, such as:
– measures to prevent disease;
– hygiene in combat units, the rear line and among the local population;
– medical examination of soldiers and school-age children;
– a healthy diet;
– organization of military and civilian hospitals, pharmacies, laboratories.

The second subchapter consists of orders issued by the UChKh Commander, including:
– Document no. 49: Ukrainian Red Cross regulations manual;
– Document no. 50: Instructions on the organization of UPA and rear line health services.

The third subchapter presents documents of Group Commands (Military Regions), nadraions, raions and local sections of the UChKh. They serve to supplement the documents of the UPA Supreme Command.

These documents include:
– No. 145: 1. Report about the condition and activity of the «Zahrava» Military Region rear line; 2. Red Cross Section;
– No. 151: Order of UPA Group Commander «Enei» to nadraion and raion commanders about help for the UChKh;
– No. 162: «Enei’s» group; Order no. 24: To UPA commanders and soldiers, Military Region commanders and the Red Cross;
– No. 165: «Enei’s» group; Order to nadraion and UChKh commanders about reorganization of hospital services;
– No. 196: Rear line commander «Ptashka»; Order no. 10: To Ukrainian Red Cross workers about the work of the charitable section.

After these orders come documents no. 224, 226, 229, 243, 268, 281 and 301.

The documentary materials mentioned below are found in Chapters 1 and 4 of this volume.

A copy of the «Minutes of the Interrogation of P.P. Marchenko» and the «Information Note by the People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs of the Ukrainian SSR Riasnyi to the Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Ukraine, D. Korotchenko, about the Discovery of the Nationalist Underground in the Poltava Region» are appended to the sketch by Halyna Viun «Under the Mark of the Red Cross in Poltava».

Documents obtained from Soviet collections are appended to the biographical information about Dr. Matviy Lotovych.

The third subchapter presents documents of Group Commands (Military Regions), nadraions, raions and local sections of the UChKh. They serve to supplement the documents of the UPA Supreme Command.

These documents include:
– No. 145: 1. Report about the condition and activity of the «Zahrava» Military Region rear line; 2. Red Cross Section;
– No. 151: Order of UPA Group Commander «Enei» to nadraion and raion commanders about help for the UChKh;
– No. 162: «Enei’s» group; Order no. 24: To UPA commanders and soldiers, Military Region commanders and the Red Cross;
– No. 165: «Enei’s» group; Order to nadraion and UChKh commanders about reorganization of hospital services;
– No. 196: Rear line commander «Ptashka»; Order no. 10: To Ukrainian Red Cross workers about the work of the charitable section.

After these orders come documents no. 224, 226, 229, 243, 268, 281 and 301.

The documentary materials mentioned below are found in Chapters 1 and 4 of this volume.

A copy of the «Minutes of the Interrogation of P.P. Marchenko» and the «Information Note by the People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs of the Ukrainian SSR Riasnyi to the Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Ukraine, D. Korotchenko, about the Discovery of the Nationalist Underground in the Poltava Region» are appended to the sketch by Halyna Viun «Under the Mark of the Red Cross in Poltava».

Documents obtained from Soviet collections are appended to the biographical information about Dr. Matviy Lotovych.

***

The style in which each memoir published here is written has been left unchanged, in order to reflect the author’s personal approach to the reality he or she experienced. The language of the memoir reflects the author’s intellectual and educational level, which heightens the documentary value of the account.

***

The Archive of Litopys UPA, Medical Sector, contains a large number of materials and documents which could not be published in the two volumes of Medychna Opika UPA. Here one finds unfinished memoirs of participants or incomplete information about physicians, medical men, nurses and other UChKH workers. All of these materials require scrutiny and supplemental information. An effort will be made to publish these materials in one of the future volumes of «Litopys UPA-Biblioteka», in order that they may be available to those researchers who are interested in this subject matter.

***

I would like to thank all those who helped in the preparation of this volume. Special thanks to all members of the UPA Medical Service and the Ukrainian Red Cross, who, in their memoirs and illustrative materials, left for us this picture of the unusually difficult conditions in which they were forced to practice medicine and care for UPA soldiers and members of the armed underground.

Modest Ripeckyj

Page 133. Antonina Mazurchuk («Vyshnia»): The Kremianets nadraion Ukrainian Red Cross (UCHKH)

The author describes the situation in the Shumsk raion, Kremianets region, in Volyn with the arrival of the Germans in 1941. At the time, she was a high school student, but the Germans closed the high school and she began studies at the business and technical school.

Near the end of 1942, the Germans occupied the school buildings, intending to send the students to work in Germany. The young people resisted and many of them, including the author, entered the OUN underground.

In late 1942 and early 1943 in the Shumsk region, underground military training was arranged and UPA units began to be organized.

The women’s underground network and its youth cadres began to work in the Ukrainian Red Cross (UChKh). The chief duties of the UChKh were to prepare bandages, alcohol, sunflower and flax oil, potato starch and goose fat and to collect medicinal plants. These supplies were sent to the pharmaceutical centre in the village of Zabara, where medications for the UPA’s medical units were being prepared. Another of the girls’ duties was to collect wool and knit sweaters, gloves and socks for insurgents.

Food supplies for UPA units were the responsibility of the materiel management section. Some of the collected supplies were sent to the units, while the rest were stored in hiding places. In the village of Antonivtsi, section workers dried and smoked meat and dressed leather for saddles, footwear and sheepskin coats. The village also housed workshops for making clothing, barrels and soap.

In the village of Novytsia an underground hospital was established for treating wounded soldiers and those ill with typhus.

Large supplies of medications from the Kremianets pharmacy were brought to Antonivtsi. At the military camp, courses were organized for nurses and medical assistants. The young nurses, who were 17 or 18 years old at the time, later showed tremendous courage.

Skirmishes and battles with the Germans became more frequent, taking place in the villages of Antonivtsi, Lishnia, Stizhok and others. The greatest losses were suffered by a company from «Kropyva’s» battalion during the movement of the front at the Shumsk-Kremianets line. Few of the soldiers from this company survived the German machine gun fire. Wounded UPA soldiers were picked up by the inhabitants of nearby villages, who hid them during the passage of the front.

In spring 1944, with the arrival of the Soviets in the Kremianets oblast, conditions changed. It became much more difficult for UPA units, medical units and the UChKh to carry out their activities.

In this part of the memoir, the author describes in detail the Soviet campaign against the UPA and their terror against the population, while making only general references to medical and health problems. She describes a large battle that took place in the forest near Hurby, where many insurgents and Soviets were killed and wounded. She briefly mentions other battles and skirmishes with the enemy, cites cases of insurgents being killed in action or in their hiding places and describes NKVD provocations and the work of their agents. She provides the pseudonyms, and sometimes the real names, of underground activists and UPA soldiers and states the places and circumstances of their death or capture alive by the enemy.

In 1945-46 in the Shumsk region, Soviet attacks on the Ukrainian underground and repressions against the population intensified. Mass arrests were conducted, people were sent to Siberia and Soviet garrisons were established in the villages. The NKVD searched for insurgent hiding places; however, it rarely happened that they caught an insurgent alive. Most of the young women who worked in the UChKh were killed in the line of duty. Those who were taken alive were sentenced to 15-20 years of hard labour or sent to «rehabilitation» camps, which were located mainly in the far northern Gulag. The author of these memoirs was arrested in April, 1946.

***

In addition to recounting her personal experiences, the author provides some information about the following nurses:

Nina Slobodniak, born in 1919 in the town of Dederkaly, Volyn. She studied nursing in 1939 and subsequently worked in the raion hospital in Velyki Dederkaly. In 1943, she became an UPA nurse in «Kropyva’s» battalion under the pseudonym «Synychka». In 1946, she was arrested by the NKVD. During interrogation, she was subjected to brutal torture and to avoid revealing any secrets, tried to commit suicide by piercing herself in the heart with two needles. But her attempt was unsuccessful. After the investigation, «Synychka» was sentenced to 10 years’ imprisonment and 5 years’ deprivation of rights. She was released in 1955. She is married and has two children and to this day lives with two needles in her heart.

Liarysa Tomchuk («Topolia») was born in the village of Pidlistsi, Kremianets region, Volyn. She completed part of her high school education. In 1943, she completed the medical course at UPA headquarters In the Kremianets region. She worked briefly as a nurse, then became ill with typhus. She was arrested by the Soviets in 1944 and was sentenced to seven years in rehabilitation camps.

 
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