|The Hopeful Groundwork for a GreatScholarly Undertaking
The task of preparing the most complete and accurate biographical reference works of the encyclopedic type about those who fell in the struggle for the unified and independent Ukraine in the period from the late 1930s to the early 1960s is an urgent one. Indeed, it is one of the most important undertakings of current national-historical scholarship. Such works are slated to become an integral part of a fundamental, all-Ukrainian publication that wll encompass the entire twentieth century. The present volume of materials entitled Knyha polehlykh chleniv OUN i voiakiv UPA L’vivshchyny [Book of the Fallen Members of OUN and Soldiers of UPA of the L’viv Region] will also contribute to the resolution of this problem. But an analysis of its contents is impossible without at least a brief survey of what has already been achieved by enthusiasts during the past half-century in this region and other oblasti of Ukraine. The practice of honoring and immortalzing the knights of ideology and exploit was already initiated in the 1940s by Ukrainian insurgents, who composed short biographies of fallen patriots. Occasionally, they compiled them in special territorial collections. Mention of the more important tangential manuscript and published works suffices. These are Spysok upavshykh heroiv Ukrains’koi revoliutsii v borot’bi z moskovs’ko-bil’shovyts’kym okupantom za chas vid 13.3.1944 r. do 31.12.1948 r. for the Ternopil’ region, Povstans’ki mohyly: Propam’iatna knyha vpavshykh na Poli Slavy voiakiv Ukrains’koi Povstans’koi Armii—Zakhid VI Voiennoi Okruhy «Sian»: Taktychnykh Vidtynkiv «Lemko,» «Bastion,» «Danyliv» (1944-1946), Reziume dokumentiv, which was edited and published in volume 22 of Litopys Ukrains’koi Povstans’koi Armii by the well known scholar Ievhen Misylo from Poland.
The first of these works contains the biographies of 730 identified combatants and approximately 100 unknown fighters from the «Lysonia» UPA Military okruha. The second contains 507 biographies, while the third includes the biographies of 139 fighters from Zakerzonnia [the Ukrainian ethnic territories west of the Curzon Line]. These works have immortalized not only the inhabitants of the above-named territories but also individuals from other regions of Ukraine.
It is worth noting that invaluable information pertaining to this question may be found in practically each volume of the fundamental serial publication of documentary sources and materials Litopys Ukrains’koi Povstans’koi Armii (to date thirty-four volumes have been published). Every serious researcher of the Ukrainian insurgent movement of the period 1940-1960 makes use of this publication with a sense of gratitude and confidence.
Unfortunately, small underground works of similar type have been preserved only partially in manuscript and typescript form. The most important of these are the 249 biographies, the compilation of which was completed on 25 January 1950 by a member of the Armed Underground of the OUN, who is known at present only by his pseudonym «Vasyl’.» His collection is devoted to the fallen insurgents in the former Skole county in Drohobych oblast’ (Slavs’ke was joined to this county in 1959 and included as part of L’viv oblast’). Similar work was also conducted in Slavs’ke county, but only a few dozen or so short biographies written on separate sheets of paper are extant. A significant portion of these documents was so damaged from being buried in the ground for half a century that more than fifty percent of the texts has been lost. Without a doubt similar work was also carried out in other territories.
The patriotic public’s diligence in the collection and dissemination of such information was also evidenced by numerous publications of the nationalist underground press in the years 1940-1950. In addition, thousands of mostly brief and incomplete materials of similar content appeared in municipal, county, regional, and all-Ukrainian newspapers and the more important journals, as well as in a comparatively smll number of book publications during the first decade of renewed independence. True, instead of biographies these publications contain for the most part lists of names and surnames, which do not always indicate the years of birth and death. Only in rare cases are pseudonyms mentioned; hence such material is hardly helpful to the reader. The approximately 5,000 biographical sketches of UPA fighters who perished Halychyna in special issues called «Rany,» [Wounds] are comparatively better and more reliable from the point of view of scholarship. However, the information in them is too brief and imperfectly systematized. Related information from some villages and towns of Staryi Sambir county in L’viv oblast’ has been published mostly in the form of incomplete lists in the book Salina by Iosyp Los, Maria Prokopets’, and Dmytro Lapychak Similar materials are also found in the publications of Litopys neskoenoi Ukrainy and the regional collections Ukrains’kyi arkhiv, which the Shevchenko Scientific Society has been publishing for many years. A considerable amount of appropriate information may also be found in such works as Volia i dolia Za tebe, sviata Ukraino by Nestor Myzak, Knyha pa’miati by V. Protsiuk, Neskorena Zborivshchyna, Pyriatyn: Peremoha i trahediia by Ivan Hubka, Po svizhykh slidakh mynuloho and Nashe selo Rakovets by Petro Kekish, Zabuty ne maiemo prava by Bohdan Savka, Pidhirky: mynule i suchasne by Mykola Kohut, Mykolaivshchyna: Zbirnyk naukovykh statei, Ukrains’ka Povstancha Armiia. 1943-49: Dovidnyk by Petro Sodol, My staly voli na storozhi: Boiova khronika s. Stari Kuty Kosivs’koho raionu Ivano-Frankivs’koi oblasti by Volodymyr Blyzniuk, Iz krynytsi pechali, Istoriia Hutsul’shchyny, Selo Boratyn na slavnii Belzchyn by Vasyl Fylypchuk, Istorychnyi narys sela Berbova by Stepan Khamar, et al.
Over a number of years the Institute of Ethnography of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NAN) was engaged in the theoretical development and application of the scholarly principles of collecting, classifying, and systematizing related materials in accordance with current capacities and needs. With the aim of popularizing and carrying out this urgent scholarly task, beginning on 2 December 1995 the newspaper Shliakh peremohy, acting on the wise and far-sighted decision of the then editor Iaroslav Svatka, published the work «Povstans’kyi martyroloh Skolivshchyny.» However, under pressure from some circles, by 8 May 1997 the new editors of the newspaper in Kyiv had already halted this publication. Nevertheless, the main work was already done, and thousands of people had thus acquired a model of how to write and systematize biographical reference works of this kind. Afterwards, this type of work picked up pace somewhat in various counties of Ukraine. But it is still generally limited to list-type tallies of very brief and not always verified information and territorial surveys of one or several neighbouring villages.
The material that was sanctioned in this way was finally prepared and published in 1996, becoming the largest component of the collective monograph entitled Skolivshchyna. Published under the same title as it was given in the newspaper Shliakh peremohy—«Povstans’kyi martyroloh Skolivshchyny» —it included the biographies of 2,600 fallen patriots.
Then, on the basis of experience gained during its creation, a special instructional-methodical scholarly guidebook entitled Iak pidhotuvaty povstans’kyi martyroloh raionu was developed and published. Over and above everything else, the goal of both of these publications, particularly the latter, was to facilitate the work of amateurs and novice researchers. An enthusiast, the doctor Fedir Solovii, made use of them, although only to a certain extent, unfortunately, during work on his book Povstans’kyi martyroloh Stryishchyny This work, based primarily on oral accounts of contemporaries and eyewitnesses, contains information n 1,826 insurgents from Stryi county and 94 other insurgents outside this area who perished in various populated points of the county. The book contains 338 photographs of Ukrainian insurgents, their graves, commemorative buildings and monuments, various solemn events held in honour of the fallen, etc. Therefore, the final product represents a very weighty and significant endeavour. But the book is flawed by the fact that the author made little use of the documentary materials preserved in the archives of the Administration of the Security Service of Ukraine (USBU) in L’viv oblast’, the State Archives of L’viv Oblast’, the Administration of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in L’viv oblast’, and the Stryi municipal and county departments of the Registry of Births and Deaths (RAHS). Neither did he consult the private collections of researchers of the national-liberation movement or the appropriate published works, of which there are a considerable number, etc. Thus numerous omissions and inaccuracies may be found in Dr. Solovii’s book.
In the years 1994-2000, and later, the systematic collection of materials was carried out with the aim of compiling insurgent martyrologies for Brody, Turka, Staryi Sambir, Radekhiv, Iavoriv, and other counties of the L’viv region. Similar work is also taking place in the oblasi of Volyn’, Rivne, Ivano-Frankivsk’, Ternopil’, and Chernivtsi. Even in southern Ukraine the Memorial Society has begun publishing a series of books entitled Odes’kyi martyroloh (unfortunately in the Russian language), with lists of victims of Russian Bolshevik repressions, including Ukrainian nationalists who fought for a unified and independent state. In the western Ukrainian oblasti alone it is essential to prepare and publish no fewer than one hundred volumes with thoroughly researched biographical entries of the encyclopedic type, not merely short lists.
This work, the thirty-sixth volume of Litopys Ukrains’koi Povstans’koi Armii, will also be an important event in this branch of national scholarship. In its 20-21 July 2001 issue the newspaper Za vil’nu Ukrainu began publishing lists of fallen participants of the insurgent movement in the L’viv region entitled «Voiny Armii Bezsmertnykh.» After this historically significant publication, which was continued on a regular basis to its completion, local enthusiasts-compilers of insurgent martyrologies in the L’viv counties had amassed a considerable amount of relatively accurate information. It has helped to supplement the material that had been compiled from other documentary sources and interviews of participants, eyewitnesses, and native and familiar fallen patriots.
The staff of the archives of the Administration of the Security Service of Ukraine in L’viv oblast’ prepared the lists at the official request of the mayor Vasyl’ Kuibida. According to the compilers’ estimates, these lists name a total of 5,213 individuals. Unfortunately, the directors of this institution for some reason refused to provide the surnames of these compilers.
Material that has been published in newspapers is grouped in the same order as it is preserved in the documents of the former Ministry of State Security-KGB and in the lists that were compiled and transmitted to V. Kuibida by the Security Service archivists. By all indications, this information was taken mostly from acts about so-called «military-Chekist operations» (also officially termed «Acts concerning killed bandits and their revealed hiding places»). Yet even at the beginning of the second decade of independence, the Scurity Service of Ukraine still considers such documents secret and does not allow researchers access to them. The reason is clear: besides information about killed or captured individuals, these documents also contain data about collaborators of the Ministry of State Security and officers of Russian internal troops who headed operations. They also contain a significant amount of information about other participants of such actions, particularly those individuals who had «distinguished» themselves in battles and armed skirmishes with the Ukrainian patriots. There is another factor: the attitude towards the OUN and the UPA on the part of the staff of the USBU archives who were engaged in this work indicates that at least some of them are still in thrall to Russian-Communist imperialist stereotypes. They are endeavouring to keep hidden if not the entire historical truth, then at least part of it, and have even attempted to lower the numbers of fallen participants, etc. The grounds for making such a conclusion may be found in those very lists that were compiled and given to the mayor of L’viv Vasyl’ Kuibida. It may also be stated that certain efforts are being taken to ensure that the most deserving fighters for Ukraine’s freedom are not included in such lists.
Such speculation is supported, in particular, by the example provided by the victims of a typical Russia-Bolshevik military operation, which was carried out on 2 February 1949 near the village of Verkhnia Rozhanka, in the former Slavs’ke county of Drohobyh oblast’. Only the ordinary bodyguards of the OUN county leadership were included in the lists of fallen combatants: Andrii Ilkovych Haladii, «Ivas»; Stepan Ivanovych Kyreita, «Stefko,» (also known as «Iavir»), «Husta» (also known as «Petrus’»); «Berzhavnyi [Ivan Markovych from the village of Rekita, today Mizhhiria county, Transcarpathia oblast’—H.D.]; the OUN stanytsia leader in the village of Verkhnia Rozhanka Ivan Turii, «Rozhan» (also known as «Iurko»); and Petro Andriiovych Sahan, «Bohun» (also known as Pelekhatyi»); the squad leader [should be company leader—H.D.] «Hruzyn» [Mykhailo Horchyn from the village of Velyka Volia, Mykolaiv county, L’viv oblast’ —H.D.]
At the same time, no mention is made of the OUN leader of Voliv (today: Mizhhiria) county of Transcarpathia oblast’ Mykhailo Kyreita, the son of Vasyl’ and Ieva, «Bohdan,» also known as «Holub,» «Levko,» and «Voron» (21 October 1916-2 February 1949) or Mykhailo Adamovych Soboliak (21 November 1898-2 February 1949), the leader responsible for propaganda in this same organizational structure. Soboliak, known by the pseudonyms «Vuiko» and «Kydanets’,» was a graduate of the Krakow Academy of Arts and a long-time director of the village school in Iabluniv, Turka county, now part of L’viv oblast’. Thus, information on them was available in the very documents that the compilers consulted. In order to bolster the veracity of the above examples, it is worthwhile citing this source in translation in its entirety:
We, the undersigned, the commander of the 2nd R[ifleman] C[ompany] Senior Lieutenant Il’in, the head of the Slavs’ke County Division of the Ministry of State Security Senior Lieutenant Vedernikov, and the deputy commander of the 3rd Platoon S[ergeant] Nikulin have drawn up this act about the following:
On 2 February 1949 at 16:00 a general company operation [was carried out] under the command of Senior Lieutenant Il’in, commander of the 2nd R[ifleman] C[ompany], and Senior Lieutenant Vedernikov, head of the Slavs’ke County Division of the Ministry of State Security.
According to the data of the Slavs’ke County Division of the Ministry of State Security, it is known that there is a bunker of bandits in the forest mass, coordinates 0304. While combing through the forest mass, we located the bandits, who put up armed resistance. As a result of an exchange of fire, the following were killed:
1) Turii, Ivan Il’kovych, born 1914, a na[tive] of the village of Rozhanka Verkh[nia], stanytsia leader of the bandit group of the OUN UPA, pseudonym «Rozhan.»
2) Kyreito, Mykhailo Mykolaiovych, born 1916, a na[tive] of the village of Lybokhora, [Slavs’ke county], pseudonym «Levko,» also known as «Bohdan»—the county leader of Transcarpathia.
3) Sahan, Petro Andriiovych, born 1920, pseudonym «Bihun.»
4) «Zholud’,» surname and name undetermined, born 1918, [hospodarnyk-leader responsible for] supplies and materiel of the Transcarpathian county leadership.
5) «Vuiko,» Soboliak, Mykhailo, born 1898, a native of the village of Iablunivka [should be Iabluniv] of Turka county, propagandist of the [OUN] county leadership in Transcarpathia.
6) Kyreito, Stepan Ivanovych, born 1928, a native of the village of Lybokhora, pseudonym «Stefko.» Personal bodyguard of the county leadership «Levko.»
7) «Snih,» also known as «Petrus’,» a native of Poland, born 1923, «Levko’s» personal bodyguard.
8) Haladii, Fedir Annovych, born 1924, a native of the village of Rozhanka Verkhnia, pseudonym «Slavko,» «Levko’s» bodyguard.
9) Haladii, Andrii Lukovych, born 1928, a native of the village of Rozhanka Verkhnia, pseudonym «Ivas’,» «Levko’s» bodyguard.
10) «Berzhavnyi,» surname undetermined, a native of Transcarpathia, «Levko’s» bodyguard.
1) Haladii, Vasyl’ Fedorovych, a na[tive] of the village of Rozhanka Verkhnia, pseudonym «Kremiak,» was the assistant of the [OUN] stanytsia leader Rozhanka. ,1
2) Turii, Ahafiia Ivanivna, born 1922, a native of the village of Rozhanka Verkhnia, pseudonym «Nezabud’ka.»
Heavy mounted machine gun MG-46: 1
Foreign-made light machine guns: 2
PPSh submachine gun: 1
Various pistols: 4
OUN correspondence. Concerning which this act has been drawn up.
Commander of the 2nd Rifleman Company, Senior Lieutenant (Il’in)
Head of the Slavs’ke County Division of the Ministry of State Security, Senior Lieutenant (Vedernikov)
Deputy Platoon Commander, Senior Sergeant (Nikulin).
The bodies of the bandits killed and the trophies listed in the act received by the Slavske County Division of the Ministry of State Security.
Head of the Slavs’ke County Division of the Ministry of State Security, Senior Lieutenant (Vedernikov).
The exploits of these insurgents during their final battle are celebrated in the song «Zdryhnulysia hory, zarydaly riky» [English title: The Mountains Shuddered, the Rivers Began to Weep]. Like the majority of similar works (thousands of folksongs, hundreds of compositions) this song is significant in that it may also serve as a supplementary source of historical information. For example, vol. 25 of Litopys UPA encompasses almost 700 songs, many of which contain information of a biographical nature.
Readers should also be aware that the lists that were ultimately published have been drawn up in a very incompetent manner. The compilers had a weak knowledge of Ukrainian, or they did not wish to take the trouble of correctly recording surnames or pseudonyms. It should be noted that in the lists accompanying the acts themselves there are very few such distortions, a mere three or four in every hundred names. It would not have been difficult to correct even these few names had the compilers been willing, for next to almost each act is a protocol identifying killed insurgents. Some surnames are also mentioned in investigators’ files and the reports that the Drohobych and L’viv Oblast’ Communist Party Committees submitted to their superiors in Kyiv and Moscow, which are now preserved in the State Archive of L’viv Oblast (DALO). Therefore, it was entirely possible to obtain exact information concerning a distorted surname, pseudonym, or name of an inhabited place by comparing the data with various documents and making conscientious use of such research material. Neither would it have been difficult for the compilers to provide exact information not only about surnames but also full dates of birth of the participants of the national-liberation movement had they consulted municipal and county Registries of Births and Deaths. But to this day neither the archivists of the Security Service of Ukraine nor subsequent compilers have seen fit to do this. For this reason the years of birth indicated in the lists are quite frequently incorrect.
No one has even taken the trouble to arrange the names of individuals in alphabetical order, despite the fact that at the beginning of each archival collection containing acts are carefully compiled mostly alphabetical lists of surnames of fallen or captured insurgents mentioned in a given collection. Where it was not possible for the participants of Ministry of State Security operations to establish these names, then lists of pseudonyms were provided. In August 1991 the staff of the Security Service of Ukraine compiled descriptions of such documents in accordance with the former administrative counties. The acts themselves were collated as a rule in chronological order. The lists of the fallen, which were compiled and published in the newspaper Za vil’nu Ukrainu, were drawn up approximately in keeping with this principle.
They are also not grouped together by place of settlement but by the then-existing counties of the Drohobych and L’viv oblasti. In addition, the names of counties are also not arranged alphabetically either in the lists or in the published text. One of the principal flaws of the compiled lists is the fact that none of them mention the duration of battles and their exact topographical coordinates, although such information was usually indicated in the primary sources.
In order to provide a better understanding of the contents of the sources utilized by the compilers of the lists, it is also essential to provide the full translation of another act, which differs somewhat from the preceding one.
28 December 1950 C[ity] of Peremyshliany
We, the undersigned, the head of the Peremyshliany County Division of the Committee of State Security of L’viv oblas’t Major Milenko, the operations leader of the Peremyshliany County Division of the Ministry of State Security Senior Lieutenant Horbulin, act[ing] commander of the 2nd R[ifleman] Supply B[attalion] Captain Samoilenko, Senior Sergeant Smyk, and Private Riazantsev drew up this act stating that on this day, according to data from the Peremyshliany County Division of the Ministry of State Security, a bandit’s bunker of the OUN county leader «Dem’ian» was found in the forest mass near the homestead of Prybyn (quadrant 17-92a), in which were liquidated:
1) IL’CHYSHYN, PAVLO STEPANOVYCH, year of birth 1919, a native of the village of Ladantsi, Peremyshliany county, L’viv oblast’, high school education, leader of the Security Service of the OUN nadraion leadership, nickname «STIAH.»
2) HRYVNAK, OLEKSA MYKOLAIOVYCH, year of birth 1922, a native of the village of Podusil’na, Peremyshliany county, L’viv oblast’, high school education, leader of the OUN county leadership of Peremyshliany, nickname «DEM’IAN,» also known as «CHUBATYI.»
3) ROSIAK, MYKOLA MYKOLAIOVYCH, year of birth 1918, a native of the village of Dusaniv, Peremyshliany county, L’viv oblast’, OUN kushch [leader], nickname «SOIKA.»*
4) PLEBANS’KYI, IAKYM ANDRIIOVYCH, year of birth 1920, a native of the village of Utikhovychi, Peremyshliany county, L’viv oblast’, fighter [bodyguard] of the kushch leader, nickname «SHCHOLKA.»**
During the liquidation of the above-indicated bandits the following trophies were seized:
1) PPSh submachine guns: 4, serial nos. 2254, 3554, 3624, 1377
2) TT pistols: 2, serial nos. VA 3680, 1135 ChV
3) Nagant revolvers: 1, serial no. 57 AV
4) Foreign-made pistols: 1, serial no. 5659
5) Cartridges for the PPSh: 230
6) «Rodina» 47 radio receiver: 1
7) Textiles: 146 m.; black: 64 m.; striped: 21 m; horkikom: 5 m.
8) OUN correspondence and literature
Concerning which this act has been drawn up.
HEAD OF THE PEREMYSHLIANY COUNTY DIVISION OF THE MINISTRY OF STATE SECURITY OF L’VIV OBLAST’ Major (MILENKO)
OPERATIONS LEADER OF THE PEREMYSHLIANY COUNTY DIVISION OF THE MINISTRY OF STATE SECURITY Senior Lieutenant (HORBULIN)
ACTING COMMANDER OF THE 2ND RIFLEMAN SUPPLY BATTALION Captain (SAMOILENKO)
SENIOR SERGEANT (SMYK)
A copy of the act is located in the Peremyshliany County Division of the Ministry of State Security of L’viv oblast’ in file no. 5, «ACTS concerning killed bandits and their discovered hiding places.»
Certified by: Investigator of the Peremyshliany County Division of the Ministry of State Security of L’viv oblast’ Lieutenant (EGOROV)
It is completely understandable that the contents of such documents were essentially different, and not just in terms of individuals, time factors, and locations of events. Some of them also indicated where killed OUN-UPA soldiers were buried, as, for example, in the first of the above-cited acts.
The lists under discussion recapitulated only part of the information contained in the acts. These provide the surnames, names, and patronymics of each fallen combatant, the year and place of birth, pseudonym, the function he carried out, the date and place of death, the place of interment (these are the names of individual rubrics in the publication). The last column was left practically blank.
Important information contained in the originals of the documents consulted was entirely omitted. A large number of people have been completely left out. Therefore, the 5,213 fallen combatants, as cited by the staff of the Administration of the Security Service of Ukraine in L’viv oblast’ represent no more than one-tenth of the total number of individuals who perished in the struggle for Ukraine’s freedom in this territory.
Naturally, the most valuable information in this material consists of generally accurate dates of death. Unfortunately, there is absolutely no mention of those who died during interrogation or while serving terms of punishment in prisons and camps, as well as in exile or en route to their places of deportation. The same may be said about those who were not in the underground, but were shot near their homesteads or out in the fields by the enraged stalkers of people, or those who perished in buildings set on fire by the occupiers; often these victims were women and children. The German, Polish, and Russian invaders acted in this way. Accordingly, the work under discussion makes no mention of the victims of the Germans and Poles. Therefore, instead of thousands of individuals, this work mentions mere dozens. In very rare cases does this number exceed one or two hundred in the whole county.
Information on the functions, which fallen combatants performed in the UPA, the Territorial Self-Defence Units [SKV: Samooboronnyi Kushchovyi Viddil], and the Armed Underground of the UPA is also disorganized and inadequate, although such functions are listed with significantly greater accuracy in the original documents. Therefore, researchers utilizing this work should beware of all these defects and verify the information against other sources, including the testimony of contemporaries, friends, and relatives.
Since compilers of full-fledged martyrologies will be utilizing this material, it is essential here to provide a model of a biographical entry.
«Suslynets’, Dmytro, son of Fedir and Hanna—‘Buitur’ (b. 3 December 1905-d. 7 November 1945)—member of the OUN, UPA company commander. Born in the village of Verkhnia Rozhanka, now Skole county, L’viv oblast’. Parents were farmers. Completed primary school. Furthered his studies through systematic self-education. Acquired military training in the Polish army. Perfected it on various training courses. Joined the OUN already in 1930. Carried out urgent, systematic organizational activities. Activist in the Prosvita Society. Fought in the ranks of «Zakarpats’ka Sich.» Played an important role in the creation of branches of the Ukrainian National Self-Defence [UNS: Ukrains’ka Natsional’na Samooborona] in Skole county. According to testimony provided by his contemporaries, after midnight on 8 July 1943 in Sviatoslav village near the city of Skole he led forces storming the German punitive camp for Ukrainian youths who had refused to join the Baudienst. The liberation of all the prisoners and the destruction of the German-Polish administration constituted a significant anti-Hitler military action of the Ukrainian National Self-Defence in Halychyna. After the creation of the «Boiky» UPA battalion in October 1944 D. Suslynets’ commanded a company and participated in numerous battles. He led a final battle on 7 November 1945 near the village school in Senecholia (now Dolyna county, Ivano-Frankivs’k oblast’), together with the insurgents Stepan Kanynets’-‘Chereshnia’, Andrii Matiiv, and others against the numerically superior forces of a Muscovite-Ministry of State Security military gang that had swooped down on the village on board four trucks. D. Suslynets’ and S. Kanynets’ were killed. Andrii Matiiv managed to flee the area. The fallen were buried in the church cemetery in the village of Senecholia.
Both volumes of the researcher Petro Sodol’s reference Ukrains’ka Povstancha Armiia. 1943-49 can also serve as models. But even the biographies listed there will require supplements if only of strictly martyrological material.
As concerns the material presented in this book, it should be mentioned that Pavlo Chemerys, a member of the editorial board of the L’viv newspaper Za vil’nu Ukrainu, did some work on verifying and copyediting the lists that were received. The editor, Myroslav Horbal’, made partial corrections to certain onomastic distortions made by the compilers. He also supplemented the lists with his own materials that he collected over the years in the State Archives of L’viv Oblast’, and arranged the names of individuals and counties in alphabetical order. However, even after the completion of this work there remain countless distortions and inaccuracies, which one person cannot hope to correct in less than a year’s time.
As for the lists themselves, which have been published in Za vil’nu Ukrainu, and now in a separate book, they represent the beginnings of the great and extremely painstaking work of creating insurgents’ martyrologies in every individual county. As the experience of Skole and Stryi counties has already shown, every such work should be carried out by a caring and attentive historian, who will at one and the same time immortalize the fallen and leave his own good name for posterity. It is absolutely essential to publish such research as separate books.
According to the estimates of the Union of Researchers of the Ukrainian National-Liberation Movement, the biographies of fighters in the L’viv region who fell in the struggle for independence should be represented by no fewer than twenty county and two municipal martyrologies (besides the oblast’ centre, Drohobych also merits such a publication).
The achievement of this great task will attest to our generation’s consciousness of duty to our national history. It will duly honour and immortalize those of our predecessors who helped attain the independence of Ukraine, which was implemented by the act of 24 August 1991 and phenomenally confirmed by the referendum of 1 December 1991. For it was their goal, one that was paid for with the labour, heroic struggle, and the lives of hundreds of thousands of patriots.
 Ternopil’shchyna: Spysok upavshykh heroiv Ukrains’koi revoliutsii v borot’bi z moskovs’ko-bil’shovyts’kym okupantom za chas vid 13.3.1944 do 31.12.1948 r. Pidpil’nyi zbirnyk zhyttiepysiv polehlykh Ternopil’s’koi okruhy, 1949. Litopys Ukrains’koi Povstan’skoi Armii .Toronto: Litopys UPA, 1985, vol. 11, 248 pp.
 Ievhen Misylo, ed., Povstans’ki mohyly: Propam’iatna knyha vpavshykh na Poli Slavy voiakiv Ukrains’koi Povstans’koi Armii—Zakhid VI Voiennoi Okruhy «Sian»”: Taktychnykh Vidtynkiv «Lemko», «Bastion», «Danyliv» (1944-1946). Warsaw-Toronto: Ukrains’kyi Arkhiv-Litopys UPA, 1995), vol. 1, 402 pp.
 Ievhen Misylo, ed., UPA v svitli pol’s’kykh dokumentiv. Knyha persha: Viis’kovyi sud operatyvnoi hrupy «Visla». Litopys Ukrains’koi Povstans’koi Armii. (Toronto: Litopys UPA, 1992, vol. 22, pp. 44365.
«Vasyl’.» Spysok upavshykh u vyzvol’nii borot’bi za USSD vid 1922-1949 rr.: raion Skole [Typescript]. 25 January 1950. A photocopy is preserved in the archives of Hryhorii Dem’ian in Lviv. The original has been transferred to the Manuscript Division of the L’viv-based V. Stefanyk Research Library of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, fol. 262 (in 2001 the collection was in the process of being compiled). One other copy has been forwarded to the New York-based UPA researcher Petro Sodol.
 For more detailed information, see Hryhorii Dem’ian, Iak pidhotuvaty povstans’kyi martyroloh raoinu Kyiv: Ukrains’ka Vydavnycha Spilka, 1998, pp. 3-4. «Rany.»
 I. Los, M. Prokopets’, D. Lapychak, Salina. L’viv: 1995, pp. 194-9.
 Iaroslav Lial’ka, ed., Litopys neskorenoi Ukrainy: dokumenty, materiialy, spohady, vol. 1, L’viv: Prosvita, 1993, 797 pp.; vol. 2, Halytska Vydavnycha Spilka, 1997, 663 pp.
 O. Kupchyns’kyi, «Etnohrafiia i folklorystyka na storinkakh Ukrains’koho arkhivu (1960-1989),» vols, 16-51), Zapysky NTSh. L’viv, 1992, vol. CCXXIII, pp. 434-45.
 Volia i dolia: Knyha pam’iati Halytskoho raionu. Dokumenty, materialy, spohady. Halych, 1997, pp. 151-237.
 N. Myzak, Za tebe, sviata Ukraino. Chernivtsi, 1998, pp. 381-437; book 2, 2000, pp. 271-303.
 V. Protsiuk, Knyha pamiati . L’viv, 1996, 319 pp.
 Neskorena Zborivshchyna. Ternopil’: Prynter-inform, 2001, vol. 1, 262 pp., vol.2, 258 pp.
 I. Hubka, Pyriatyn: Peremoha i trahediia. L’viv: Ukrains’ki tekhnolohii, 2000, pp. 88-109.
 P. Kekish, Po svizhykh slidakh mynuloho. Ternopil’: Zbruch, 1993, pp. 130-5; also his Nashe selo Rakovets’. Ternopil’, 1998, pp. 143-4.
 B. Savka, Zabuty ne maiemo prava…Ternopil’: Dzhura, 1998, pp. 221-49; 2nd expanded ed., 2000, pp. 365-92.
 M. Kohut, Pidhirky: Mynule i suchasne. (Drohobych: Vidrodzhennia, 2000, pp. 83-96.
 M. Les’ko, R. Skolozdra, «Tsina svobody. Mykolaivshchyna u vyzvol’nii borot’bi u 1939-1954 rr.,» Mykolaivshchyna: Zbirnyk naukovykh statei. L’viv: Instytut ukrainoznavstva im. I. Krypiakevycha NAN Ukrainy, vol. 1, 1998, pp. 248-83.
 Petro Sodol, ed.,Ukrains’ka Povstancha Armiia. 1943-49: Dovidnyk. New York: Proloh, 1994, 199 pp.; 2nd dovidnyk [reference work], 1995, 295 pp.
 V. Blyzniuk, My staly voli na storozhi: Boiova khronika s. Stari Kuty Kosivskoho raionu Ivano-Frankivskoi oblasti. Vyzhnytsia, 1994, pp. 24-32.
 Petro Velesyk, Lidiia Rybenko, Ievhen Shmorhun (group head), Inna Nahorna, Volodymyr Iashchuk eds., Iz krynytsi pechali: Zbirnyk spohadiv ta dokumentiv, 1st issue, Rivne: Azaliia, 1993, 102 pp.; 2nd issue, 1995, 138 pp.; 3rd issue, 1996, 104 pp.; 4th issue, 1997, 119 pp.
 H. Dem’ian, «Hutsul’shchyna u vyzvol’nii borot’bi OUN i UPA. Narys istorii ta folklorystyka,» Mykola Domashevskyi, ed., Istoriia Hutsul’shchyny. L’viv: Lohos, 2000, pp. 377-97.
 V. Fylypchuk, Selo Boratyn na slavnii Belzchyni. Toronto, forthcoming publication by Myron Gerus, , pp. 37-38.
 S. Khamar, Istorychnyi narys sela Verbova. Lviv, 1998, pp. 228-231.
,  Hryhorii Dem’ian, ed., «Povstans’kyi martyroloh Skolivshchyny,» Shliakh peremohy, 2 December 1995.
 Hryhorii Dem’ian, Iak pidhotuvaty povstans’kyi martyroloh raionu. (Kyiv: Ukrains’ka Vydavnycha Spilka, 1998, 46 pp.
 F. Solovii, Povstans’kyi martyroloh Stryishchyny. 1930-1950. Stryi: Shchedryk, 1999. 410 pp.
 L. V. Koval’chuk, G. A. Razumov, eds., Odesskii martirolog. Odessa: OKFA, 1997, vol. 1, 750 pp.
 «Voiny Armii Bezsmertnykh: Spysky povstantsiv OUN-UPA, iaki poliahly v borotbi z bol’shevykamy u 1944-1953 rokakh,» Za vil’nu Ukrainu, no. 79 (1756), 20-21 July 2001. [Since then until at least 8 December 2001, i.e., no. 138 (1815), when this article was being completed, lists were regularly published in every issue of this newspaper].
 V. Kuibida, «Zhadaimo vsikh poimenno!» Za vil’nu Ukrainu, 20-21 July 2001.
 For more detailed information on him, see Hryhorii Dem’ian, «Mykhailo Horchyn-‘Hruzyn’,» Shliakh peremohy, 7 July 1999.
 For more detailed information on him, see Hryhorii Dem’ian, «Mykhailo Kyreita-‘Levko,’ ‘Voron,’ ‘Holub,’ ‘Bohdan’,” ibid., 12 July 1996; see also his «Halychanyn—oboronets Zakarpattia,” Ukrains’ka dumka (London), 6 September 2001.
 For more detailed information on him, see Hryhorii Dem’ian, «Mykhailo Soboliak-‘Kydanets,’ ‘Vuiko’,” Shliakh peremohy, 9 August 1996; see also his «Khudozhnyk i povstanets’ Mykhailo Soboliak,” ibid., 20 February 1997; see also his «Heroiamy staly povstantsi naviky,” ibid., 13 March 1997.
 In fact, Mykhailo Soboliak worked in this village only as a school director. He was born in the village of Kydantsi, Zbarazh county, Ternopil’ oblast’. For more detailed information, see Povstans’kyi martyroloh Skolivshchyny, p. 339.
 For more detailed information on him, see Hryhorii Dem’ian, «Nezlamnyi ‘Krem’iak’,» Vyzvol’nyi shliakh, book 6 (615), 1999, pp. 751-7.
 For the text and melody of this song, see Hryhorii Dem’ian, «Heroiamy staly povstantsi naviky,» Shliakh peremohy, 13 March 1997.
 For more detailed information, see Hryhorii Dem’ian, «Vydannia ukrains’kykh povstans’kykh pisen’ ta pershi sproby ikh interpretatsii,» Materialy do ukrains’koi etnolohii, issue 1 (4), Kyiv, 1995, pp. 308-20; see also his «Knyzhkovi vydannia ukrains’kykh povstans’kykh pisen’,» Narodna tvorchist’ ta etnohrafiia, nos. 5-6, 1996, pp. 9-17.
 The song «Zdryhnulysia hory, zarydaly riky» was recorded by Hryhorii Dem’ian on 29 July 1977 in the village of Slavs’ke, Skole county, L’viv oblast’. It was dictated by Hanna Iatsykovych, the daughter of Luka, who was born in 1909 and completed four grades of primary school. She first learned this song sometime in 1950 from a group of insurgents; Zenovii Lavryshyn, ed., Pisni UPA, Litopys UPA, , vol. 25, Toronto-L’viv: Litopys UPA, 1996, 554 pp. For a review of this collection, see Hryhorii Dem’ian, «Naibahatshe vydannia povstans’kykh pisen’: Pisni UPA,» Vyzvol’nyi shliakh, book 1 (615), 1999, pp. 115-21.
[*] Should be «Zhovtyi.» Correction provided by Myroslav Horbal’.
[**] Should be «Mon’ka.» Correction provided by Myroslav Horbal’.
[***] A photocopy is preserved in Hryhorii Dem’ian’s archives in L’viv. An envelope marked «Ivakhiv Vasyl’ -‘Ros’, ‘Som,’ ‘Sonar’.»