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Name: Chornyi Lis. Reprint of the UPA underground journal. Book two
Volume: 4
Editor in Chief: IE. Shtendera
Co-editor in Chief: P.J. Potichnyj
Editor(s): P.J. Potichnyj
IE. Shtendera
Publication Year: 1989
ISBN (Canada): 0-920092-20-9
Pages Count: 288

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Description

THE SECOND VOLUME OF THE JOURNAL "CHORNYI LIS"

Facts available to us concerning the journal, "Chornyi Lis", as well as all necessary explanations and historical information about the journal, were presented in the first collection of "Chornyi Lis", in the previous volume of "Litopys UPA". For this reason, we will consider here only these matters which apply specifically to this, the fourth volume of "Litopys UPA".

There is a need for some explanation of the UPA documents which have been printed in "Chornyi Lis" without being attributed to any author. These are the lists of fallen UPA soldiers (section: "Fallen on the Field of Glory), as well as lists of those promoted, decorated or singled out for distinguished service. Awards of crosses of battle merit and promotions to the rank of major or higher were the prerogative of the Ukrains'ka Holovna Vyzvol'na Rada ( the Supreme Ukrainian Liberation Council -UHVR). Promotions to lower officer ranks were decided by the Supreme Command (HK) of the UPA. Noncommissioned officer ranks were bestowed by following bodies: the higher ranks, by the UPA command for each krai; the lower ranks, by the command of each military region (VO). For the Stanyslaviv Military District (TV), these bodies were the UPA-West Command (UPA Zakhid) and the Command of the Stanyslaviv Military Region (VO), which was code named "Hoverlia". Thus, the lists printed in "Chornyi Lis" of UPA soldiers decorated or promoted are excerpts of those materials from the UPA higher command documents which applied to the Stanyslaviv TV. Some of these had already been published earlier, as for example, "Resolutions of the UHVR" (see "Litopys UPA", Vol. 3, pp. 176-179). The lists of the fallen were compiled on the spot, probably by the Command of the Stanystaviv TV.

Why are the lists of decorated and fallen soldiers incomplete and why are they not signed by the command staff who prepared them? Full lists of decorated and fallen UPA soldiers were never published, because they contained vital information about UPA cadres which had to be kept secret from the enemy. For this reason, the lists were considered top secret documents. Even the lower UPA commands had access only to those lists which applied directly to their own territory. The only facts that were made generally known were those concerning decorations or deaths of prominent UPA officers, and then only if it was certain that the enemy knew of the deaths of the given individuals or if, for some reason, the UPA command deemed it necessary to announce certain awards of battle merit. Because of this need for secrecy, the lists of soldiers fallen, decorated or promoted are incomplete. Perhaps for the same reason, and also to avoid imparting them with official status, the lists were not signed by the Command of the Stanyslaviv TV; instead, they were presented as unsigned editorial material. Nevertheless, it seems to us that these lists should be viewed as official material of the Command of the Stanyslaviv TV, for only members of the command staff were in a position to decide which pseudonyms could be included in the lists. In any case, it was the command staff who had the fullest data concerning decorated and fallen UPA soldiers. Later issues of the journal also include information about fallen members of the underground. We assume that the decision to publish this material was made by the leadership of the Stanyslaviv Okruh, or by the leaderships of smaller OUN territories.

In this volume of "Litopys UPA", we are reprinting six more issues of the journal, "Chornyi Lis", those appearing between May 1948, and May, 1950. It is not known whether any further issues, published later than May, 1950, ever appeared. (This matter is discussed in greater detail in the introduction to the first collection of "Chornyi Lis, Litopys UPA," Vol. 3). In that introduction, we stated that issue No. 1 ( 10), July, 1949, was being reprinted not from the original edition, but from a typewritten copy. Since then, however, the original version of this issue has been found. Thus, the whole reprint of "Chornyi Lis" is being done from the original copies of the journal. All the originals can be found in the Archives of the ZP UHVR (Foreign Representation of the Supreme Ukrainian Liberation Council). The photographs included in this volume have also been drawn from the ZP UHVR Archives; photographs from 1944 were taken by Mykola Lebed.

All issues of the journal are reprinted without any omissions. The material is left in the same order as it was in the original issues. Only the contents that was included at the end of each issues has been left out; instead, there is a general contents for each volume of "Litopys UPA" in which the journal is reprinted. We have corrected printer's errors, as well as spelling and grammatical mistakes. All corrections made in the documents are indicated by square brackets or by footnotes.

The editors wish to express their thanks to all the institutions and individuals who assisted in the production of this volume of "Litopys UPA". in particular, we would like to thank Mykola Lebed for his work with materials and photographs in the ZP UHVR Archives and for providing us with information about the journal; Volodymyr Makar for researching through the Archives of the OUNr (OUN revolutionaries) and for his assistance in proofreading; Antin Iwachniuk, for correcting texts; Zonia Keywan, for doing translations into English; Mykhailo Pitiura, for providing maps and drawings; and Halyna Malyk, for retyping often-illegible photocopies of original texts.

Compilers of this volume of "Litopys UPA"


Summaries

Page 44. "Chornyi Lis", Vol. 2, No. 5-6 (8-9), May-June 1948

This issue begins with a declaration, written on the occasion of the journal's anniversary, in which the editors outline their goals in publishing the journal. The primary goal they state, is to collect and publish the memoirs of those who participated in the "insurgent and revolutionary-liberation struggle", so that this material may serve to "educate and inform" a large segment of the population, "and in particular, Ukrainian youth". This goal - the preservation for posterity of the facts about the insurgent struggle - is stressed again at the end of the declaration, where the editors urge insurgents to write their memoirs and accounts of UPA battles and underground activities, as well as biographies of insurgents, descriptions of insurgent life, and so on. The declaration also mentions editorial and technical difficulties encountered in the production of the journal.

The journal contains four memoirs about various activities of UPA detachments, a sketch describing a fight waged by a Samooboronnyi Kushchevyi Viddil (Local Self-defense Unit - SKV), two biographies, two UPA documents and a poem and introductory article by Marko Boieslav.

One document, entitled "Decorations" (extracted from an UPA Supreme Command order), lists seven UPA soldiers from the Stanyslaviv Military District (TV) who had been decorated. Of these, five were awarded the Bronze Cross of Battle Merit and two were singled out for distinguished service. The second document, "Fallen on the field of glory", lists 31 persons from the Stanyslaviv TV - 15 fallen UPA soldiers and 16 fallen members of the underground.

In his introductory article, "Blood of the heroes", Marko Boieslav pointed out the importance, to the life of the nation, of fallen freedom fighters. The fallen heroes, he says, are a moral force that fires the desires for liberation, increases the nation's sense of honor and dignity and keeps it conscious of spiritual and social values. The fallen are the nation's conscience, giving rise to "torment in the nation's soul". Thus, the tragedy of the fallen heroes serves as a creative force, for it inspires new generations of Ukrainians to take up the struggle for freedom. Boieslav also includes a poem, "The Chornyi forest march", which was adapted by UPA detachments as a marching song.

Company commander B. Podoliak tells how and UPA detachment commanded by Vasyl' Andrusiak crossed the German-Soviet front in the Stryi Povit, in August, 1944. ("Crossing the front"). When the detachment arrived in a forest near the village of Holovets'ko, it found itself in the zone between the two enemy lines. To the north, in the village of Holovets'ko and on Shopa Mt., where the Soviets; to the south, in the village Zubrytsia, the Germans had strengthened their forces, apparently expecting to stage a long-term defence. For three days, from august 7-10, the UPA detachment remained between the two front lines, engaging in a few skirmishes with the smaller Soviet units. On the night of August 10, the insurgents succeeded in manoeuvering to the rear of the Soviet force. The author gives a details account of the insurgents' activities in this tense situation and of their night-time escape from the enemy encirclement.

"Iarko", platoon leader of the 1st platoon in the 2nd company of the "Smertonostsi" battalion, gives an account of the battalion's night attack on the Soviet raion center, Otynia, on November 25, 1945. ("Attack on the raion centre, Otynia"). The author describes the battalion's quarters in a forest near the village of Bodnarivka, Lanivtsi Raion, then proceeds to the planning and execution of the attack. He dwells in greatest detail on the activities of his own platoon, which smashed the prison and freed 84 prisoners. Among the released prisoners was "Marta", a member of the underground, who had been tortured so severely that she was unable to stand. In addition to the prison, the insurgents destroyed the NKVD building, enlistment office, railroad station, savings bank, shoemaking co-operative, dairy and other Soviet installations. Surprised by the attack and unable to organize a defence, the Soviets fled. About 40 Soviets were killed. 250 insurgents participated in the attack, armed with 40 machine guns, 100 submachine guns and 110 rifles. The operation was commanded by battalion commander"Chornyi".

Companycommander "Chornyi", later battalion commander of the "Smertonostsi" battalion, describes a day-long fight waged on October 22, 1944, by the Chornoliskyi UPA battalion, commanded by "Kulia", against the MVD, in the village of Lishchava Horishnia, Peremyshl' Povit. The battalion had grown from a single UPA company, commanded by "Chernyk". By this time it was composed of two companies: the 1st was commanded by "Khoma", and the 2nd, by "Chornyi". At five o'clock in the morning, an MVD force of 300 men attacked the insurgents. Shortly afterward, Soviet reinforcements arrived: 800 men soon after the beginning of the attack, and another 300 at noon. In spite of the fact that they heavily outnumbered the insurgents, the Soviet retreated in the evening, leaving behind armaments and 200 dead. Two Soviet armored cars were destroyed, as well as 13 trucks. 13 insurgents were killed, among them, company commander "Khoma".

"Iskra", an officer from the "Smertonostsi" battalion, describes the movements through the Halych and Bil'shivtsi Raions of the UPA company commanded by "Chornyi" and a fight waged against the MVD during the time of the "great blockade" of the UPA's zone of operations in late February, 1946. ("Fight in the village of Hyrbotiv"). The sketch provides valuable information about the tactics used by the insurgents for winter combat and in particular, their methods of operation during the total blockade of their territory by the MVD, who had men quartered in every village. There is also an interesting account of the fight. The Soviets intended to attack the insurgents at dawn, from the forested hills above the village of Hyrbotiv. However, forewarned of the attack, the insurgents took up positions on the hills ahead of the Soviets, and struck unexpectedly. Noting the enemy's confusion, the insurgents advanced, chasing the Soviets all the way to the village of Kinashiv. Aware that the Soviets would soon obtain assistance, the insurgents halted their pursuit at a convenient location and disappeared into the woods. More than 60 Soviets were killed in this operation; the insurgents lost 6 men.

Political officer "Chaika" writes a biography of company commander Mykola Katamai ("Prychepa"), commander of the 1st company of the "Dzvony" battalion, which was commanded first by "Khmara" and later by "Chornota". ("Mykola Katamai - Prychepa"). Katamai was born in the village of Iamnytsia, Stanyslaviv Raion. He completed his elementary education in the village, then during the German occupation, attended the technical school in Stanyslaviv. In 1943 he fled to join the UPA, because the Gestapo was about to arrest him for his activities in the underground youth movement. Upon entering the UPA, he served in the company commanded by "Shram". In 1944, he graduated from the officers' school, "Oleni", with the rank of sergeant and gained field experience by serving in several UPA detachments. Assigned to the "Dzvony" battalion, he acted as second in command to company commander "Iavir", then, after "Iavir's" death, became company commander. The sketch tells of Katamai's death, on January 21, 1947, when he and five other insurgents were surrounded by the MVD in Mariia Zubliak's house, in the village of Uhryniv Dolishnyi.

Slavomyr Vyshatych, a member of the underground who is not identified further, writes a biographical sketch describing the deaths of "Marta", "Halka", and "Vira", three workers for the Ukraiins'kyi Chervonyi Khrest (Ukrainian Red Cross - UChKh), in the lezupil' Raion (now Zhovtneve), ("Martusia"). On December 8, 1945, four Soviets, including the town informer, Holiian, took the women by surprise in a house in the village of Meducha. Taking advantage of the Soviets' lapse of attention, "Marta" grabbed a grenade from its hiding place. Everyone present was killed by the explosion. The author provides details about "Marta's" underground activities and characterizes her death as an example of heroism.

"Volos", a soldier in the SKV, describes an attack carried out by the MVD on April 13, 1946, on a group of SKV soldiers in a forest along the Dnister River, near the villages of Deliava and Dolyna, Tovmach Raion. ("Sacrificed for the motherland"). Unable to withstand the attack, the insurgents scattered in the woods after a few brief exchanges of fire. The focal point of the sketch is the author's account of how he shot his own brother, Vasyl', who had been seriously wounded in the chest by explosive shells. The author had also been wounded in the leg and the head. As he retreated, he came across his mortally wounded brother. Preferring death to Soviet torture, Vasyl' begged him to finish him off. After serious deliberation, the author complied with his brother's request, and "swore vengeance" against the enemy. The Soviets put the corpses of two insurgents on public display.

Page 84. "Chornyi Lis", Vol. 2, No. 7-8 (10-11), July-August 1948

This issue of the journal includes four biographical sketches and six memoirs written by UPA soldiers. It also contains a list of 26 fallen members of the underground, a poem and an introductory article by Marko Boieslav, "With a united effort we will take Kyiv". The article commemorates the offensive launched against the Red Army in August, 1919, by a united force of Ukrainian armies - the Army of the Ukrainian national Republic and the Ukrainian Army of Halychyna (Ukrayins'ke Halyts'ka Armiya) - which ended with the capture by Ukrainians of their capital city, Kyiv.

The biographical sketches are selected to present examples of heroism within the Ukrainian underground. Mariana Orlenko writes about Maria Petryshyn ("Mariyka"), who met her death on July 2, 1948. Wounded, Mariya burned the secret memoranda she had in her possession, to keep them from falling into the hands of the MVD, then blew herself up with a grenade. Mariya had worked for the journal, "Chornyi Lis". Both her parents had been sent by the Soviets to Siberia. In his sketch "Omel'ko", "Tsvirkunchyk" focuses on the heroism of three wounded UPA soldiers, "Omelko", "Bohdan" and "Gonta", who provided covering fire during a retreat of the company commanded by "Shablia". When they ran out of ammunition, the three men blew themselves up with grenades. This event took place in the Tovmach Raion.

"Baidenko" describes the deaths of two members of the underground, "Dubenko" and "Orlyk", in their native village of Hanivtsi. (Sketch "Dubenko and Orlyk"). Political Officer "Chaika" provides a character sketch of platoon leader "Orlytsia" ("Sgt. Orlytsia - M.M."). "Orlytsia" entered the UPA at the age of 18, in 1944. After completing training, he became leader of the grenade launcher squadron in the "Pidkarpatskyi" company. Later he served as courier for company commander "Bohun" and, from February, 1945, he was platoon leader in the "Mesnyky" battalion. Before his death in July, 1948, he was serving as a commando.

"Nedobytyi", later battalion commander, describes the destruction, on August 5, 1944, of a German manganese mine in the high plains south of the city of Kolomyia. ("Skirmish with the Germans near Lostun"). His company, named after Bohun, attacked the mine's communications centres in Lostun and on Strful'ka's pasture, which were guarded by the "Schutz" police. Although the company did not capture the German positions, the enemy sustained heavy losses. After the fight, the Germans fled into Hungary, leaving behind all their military equipment. The author gives a detailed description of the operation and also tells how the Germans extracted manganese in the Carpathian Mountains.

"Nedobytyi", commander of the "Peremoha" battalion, of the UPA's Kolomyia TV, gives a full description of the battalion's defensive fight on a mountain , near the village of Hryniava, Zhabie Raion, in February, 1945. ("Fight with the Soviets at Sen'kivs'kyi, near the village of Hryniava"). In expectation of the encounter, the battalion ascended the mountain by night and took up a defensive position two kilometers in length and in the form of a horseshoe. The Soviets set up machine guns on the summit of the neighboring mountain, two kilometers away. Under the cover of machine gun fire, they began their advance on the UPA battalion. During the day, the insurgents repelled 15 enemy attacks, engaging on several occasions in hand-to-hand combat. Weakened by their repeated advances and by the losses they sustained, the Soviets retreated in the evening. At that time, the "Peremoha" battalion numbered 360 soldiers and was armed with infantry weapons, including two grenade launchers. The MVD force was twice as large. Soviet losses included 104 dead whom they later burned in three houses on the site of the encounter, and 90 wounded. Of the insurgents, seven were killed and eight wounded. The memoir is interesting not only for its detailed defensive tactics used by the insurgents for winter combat in the mountains.

"Kramarenko", a member of the 2nd company of the "Pidkarptskyi" battalion, describes the UPA's night attack, in the winter of 1945, on a 500-man-strong MVD garrison in the village of Kosmach, in the Carpathian Mountains. ("Skirmish in the village of Kosmach"). The "Pidkarptskyi" battalion commanded by "Prut", from the Stanyslaviv TV, and the battalion commanded by "Skuba", from the Kolomyia TV, took up convenient positions in the mountains and at seven o'clock in the morning opened fire on the garrison, Later they advanced on the survivors, who defended themselves in various parts of widely-extended mountain village. In the meantime, other UPA companies, stationed at various outposts, fought with the MVD reinforcements who rushed in from direction of Kolomyia and from garrisons south of Kosmach. Soviets planes also took part in the fighting; for the most part, they bombed their own positions. The fight lasted all day. In the evening, the insurgents broke away from the enemy and disappeared into the mountains. The Soviet units continued to fight each other long into the night. This was one of the bigger UPA operations of that time. Ten companies, about 1200 soldiers in all, took part. The plan of attack was prepared by Maj. Mykola Tverdokhlib ("Hrim"), commander of the UPA's Stanyslaviv Military Region (Viiskova Okruha - VO). The attach was commanded by Maj. "Kozak", commander of the Kolomyia TV. About 300 Soviet soldiers were killed and as many wounded; the insurgents had 12 men killed and 18 wounded.

In a memoir entitled "Chorni Chorty", Mykhailo Korzhak ("Saper"), later company commander, describes his first weeks in the UPA. He left his village with four fellow-villagers on July 23, 1943. Korzhak describes how 87 insurgents gathered together and armed themselves in the Halych and Iezupil' (now Zhovtnene) Raions, under the command of "Blahyi", later an UPA battalion commander. The insurgents traveled to the Tovmach Raion, where they were joined by volunteers from the Tovmach and Stanyslaviv Raions. The insurgents remained there for their training, because access to the Carpathian Mountains was blocked by Kovpak's partisans. While the unit was in the village of Kydantsi, near Kolomyia, it was attacked by German police units. In the ensuing struggle, one insurgent was killed and part of the insurgents' camp destroyed, Five Germans were killed. The insurgents moved to Bereziv Nyzhnii, then further into the Carpathians, until they reached their destination, the training camp of the UNS 1st battalion, which was named after E. Konovalets' and code-named "Chorni Chorty". The memoir is interesting because it provides information about the conditions existing at that time and about the organization of the earliest UPA units in the Stanyslaviv Oblast. (At that time, the UPA operated in the Carpathians under the name of the Ukrayins'ka Narodnia Samooborona - Ukrainian People's Self-defense - UNS).

"Karmeluik" describes the night attack carried out on June 22, 1945, by the 1st company of the "Dzvony" battalion on an 87-man-strong MGB garrison in the village of Hrynivka. ("Fight at the village of Hrynivka"). Commanded by "Chornota" the company made its way by night to the MGB building and opened fire, destroying the whole garrison. Other units of the "Dzvony" battalion (commanded by "Khmara") guarded the roads leading to the village. The author participated in the attack.

"Ihor", a soldier in the company commanded by "Chornyi", describes the company's defensive fight in the Chornyi forest during the spring of 1945 ("Memoir"). The MVD unit superior in strength to the insurgents, began its attach on the company's positions at ten o'clock in the morning and succeeded in encircling them. During the following several hours, the insurgents repelled in a number of Soviet advances. The Soviets then called out four planes to assist them. The Soviet unit made a slight retreat and attempted to orientate their pilots by firing rockets at the UPA positions. In response, the insurgents fired rockets at the Soviet positions. The disoriented pilots began to bomb their own forces. Company commander "Chornota" took advantage of the confusion and successfully led his company out of the encirclement.

Page 128. "Chornyi Lis", Vol. 3, No. 1 (12), July 1949

The most valuable writings in this issue of the journal include B. Podoliak's brief history of the UPA detachment commanded by "Hamaliia", "Vykhor's" recollections about the birth of the first battalion of the Haidamaky and "Ulas's" account of the underground activities of the "propagandists", which contains a wealth of information about conditions of life at the time of its writing. Also included in this issue are a sketch about Col. Vasyl' Andrusiak, three accounts of heroism on the port of insurgents and members of the underground, a list of 55 fallen members of the underground and two poems and an introductory article by Marko Boieslav.

S. Vyshatych, district leader of the underground's supplied office, writes a warm account of his meetings with Col. Vasyl' Andrusiak ("Hrehit","Rizun"). ("They had faith in my victory"). The first meeting took place in November, 1943, when Andrusiak was known throughout the Carpathians. by this time, he already had several UPA battalions under his command and had carried out many successful combats, first with the Germans, them with Soviet Police forces. The author describes his own visits to insurgent camps and recounts his discussions with Andrusiak on the subject of the moral influence of officers upon the soldiers.

B. Podoliak begins his story of "Hamaliia's" detachment ("Hamaliia") by describing Andrusiak's inspection of the company, in the spring of 1944. Having ascertained that the company had undergone sufficient training, Andrusiak assigned it combat duties. Soon the company had behind it a whole string of successful encounters with the Germans and with Soviet partisans who, in the summer of 1944, had broken through the German front into the Chornyi forest. After the movement of the front, "Hamaliia's" company grew almost to the size of a battalion. It numbered 250 soldiers and was armed with three mine-throwers, six heavy machine guns, 40 light machine guns and other infantry weapons. After the arrival of the Soviets, the company successfully carried out a large number of ambushes, defensive fights and attacks on MVD district centers and posts. "Hamaliia" was killed in November, 1944. At that time a Soviet force of about 20,000 men was staging raids into the Chornyi forest where certain administrative ceteris of the Ukrainian underground were located, guarded by "Hamaliia's" detachment. To enable the members of the underground and the UPA detachment to retreat safely, "Hamaliia" took one platoon of 35 soldiers to wage battle with the MVD. The platoon was destroyed, but the rest of the insurgents escaped in safety.

1st Lt. "Vykhor" describes one of the earliest fights waged by the Ukrains'ka Narodna Samooborona (Ukrainian People's Self-defense - UNS) against the Germans in the Carpathians, on April 27 and 28, 1943. ("Fight on Stovb Mt., near the village of Sukhodil, Kalush Raion ").The UNS force - the 1st battalion of the Haidamaky, under the command of "Khmel", comprising two companies, "Trembita", commanded by "Chornobrovyi", and the Terebovlia company, commanded by "Horikh" - had its training camp on Mt. Stovb. the fight against a battalion of the German "Schutz" police, was carried out by 80 soldiers from the "Trembita" company; the rest of the battalion had not completed training and was poorly armed, The insurgents held back the Germans' advance for six hours. When German reinforcements arrived and attempted to surround the insurgents, the insurgents retreated into the depth of the mountain forest. On the following day, while the Germans prepared their train for departure, 25 members of the "Trembita" company, commanded by platoon leader "Brodiaha", attacked the train and destroyed the enemy force. 90 Germans were killed.

"Ulas", a member of the Stanyslaviv Oblast propaganda center, writes a colorful account of his wanderings through the region at the time of the Soviet raids in early spring, 1945. ("The insurgents' daily life"). "Ulas" was in the Chornyi forest with "Dubenko's "group at the time of the raids. Making their way between MVD units, the insurgents set out into the Carpathians, where again they had to maneuver around enemy units. "Ulas" provides descriptions of the raids, the insurgents' experiences in their wanderings through the area, their responses to difficult and complex situations and their lifestyle under these conditions. He also gives character sketches of the more interesting individuals that he encountered. His account is particularly interesting because it includes many details of day-to-day life that other authors have not dwelt upon. In addition, "Ulas's" literary style is original; there are many satirical and ironic touches.

A long poem by M. Boieslav, "Iastrub's detachment's raid", honors the exploits of the UPA unit "Siromantsi", which was commanded by "Iastrub", a former Soviet officer from Odessa. "Iastrub" gained renown from his many combats with both Germans and Soviets and his incursions throughout Halychyna. Boieslav's introductory article, "Proudly, into the vortex of struggle", again encourages Ukrainians, particularly the Young, to engage in active struggle for the liberation of Ukraine.

M. Romaniv describes an ambush carried out by three insurgents - "Romko", "Orlyk" and "Stepan" - in October, 1946, along the highway near the River Prut. They destroyed an MVD freight car carrying 13 men. ("Revenge grew drunk").

An author identified only as "Karyi" describes the arrest and death under torture of Iaroslav Stefanik and Vasyl' Lohaza, two young peasants from the village of Pidpechary, Stanyslaviv Raion. ("Slavko and "Vasyl'ko"). The young men had served as couriers for the underground. The Soviets were demanding that they reveal names of other underground members and of peasants who had sheltered insurgents.

In biographical sketch "A True Revolutionary", S. Vyshatych gives characteristics of Iaroslav Mel'nyk ("Robert"), OUN leader of Stanyslaviv oblast'.

"Tymish:, probably a member of the guard of the Stanyslaviv Oblast OUN leadership, writes about the death of "Levko", a member of this leadership, on June 10, 1946. ("I also knew him"). The sketch includes details about living conditions in 1948, the time when it was written.

Page 154. "Chornyi Lis", Vol. 3, No. 2 (13), October 1949

In the poems printed in this issue, "God's words echo in the blood" and "To the obedient serfs", Marko Boieslav sharply rebukes those of his countrymen who have succumbed to the psychosis of submission to the occupying power, and especially those who have put themselves at the service of the Russians. In contrast to such people, he points to those who have retained their sense of national dignity and have opposed the policies of the occupying forces. His introductory article, "Self-reliance - the dynamite and cement of our nation", written on the occasion of the seventh anniversary of the UPA's struggle, strikes a similar theme. In the articles, Boieslav outlines his personal thoughts about national resistance. The foundations of a personal thoughts about national resistance. The foundations of a nation's strength, he says, are national consciousness, pride, honor, patriotism, solidarity and discipline. Russia's totalitarian system is bent on destroying these virtues among the Ukrainian people. Ukrainians, however, must strive all the more to cultivate them, for without them there can be no national rebirth, defense or attainment of freedom.

Two memoirs deal with the activities of the "Syvulia" battalion, commanded by Lt. "Iskra", which operated in the Carpatian Mountains, in the southern part of the UPA's Stanyslaviv TV. "Klym", a soldier in that battalion, describes a skirmish that tool place in December 27, 1945, near the village of Porohy, Solotvyns'lyi Raion. The Soviets launched an unexpected attack in the insurgents' camp. The "Sybulia" battalion retreated to the nearest mountain ridge and took up its defense. When the encircling Soviet forces began to close in, the insurgents maneuvered to the rear of the enemy and took up positions in the wartime trenches on Klym Mountain. The battalion held its ground until nightfall, inflicting heavy losses upon the enemy. Of the insurgents, six were killed and two wounded. Another soldier from the same battalion, "Vykhor", describes a defensive fight wages on February 4, 1945, near the village of Kubayivka, Lenchynets'kyi Raion. ("Skirmish in the Parashchans'kyi forest"). Having learned of the approach of Soviet forces, Lt. "Iskra" and his men came out to meet them, taking up positions along a forest road. At first the insurgents were successful, the destroyed the MVD's armored car and inflicted heavy losses upon the enemy. Alter, the battalion became trapped in an encirclement. Their first attempt to break out failed. The Soviets' heavy machine guns mowed down the entire 2nd platoon, commanded by "Chornolis" and "Kozachok". Warrant Officer in the 1st company. But the remaining members of the battalion succeeded in breaking out of the enemy circle. The Soviets lost mere than 50 men, while 41 insurgents were killed in the skirmish. At that time the "Syvulia" battalion was made up of two companies, commanded by "Bobyk" and "Vykhor", and was armed with 18 machine guns as well as light infantry weapons.

Company commander B. Podoliak gives a biography of Lt. M. Korzhak, who was killed on September 30, 1949. ("Lt. "Saper" - Korzhak Mykhailo"). M. Korzhak come from the village of Dubivtsi, Iezupil' Raion (now called Zhobtneve). In the summer of 1943 he entered the UNS (Ukrayins'ke Narodna Samooborona - Ukrainian People's Self-defense). After undergoing training in the Carpathians, he became squadron leader in the "Chornolis'kyi" company, which was under the command of V. Andrusiak. Korzhak saw action many times and fought with distinction. During the summer of 1944 he was seriously wounded in a fought with the Germans. After his recovery, he became platoon commander, them company commander in the battalion became platoon commander, them company commander in the battalion "Dzvony". In 1946 he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant and was decorated with the Bronze Cross of Battle merit. After the dissolution of his company, near the end of 1947, he headed the underground cadres of the Iezupil's Raion, where he was regarded with great respect by the local populace. He succeeded on two separate occasions in breaking out of an underground bunker. Strangely enough, he was granted posthumous honor even by MVD officers, for they refrained from mutilating his body and allowed the villager to bury him.

An author who signs his article with the initials M, R. recounts the story of the arrest of Mykola D., a peasant form the village of Zarichchia, who although securely bound, effected an escape from the hands of eight MVD men. Later, he killed five attackers, them went into hiding in the village. He subsequently became a well-known insurgent, under the pseudonym "Hora". (Sketch "Hatred gives birth to avengers ").

"Chaika" describes how two members of the resistance, "Sirko" and "Orlyk", broke out of an under ground bunker near the village of Hnusivtsi, Iezupil' Raion. ("In the vortex of struggle"). A similar detailed description of a break-out from a bunker is provided by "Ihor", from the "Smertonostsi" battalion, in the village of Semykibtsi on February 14, 1945. This issue of the journal also includes a brief note about Col. Vasyl' Vasyl' Andrusiak ("Hrehit, "Rizun"), written by "Lenko-Cherniak" ("Mertvyi lystok"), to commemorate the third anniversary of Andrusiak's death.

Page 202. "Chornyi Lis", Vol. 1-2 (14-15), March 1950

This issue of the journal begins with a poem by Marko Boieslav, "To Taras Shevchenko", in which the author complains to the great Ukrainian poet that the present-day oppression of Ukraine is even worse that the tsarist oppression of Shevchenko's time. The Soviets, he says, have instituted a state of total lawlessness, a real hell on earth, yet, they cynically demand that people call it paradise. In his introductory article, "Not tear, but battle", Boieslav calls Ukrainians to collective resistance against all anti-Ukrainian policies of the Russian Communist regime which, he points out, is carrying out mass arrests and mass transports of people to Siberia, as well as destroying all manifestations of Ukrainian culture, In this article, Boieslav puts less emphasis on armed resistance than on general national resistance in all aspects of insurgents to carry on their struggle.

Insurgent "Pavlo" describes a fight against the MVD waged by the UPA company commanded by "Boiko" in 1945, in the village of Posich. ("Down, February, 1945"). While the insurgents were in the village, the MVD surrounded it and attacked at daybreak. The company repelled this attack, them proceed to attack a larger MVD force in the forest. The enemy fled. Four insurgents were killed; the author and platoon leader "Morozenko" were wounded. The fight was commanded by one of the platoon leaders, because company commander "Boiko" died from a heart attack at the start of the encounter. The author recounts the whole operation and provides colorful descriptions of the attack through deep snow, the heroism of the elderly rifleman "Kamin'" and company commander "Boiko". The graveside address was given by "Komar", the company's political officer.

Company commander B. Podoliak writes a warm biographical sketch of UPA physician "Kum", who was a Jew. The author had been a patient at the UPa hospital directed by "Kum" and he begins his account with observations about "Kum's" approach to the treatment of sick insurgents. He recalls that he had seen "Kum" cheer up an insurgent whose leg had been amputated and notes how conscientiously and Podoliak could not resist asking "Kum" why he had entered the UPA. This was his story: By conviction, "Kum" was a Zionist. Having travelled through Europe on numerous occasions before the war, he had seen how civilized nations lived and had learned the meaning of political freedom, He was familiar with Russian-Soviet totalitarianism, having lived through the first Soviet occupation of Western Ukraine in 1939=1941, and was categorically opposed to that system. his family had been destroyed by the Germans, but Ukrainians took him into hiding. His primary motivation for entering the underground was to repay this "debt", but that was not the only reason. he regarded service in the UPa to be his duty as a Ukrainian citizen. Those who love freedom, he said, must by prepared to fight for it. the sketch ends with information about "Kum's" death, in the winter of 1946. When the hospital was discovered by the MVD, Dr. "Kum" and his patients took their own lives rather than face death under enemy torture.

"Kryha", a soldier on the "Siri" company, commanded by Lt. Mykhailo Korzhak ("Saper"), describes the company's ambush on an MVD detachment, near the village of Posich, Lysests' Raion, in early winter, 1945. ("ambush in the Chornyi forest"). 13 Soviets were killed and 12 were taken prisoner; the rest fled. The prisoners were later released. The author provides a detailed description of the ambush, as well as information about the insurgents' day-to-day activities. He mentions Col. Vasyl' Andrusiak's visit to the "Dzvony" battalion in the village of Hrabivka, the celebration of St. Michael's Day, company commander M. Korzhak's feast day, in the village of Staryi Lysets', and other similar events.

"Zenko", a member of the Samooboronnyi Kushchevyi Viddil (Local self-defense Unit - SKV) commanded by platoon leader "Smilyi", describes a day-long fight waged by the SKV unit and incomplete UPA company commanded by "Shram" against a 2,000-man-strong MVD force near the hamlet of Nivry, village of Olesha, Tivmach Raion, in September, 1944. ("To the last"). The Soviets surrounded the insurgents in a narrow neck of woods, where there was no room to manure. The insurgents were determined to defend their positions to the death. Two SKV squadrons, which were positioned at the edge of the wood, took up the battle first, followed by the entire SKV platoon. Then the SKV pulled back to join "Shrum's" company's circular defense; at night they escaped from the encirclement. Insurgent losses are not given; of the Soviets, more than 200 were killed and 200 wounded.

Rifleman "Chaika", a member of the company commanded by Lt. "Pavlo", recounts his experiences during the time of the Soviet raids, in the fall of 1945. ("a rifleman's day"). The Soviets caught the company by surprise while it was quartered near the village of Pavilivka, Stanyslaviv Raion. Lt. "Pavlo" decided to try maneuvering between enemy units. During the exchange of fire, the author had five other soldiers, among them Italian Augustine Donnini ("Mykhas'"), broke away from the company. Making their way between Soviet units, they reached the village of Vyktoriv, Halych Raion. Since the MVD was carrying out searches in the village, the insurgents hid out among the peasants. The sketch contains many interesting observations about the behavior of the inhabitants of Vyktoriv during this period of danger.

"Kryha" describes also how Lt. Mykhailo Korzhak ("Saper") broke out of an underground bunker near village of Deliiev, on February 5, 1948. ("Nerves of Steel"). A 52-man Soviet force discovered the bunker, partially dug it up and filled it with grenades. There was no sound from the insurgents, so the Soviets sent civilians to check whether there was anyone inside. One of the civilians reported that there were insurgents in the bunker. The Soviets threw in 18 more grenades, them convinces that the insurgents were dead, began to dig out the entrance. At the critical moment, Korzhak and two comrades opened fire and burst out of the bunker. He and soldier "Pisnia" succeeded in breaking through the enemy circle; the third insurgent, "Lyman", was wounded in the legs. He provided covering fire during his comrades' retreat, then tool own life.

"Baidenko", a member of the underground, writes a biography of Mykhailo Mylytiuk, district leader and, from 1949, regional leader of the OUN for the Stanyslaviv Okruha. ("Borzenko - Mykytiuk Mykhailo"). M. Mylytiuk came from a poor peasant family. A teacher by profession, he entered the underground in mid-1943, during the German occupation. The author met Mykytiuk in May, 1945. Since the two men worked together and shared many experiences, the author is able to a personal assessment of the underground leader. Mykhailo Mykytiuk ("Borzenko","Maksym") did on November 16, 1949.

The journal also includes a story by M. Romaniv ("Sons of the nation's storm'), about the experiences of an insurgent detachment at the time of the winter raids, and his story "Christmas night" about experiences of the mother to two insurgents who was exiled to Siberia. Document "Died on the Field of glory" lists 44 members of the Ukrainian armed underground who fell in the years 1949 and 1950.

Page 257. "Chornyi Lis", Vol. 4, No. 3 (16), May 1950

This is the last known issue of the journal "Chornyi Lis". Consisting of 44 pages it does one differ on size from previous issues, but it features only six authors, five of them appearing for the first time. Only two of the authors are UPA soldiers; the rest are members of the armed underground.

Marko Boieslav contributes two poems - "Do not triumph" and "Why do you remain silent?" - and an introductory article, "For the cult of heroes". In the article he voices indignation against the Russian occupying forces, who barbarically desecrate the graves of Ukrainians fallen in the struggle for freedom and brutally punish those who restore the graves. Boieslav urges Ukrainians to honor the graves of their heroes, for in the cult of heroes lies the secret of national rebirth.

"Maiak", probably the director of the Ukrainian underground for the Bohorodchany Raion, writes four biographical sketches. In "The last meeting", he describes his meeting with the Pidkarpatskyi battalion on January 10, 1946, in the village of Hlybivka near the Chornyi forest. Col. Vasyl' Andrusiak ("Hrehit", "Rizun"), commander of the UPA's Stanyslaviv Military District (TV), was with the battalion. Although a Soviet platoon arrived in the village, the battalion completed its evening meal. Then Andrusiak sent one UPA platoon to destroyed the MVD garrison. In "A bad dream", Maiak recounts how his colleague, "Oles", was killed on July 26, 1949. The two men were traveling to a liaison point and fell into an ambush. In "A sketch of a hero", Maiak writes about one of his co-workers, Ivan Senych, who came from the village of Hrynivka, Bohorodchany Raion. Senych was born in 1923. From 1941 he was the OUN leader for his village. In 1944, he served in the UPa as a machine gunner, then became squadron leader in the 1st company (commanded by "Iavir") of the "Dzvony" battalion (commanded by "Khmara"). In 1946, he left the company to work for the underground. He served as kushch leader (underground administrative unit composed of several villages) until his death on November 8, 1947. In hid last sketch, "an unfinished conversation", "Maiak" writes of the death, in the village of Lesivka, Bohorodchany Raion, of company commander, "Vyvirka", from the "Syvulia" battalion, commanded by "Iskra". The sketch provides some biographical data about "Vyvirka". In 1943, "Vyvirka was in the UNS E. Konovalets' battalion ("Chorni Chorty"). He then became platoon leader in the UPA "Mesnyky" battalion, which was commanded by "Blahyi". After the death of "Blahyi", he took command of a company which became part of the "Syvulia" battalion in the fall of 1945. Battalion commander "Iskra" came from the village of Sadzhava, Bohorodchany Raion.

V. Burevii, a member of the underground, writes two memoirs in the form of stories. In "Father and son", he tells of the deaths of underground member "Pidkova" and his father, in the village of Uhryniv Horshnii, in February, 1946. When discovered by the Soviets, "Pidkova" blew himself up with a grenade, at the same time killing two and wounding three of the MVD men. The Soviets brought "Pidkova's" father to identify his son's body. One of the MVD officers referred to "Pidkova" as a "bandit". "You're the bandit", answered the father. "My son is a hero", For this response, the father was shot immediately. In his second memoir, "A hot morning", Burevii recounts the experiences of his group of seven underground members near the village of Iamnytsia, Stanyslaviv Raion, during the time of the Soviet raids into that region. The group spent a full day maneuvering between enemy units. There were a few exchanges of fire, but they escaped from the enemy encirclement.

A memoir entitled "The blood grew red", signed O. M., recounts the experiences of two members of the underground, Ivan Fedenko ("Bul'ba") and "Mesnyk", who were killed on August 33, 1945. There are details about their escape from an underground bunker near the village of Staryi Lysets' and about the death of Ivan Fedenko. The memoir is interesting for its information about day-to-day activities in the underground.

Iu. Hirnak, a soldier in the Pidkarpatskyi battalion, writes about the village of Obrekhova, Sianik Raion, in the Lemko region (Poland), where his battalion carried on operations in the summer of 1945. ("In defense of our ancestral land"). The sketch describes the cultural life of the village, the forced resettlement of Lemkos to the Ukrainian SSR, and a fought waged by the Pidkarpatskyi battalion against the Polish army (WP), which had arrived to carry out the deportation of the peasants. The insurgents succeeded in chasing off the enemy force, but lost eight of their men. The peasants buried the dead insurgents with great solemnity.

"Huk", a soldier from the "Mesnyky" battalion commanded by "Blahyi", describes a fight waged in January, 1945, by his own and the Pidkarpatshyi battalions against the MVD in the Bohorodchany Raion. ("Right in the village of Hlyboke"). The UPA companies were positioned along a wide front and the fighting took place along various sectors of the front. The author gives a detailed account of the activities of his own company, the 1st, commanded by "Vershnyk" (B. Podoliak). Heavy fighting also occurred along the sectors occupied by two other companies from the "Mesnyky" battalion, the 2nd company, commanded by "Shum", and the 3rd, commanded by "Oleh". The Pidkarpatskyi battalion defended the access routs from the villages of Lesivka and Khmelivka. Soviet planes took part in the fight. In the evening, the Soviet retreated. About 150 Soviets were killed and as many wounded. 12 members of the "Mesnyky" battalion were killed, and about 20 wounded. The Pidkarpatskyi battalion only had some wounded.

 
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